سوخ سود سور
1. (سود ⇒ ساد)
سَادَ, aor. يَسُودُ, inf. n. سِيَادَةٌ (Mṣb, TA) and سُودٌ and سُودَدٌ [and its vars. mentioned in the next sentence] and سَيْدُودَةٌ, (TA,) or سُودَدٌ is a simple subst. signifying as expl. below, (Mṣb,) He was, or became, [a سَيِّد, i. e. chief, lord, master, &c.; or] possessed of glory, honour, dignity, eminence, exalted or elevated state, or nobility. (Mṣb, TA.)
[It is also trans.:] you say, سَادَ قَوْمَهُ, (Ṣ, M,* A,) aor. يَسُودُهُمْ, (Ṣ, A,) inf. n. سِيَادَةٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ *) and سُودٌ (M, Ḳ *) and سُودَدٌ, (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ *) in which last the [final] د is added to render the word quasi-coordinate to words of the measure فُعْلَلٌ, as جُنْدَبٌ and بُرْقَعٌ, (Ṣ,) and سُودُدٌ and سُؤْدَدٌ (M, TA *) and سُؤْدُدٌ, (M, Ḳ,*) of the dial. of Teiyi, (M,) and سَيْدُودَةٌ, (Ṣ, M,) He was, or became, the سَيِّد [or chief, lord, master, &c.,] of his people; (Ṣ;) [he ruled his people, or held dominion over them;] andاِسْتَادَهُمْ↓ signifies the same. (M, L.) And سَادَهُ, inf. n. سِيَادَةٌ and سِيَادٌ and سُودَدٌ [&c.], He exercised rule, or dominion, over him. (MA.) [See also سُودَدٌ below.]
[Hence,] سَادَتْ نَاقَتِى المَطَايَا ‡ My she-camel left behind the [other] camels or beasts. (A, TA.)
سَاوَدَنِى فَسُدْتُهُ: see 3.
سَوِدَ and سَادَ as syn. with اِسْوَدَّ: see this last, in three places.
سَادَهُ as syn. with سَاوَدَهُ: see this latter.
سَادَ, aor. يَسُودُ, also signifies He drank water such as is termed مَسْوَدَة, which occasions a disease termed سُوَادِ. (M, Ḳ.)
And سِيدَ, (M,) or سُئِدَ, like عُنِىَ, (Ḳ,) He was, or became, affected with السُّوَاد. (M, Ḳ. [In the former, the context indicates that this means here a disease that attacks the liver from eating dates: in the latter, that it here means a disease incident to sheep or goats.])
سوّدهُ قَوْمُهُ, [inf. n. تَسْوِيدٌ,] His people made him a سَيِّد [i. e. chief, lord, &c.; generally meaning over them]. (Ṣ, M,* A.) It is said in a trad. of ʼOmar, تَفَقَّهُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ تُسَوَّدُوا, (M,) orتَسَوَّدُوا↓ [for تَتَسَوَّدُوا], (O,) meaning Learn ye knowledge, or science, before ye be [made] chiefs, looked at; for if ye learn not before that, ye will be ashamed to learn after becoming advanced in age, or attaining to full growth, (بَعْدَ الكِبَرِ,) and so will remain ignorant, taking it [i. e. knowledge] from the younger ones, and that will lower your estimation: (M:) or the meaning is, before ye be married, and become masters of houses, or tents, and be diverted by the marriage-state from [the acquisition of] knowledge, or science. (Sh, O.) [See also 5.]
سوّد also signifies He slew: (Az, TA:) or [the inf. n.] تَسْوِيدٌ signifies the slaying of سَادَة [i. e. chiefs, lords, &c., pl. of سَيِّدٌ]. (Ḳ.)
[And accord. to the Ḳ, تَسْوِيدٌ is also syn. with جُرْأَةٌ The being bold, daring, brave, or courageous: but accord. to the O, سَوَّدَ signifies خَرِئَ He voided his excrement, or ordure; as though from what next follows: which of these two explanations is right (for it seems improbable that both are right) I find no ex. to indicate.]
سَوَّدْتُهُ, (Ṣ, M,* TA,) or سوّدته بِالسَّوَادِ, inf. n. تَسْوِيدٌ, (Mṣb,) I blackened it; made it, or rendered it, أَسْوَد [i. e. black]; (Ṣ,* M, Mṣb;*) I changed its بَيَاض [or whiteness] to سَوَاد [or blackness]. (TA.)
[Hence, سوّد وَجْهَهُ lit. He, or it, blackened his face: meaning † rendered his face expressive of sorrow, or displeasure; or grieved, or displeased, him: and also, disgraced him: see the contr. بَيَّضَ: and see also 9.]
[Hence also سوّد meaning He wrote anything in a rough manner, as one writes the first draught, or original copy, of a book or the like; contr. of بَيَّضَ in this sense also: probably post-classical.]
And سّود الإِبِلَ, (Ṣ, M, O,) inf. n. تَسْوِيدٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) † He beat, or pounded, old worn-out hair-cloth, and applied it as a remedy to the galls, or sores, on the backs of the camels. (Fr, AʼObeyd, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ.*)
And سَوِّدُوا ضَيْفَكُمْ † Feed ye your guest with something to allay the craving of his stomach before the morning-meal (الغَدَآء). (El-Umawee, TA in art. لهج.)
سَاوَدَنِى فَسُدْتُهُ↓ (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,* &c.) He vied with me, or contended with me for superiority, in the rank, or quality, or qualities, of a سَيِّد [or chief, lord, &c.], and I overcame, or surpassed, him therein: (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ:*)
and also He vied with me in blackness, and I surpassed him therein. (Ṣ, L, Ḳ.*)
And ساودهُ, inf. n. سِوَادٌ, He met him in the blackness of the night. (M, L.)
And سَاوَدْتُهُ, (Ṣ, A, O,) inf. n. سِوَادٌ (Ṣ, O, Ḳ *) and مُسَاوَدَةٌ, (Ṣ,) ‡ I spoke secretly with him; (Ṣ, A, O, Ḳ;*) because you bring near your سَوَاد [or person] to his [when you so speak with another]; or [because] originally meaning I brought near my سَوَاد, i. e. person, to his: (Ṣ:) or ساودهُ, inf. n. سِوَادٌ, signifies he spoke secretly with him, and so brought near his سَوَاد to his [the other's]; as alsoسَادَهُ↓, inf. n. سَوْدٌ. (M.) It was said to the daughter of El-Khuss, Wherefore didst thou commit fornication? (Ṣ, O, L,) or What caused thee to commit fornication? or Wherefore didst thou become pregnant? (M, L,) thou being the mistress of thy people? (Ṣ, O, L:) and she answered, قُرْبُ الوِسَادِ وَطُولُ السِّوَادِ, (Ṣ, M, O, L, [in my two copies of the Ṣ قُرْبَ and طُولَ, as though a verb were understood,]) i. e. [The nearness of the pillow, and the long continuance of] secret speaking with another: (Lḥ, M, L:) or, as some say, السواد here means the enticing to جِمَاع: or, as others say, الجَمَاع itself [if the question put to her were the last mentioned above]. (M, L.)
ساودهُ also signifies † He acted deceitfully, or guilefully, with him: (Ḳ:) or he endeavoured to turn him [to a thing] by blandishment, or by deceitful arts; or to entice him; as shown above. (TA.)
And † He drove him away; namely, a lion. (O, Ḳ.)
And ساودت الإِبِلُ النَّبَاتَ † The camels laboured at the herbage with their lips, and could not master it, because of its shortness (O, Ḳ) and its scantiness. (Ḳ.)
4. (اسود ⇒ اساد)
أَسَادَ and أَسْوَدَ He begat a boy that was a سَيِّد [or chief, lord, &c.]: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) or they signify, (O, Ḳ,) or signify also, (Ṣ,) he begat a black boy: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) or he had a black child born to him: (M:) and اسودت she brought forth black children. (A.)
تسوّد He became married: (Ḳ:) or he became married, and master of a house, or tent. (Sh, O.) See 2, second sentence.
8. (استود ⇒ استاد)
استادوا بَنِى فُلَانٍ They slew the سَيِّد [or chief, lord, &c.,] of the sons of such a one: (AZ, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ:) or (so in the Ḳ, but in the Ṣ and O “and in like manner”) they took him captive: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) or they asked, or demanded, of him a woman in marriage. (IAạr, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ.) And استاد القَوْمَ, and فِى القَوْمِ, and مِنْهُمْ, He asked, or demanded, in marriage, a سَيِّدَة [or woman of rank or quality], among the people: (M:) or استاد فِى بَنِى فُلَانٍ, and مِنْهُمْ, he married one of the chief, or noble, women of the sons of such a one. (IAạr, O.) And استاد He married among سَادَة [or chiefs, lords, &c.]. (L.)
اسوّد, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. اِسْوِدَادٌ; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) andاسوادّ↓, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) inf. n. اِسوِيدَادٌ; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) and in poetry it is allowable to say اِسْوَأَدَّ↓, to avoid the concurrence of two quiescent letters; imperative [of↓ the second] اِسْوَادِدْ, and the last two letters in this may be incorporated together [so that you may say اِسْوَادّ]; (Ṣ;) said of a thing; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) andسَوِدَ↓, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb,) said of a man, (Ṣ, TA,) and of a thing, (TA,) aor. يَسْوَدُ; (Mṣb;) andسَادَ↓, (M,) first pers. سُدْتُ, a form used by some; (Ṣ;) It, and he, became أَسْوَد [i. e. black]: (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ:) andاسوادّ↓ it, or he, became intensely so. (TA.) Nuseyb says,
*سَوِدْتُ↓ فَلَمْ أَمْلِكْ سَوَادِى وَتَحْتَهُ ** قَمِيصٌ مِنَ القُوهِىِّ بِيضٌ بَنَائِقُهْ *
[I am black, (for Nuseyb was a slave,) and am not master of my person; but beneath it, or within it, is a shirt like the cloth of Koohistán, the gores of which are white: by this قميص he means his heart; القَمِيصُ, or قَمِيصُ القَلْبِ, tropically meaning “the pericardium;” and, by a synecdoche, “the heart itself, with its appertenances”]. (Ṣ, TA.)
[Hence,] اسودّ وَجْهُهُ [lit. His face became black: meaning] ‡ his face became expressive of grief, or sorrow, or displeasure, occasioned by fear [&c.]: (Bḍ in iii. 102:) he became grieved, sorrowful, or displeased; and confounded, or perplexed, and unable to see his right course, by reason of shame, or in consequence of a deed that he had done (Bḍ in xvi. 60) [&c.: and often meaning he became disgraced]: opposed to اِبْيَضَّ. (Bḍ in iii. 102.)
see 9, in three places.
Q. Q. 4. اِسْوَأَدَّ
اِسْوَأَدَّ: see 9, first sentence.
سَوْدٌ A سَفْح (M, Ḳ, TA) of a mountain, (M, TA,) [app. meaning, in this case, a low tract at the base, or foot, of a mountain,] forming a narrow strip of ground, (M, TA,) rough and black, (M,) or level, abounding with black stones, (Ḳ, TA,) which are rough, and the predominant colour whereof is blackness; seldom found but at a mountain in which is a mine: so says Lth: or a piece of ground in which are black rough stones resembling dry human dung: (TA:) or land, or ground, in which blackness predominates, which is seldom anywhere but at a mountain in which is a mine: (Mṣb:) pl. أَسْوَادٌ: (M, TA:) andسَوْدَةٌ↓ signifies a portion thereof; (M, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA;) and the pl. of this is سَوْدَاتٌ, and the pl. of سَوْدَاتٌ is أَسْوَادَتٌ↓, which occurs in a trad. (TA.)
سُودٌ: see سُودَدٌ.
سَيْدٌ a contraction of سَيِّدٌ, q. v.
سِيدٌ: see art. سيد
سَوْدَةٌ: see سَوْدٌ
Also † Land in which are palm-trees: opposed to بَيْضَةٌ. (TA in art. بيض. [See also السَّوْدَآء, voce أَسْوَدُ, near the end.])
سُودَدٌ a subst. from سَادَ, inf. n. سِيَادَةٌ; signifying [The rank, station, or condition, or the quality or qualities, of a سَيِّد; i. e. chiefdom, lordship, mastery, &c.; or] glory, honour, dignity, (Mṣb,) or eminence, exalted or elevated state, or nobility: (M, Mṣb:) or this word, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) and its vars. سُودُدٌ and سُؤْدَدٌ (M, TA) and سُؤْدُدٌ, (M, Ḳ,) of the dial. of Teiyi, (M,) andسُوِدٌ↓, (M, Ḳ,) are syn. with سِيَادَةٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and سَيْدُودَةٌ as inf. ns. of سَادَ [q. v.]. (Ṣ, M.)
سَوْدَآءُ fem. of أَسْوَدُ [q. v.]. (Mṣb.)
سَوْدَانَةٌ or سُودَانَةٌ: see سُودَانِيَّةٌ.
سُودَانِيَّةٌ, (M, A, TA,) or سَوْدَانِيَّةٌ, (Mgh, O,) andسَوْدَانَةٌ↓, (M, O,) or سُودَانَةٌ, with damm, like the first, (TA,) andسَوَادِيَّةٌ↓ (A, Ḳ) andأَسْوَدُ↓ (Ḳ) all signify the same; (TA;) A certain bird, that eats grapes: or i. q. عُصْفُورٌ [i. e. the sparrow; or a bird of the passerine kind]: (Ḳ:) or a certain small bird, (A, Mgh, O, TA,) having a long tail, (Mgh,) resembling the عصفور, (TA,) sometimes (Mgh) called also العُصْفُورُ الأَسْوَدُ↓, (Mgh, O,) of such a size that it may be grasped in the hand, that eats grapes (A, Mgh, O, TA) and dates (A, TA) and locusts. (Mgh, O, TA.)
سَوَادٌ Blackness; contr. of بَيَاضٌ; (M, Mgh;) a certain colour, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) well known. (Mṣb.) One says, لَقِيَهُ فِى سَوَادِ اللَّيْلِ [He met him in the blackness of night]. (TA.) And الشَّاةُ تَمْشِى فِى سَوَادٍ وَتَأْكُلُ فِى سَوَادٍ وَتَنْظُرُ فِى سَوَادٍ [The sheep, or goat, walks in blackness, and eats in blackness, and looks in blackness]; meaning the blackness of its legs and of its mouth and of what is around its eyes. (Mgh,* Mṣb.) And إِذَا كَثُرَ البَيَاضُ قَلَّ السَّوَادُ [When whiteness becomes much, blackness becomes little]; by whiteness meaning milk; and by blackness, dates. (TA.)
Black clothing. (Mgh in art. بيض. [See its contr. بَيَاضٌ.])
[Hence,] سَوَادُ القَلْبِ (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ) andسَوَادَتُهُ↓ (M) andأَسْوَدُهُ↓ andسَوْدَاؤُهُ↓ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) andسُوَيْدَاؤُهُ↓, (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ,) the last a dim., (TA,) The heart's core; the black, or inner, part of the heart: or a black thing in the heart: or the black clot of blood that is within the heart [resembling a piece of liver (Zj in his “Khalk el-Insán”)]: or the heart's blood: i. q. حَبَّتُهُ: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, TA:) or, as some say, دَمُهُ. (M, TA.) One says, اِجْعَلْهُمْ فِى سَوَادِ قَلْبِكَ (A, TA) andسُوَيْدَائِهِ↓ (A) ‡ [Place them in the inmost part of thy heart; i. e. give them the best, or most intimate, place in thy affections]. (A, TA.)
سَوَادُ البَطْنِ signifies The liver. (L, TA.)
سَوادٌ is also syn. with شَخْصٌ ‡ [as meaning A person; and also, in a more general sense, a bodily, or corporeal, form or figure or substance]; (AʼObeyd, Ṣ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ;) of a man, and of other things; (Mṣb;) expressly said by AʼObeyd to be of any article of household goods or utensils and furniture and the like, and of other things: (M:) because appearing black when seen from a distance: (TA:) pl. أَسْوِدَةٌ and أَسَاوِدُ, (Ṣ, M, A,) the latter a pl. pl. (Ṣ, M.) El-Asshà says,
* تَنَاهَيْتُمُ عَنَّا وَقَدْ كَانَ فِيكُمُ ** أَسَاوِدُ صَرْعَى لَمْ يُوَسَّدْ قَتِيلُهَا *
[Ye refrained from retaliating upon us when there were among you prostrate persons the slain whereof had not been pillowed in graves]: by the اساود meaning the شُخُوص of the slain. (Ṣ.) And it is said in a trad., إِذَا رَأَى أَحَدُكُمْ سَوَادًا بِلَيْلٍ فَلَا يَكُنْ أَجْبَنَ السَّوَادَيْنِ فَإِنَّهُ يَخَافُكَ كَمَا تَخَافُهُ [When any one of you sees a bodily form, or a person, by night, let him not be the more cowardly of the two bodily forms, or persons; for he feareth thee, like as thou fearest him]: سوادا here meaning شَخْصًا. (L.) The saying لَا يُزَايِلُ سَوَادِى بَيَاضَكَ is expl. by Aṣ as meaning لَا يُزايِلُ شَخْصِى شَخْصَكَ [i. e. My person will not separate itself from thy person]: سَوَادٌ, with the Arabs, meaning شَخْصٌ, and in like manner بَيَاضٌ. (IAạr, L.) [Hence, app.,] قَالَ لِىَ الشَّرُّ أَقِمْ سَوَادَكَ [as though lit. signifying Evil said to me, Erect thy person]; meaning † be thou patient: a prov. (TA.)
As its pl. أَسَاوِدُ means the شُخُوص of the vessels of a house, [accord. to the statement of AʼObeyd cited above,] such as the مِطْهَرَة and the إِجَّانَة and the جَفْنَة, these being called أَسَاوِدُ الدَّارِ, it is also used as meaning † Household goods or utensils or furniture and the like, absolutely. (Ḥar p. 495.) [And in like manner] the sing. is also used as meaning † The travelling-apparatus and baggage and train (ثَقَل) of a commander: (Ṣ:) and † the tents and apparatus and beasts and other things, collectively, of an army. (TA.)
Also, the sing., † Property, or cattle, &c.; syn. مَالٌ: (Aboo-Málik, TA:) or much thereof; (AʼObeyd, Ṣ, Ḳ;) as in the saying لِفُلَانٍ سَوَادٌ [To such a one belongs much property, &c.]. (AʼObeyd, Ṣ.)
Also ‡ A collection, company, or collective body, of men; (M, A, L;) as in the saying كَثَّرْتُ سَوَادَ القَوْمِ بِسَوَادِى ‡ [I increased the number of the collective body of the people, or party, by my person]: (A, TA:) andأًسْوَدَاتٌ↓ and أَسَاوِدُ are used in the same sense; (M;) or [rather] as pls. of this meaning: (L, TA:) or all these as meaning † sundry, distinct or separate, sorts of men, or people: (M:) [but] سَوَادُ المُسْلِمِينَ means † the collective body of the Muslims: (Mgh, Mṣb:) and so السَّوَادُ الأَعْظَمُ, a tropical phrase [in which مِنَ المُسْلِمِينَ is understood]: (A:) or this means ‡ the great number of the Muslims agreed in obedience to the Imám. (TA.) † The commonalty, or generality, of men of people: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) † the bulk, or main part, of a people: (M, TA:) or † the greater number. (Mṣb.) And † A great number (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) of any kind. (Ṣ.)
† A collection of palmtrees and of trees in general; on account of their greenness and blackness, because greenness nearly resembles blackness. (M, L.)
And ‡ The rural district of any province; i. e. the district around the towns or villages, and the رَسَاتِيق [i. e. districts of sown fields with towns or villages], of any province: (M, TA:) or the environs, consisting of towns, or villages, and of cultivated land, (A, TA,) [but more properly applied to the latter than to the former,] of a city, (A,) or of the chief city of a province: (TA:) or the towns, or villages, [but properly with the cultivated lands pertaining to them,] of a province of city: (Ḳ:) thus [particularly] of El-Koofeh and El-Basrah: (Ṣ, O:) hence, (A,) سَوَادُ العِرَاقِ, (A, Mgh, O, Mṣb,) or [simply] السَّوَادُ, (Ḳ,) the district of towns or villages, and cultivated lands, of El-'Irák; (O, Ḳ;*) or the district between El-Basrah and El-Koofeh, with the towns, or villages, around them; (A;) or extending in length from Hadeethet El-Mowsil to 'Abbádán, and in breadth from El-'Odheyb to Holwán; (Mgh;) so called because of the خُضْرَة [which means both greenness and a colour approaching to blackness] of its trees and its seed-produce; (Mgh, Mṣb;) for that which is أَخْضَر the Arabs term أَسْوَد because it appears to be thus at a distance. (Mṣb.)
سُوَادٌ Secret speech with another; as also سِوَادٌ: (M, Ḳ, TA:) each a subst. from سَاوَدَهُ, accord. to AʼObeyd: (M, TA:) but [ISd says,] in my opinion the latter is the inf. n. of سَاوَدَ, [and as such it has been mentioned above, (see 3,)] and the former is the simple subst., the two words being like مُزَاحٌ and مِزَاحٌ: (M:) Aṣ disallowed the former, but it is authorized by AO and others. (TA.)
Also A certain disease incident to sheep or goats. (Ḳ.)
And A certain disease incident to man; (Ḳ;) a pain that attacks the liver, in consequence of eating dates, and that sometimes, or often, kills. (M, TA.)
And A yellowness in the complexion, and a greenness (خُضْرَة [app. here meaning a blackish hue inclining to greenness]) in the nail, (Ḳ, TA,) incident to people from [drinking] salt water. (TA.)
سَيِّدٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, &c.,) of the measure فَعِيلٌ; [originally سَوِيدٌ, for a reason to be mentioned below; the kesreh upon the و, being deemed difficult of pronunciation, is suppressed, and the quiescent و and ى thus coming thgether, the latter receives the rejected kesreh, and the و is changed into ى and incorporated into the augmentative ى; as in the case of جَيِّدٌ with those who hold it to be originally جَوِيدٌ;] or, accord. to the Basrees, it is of the measure فَيْعِلٌ; [originally سَيْوِدٌ;] (Ṣ;) and alsoسَيْدٌ↓; (Mz, 40th نوع, section on the class of هَيِّنٌ and هَيْنٌ;) A chief, lord, or master: (M, L, Mgh, Mṣb: [accord. to the last of which, this is a secondary signification, as will be seen below:]) a prince, or king: (Fr, L:) one who is set before, or over, others: a master of a household: (L:) a woman's husband: (Fr, M, Mṣb:) a possessor, an owner, or a proprietor: (L, Mṣb:) a slave's master, or owner: (Fr, M, Mṣb:) a superior in rank or station or condition; one possessing pre-eminence or excel-lence; a man of rank or quality; a personage; a man of distinction: (L:) one who surpasses others in intelligence and property, and in repelling injury, and in beneficence, or usefulness, who makes a just use of his property, and aids others by himself: (ISh, L:) one possessed of glory, honour, dignity, eminence, exalted or elevated state, or nobility; (L, Mṣb; [accord. to the latter of which, this is the primary signification;]) generous, noble, or high-born: (L:) the most generous, noble, or high-born, of a people: (Mṣb:) a liberal, bountiful, or munificent, person: (Fr, L:) clement; forbearing; one who endures injurious treatment from his people: (L:) devout, abstaining from unlawful things, and clement, or forbearing: (Ḳatádeh, L:) one who is not overcome by his anger: (ʼIkrimeh, L:) accord. to Aṣ, the Arabs say that it signifies any one who is subdued, or repressed, by his principle of clemency, or forbearance: (L:) andسَائِدٌ↓ signifies the same as سَيِّدٌ: or one inferior to a سَيِّد: (Ḳ:) or, accord. to Fr, one says, هٰذَا سَيِّدُ قَوْمِهِ اليَوْمَ [this is the lord, &c., of his people today]; but if you announce that he will be their سيّد after a little while, you say هُوَ سَائِدُ قَوْمِهِ عَنْ قَلِيلٍ, and سَيِّدُ: (Ṣ:) the fem. of سَيِّدٌ [and of سَائِدٌ↓] is with ة: (M, L, Mṣb:) pl. of سَيِّدٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) or of سَائِدٌ↓, (M, Ḳ,) سَادَةٌ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) and سَيَائِدُ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and [pl. of سَادَةٌ] سَادَاتٌ: (Mṣb:) [J says that] سَادَةٌ is of the measure فَعَلَةٌ, [orinally سَوَدَةٌ,] because سَيِّدٌ is of the measure فَعِيلٌ; [as has been before mentioned;] and it is like سَرَاةٌ as pl. of سَرِىٌّ, the only other instance of the kind; this being shown to be the case by the fact that سَيِّدٌ has also as a pl. سَيَائِدُ, with ء, [and with the و changed into ى because it is so changed in the sing.,] like as أَفِيلٌ has أَفَائِلُ, and like as تَبِيعٌ has تَبَائِعُ; but the Basrees, who hold سَيِّدٌ to be of the measure فَيْعِلٌ, say that it becomes of the measure فَعَلَةٌ in the pl. as though it were سَائِدٌ, like قَائِدٌ, which has قَادَةٌ as a pl., and like ذَائِدٌ, which has ذَادَةٌ as a pl.; and they also say that سَيَائِدُ, with ء, as pl. of سَيِّدٌ, is contr. to analogy; for by rule it should be without ء. (Ṣ.)
[In the present day it is also particularly applied to signify, like شَرِيف, Any descendant of the Prophet.]
One of the poets has used it in relation to the jinn, or genii; saying,
* جِنٌّ هَبَبْنَ بِلَيْلٍ ** يَنْدُبْنَ سَيِّدَهُنَّةْ *
[Genii that were roused from their sleep by night, summoning, or perhaps bewailing and eulogizing their chief]: Akh says that this is a well-known verse of the poetry of the Arabs: but it is asserted by one, or more, likewise deserving of reliance, that it is of the poetry of El-Weleed [and therefore post-classical]. (M.)
And the wild ass is called † the سَيِّد of his female. (TA.)
Also, (Ks, Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andسِيَّدٌ↓, (Ḳ,) the latter on the authority of Aboo-ʼAlee, (TA,) applied to a he-goat, † Advanced in years: (Ks, Ṣ, M; Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or in its third year: (Mgh:) or great, though not advanced in years: (TA:) or it is of general application, for it occurs in a trad. applied to the camel and the ox-kind. (M, TA.)
And the former also signifies † What is most eminent, exalted, or noble, of any things: and is applied by Zj to the Ḳur-án, because, he says, it is سَيِّدُ الكَلَامِ † [The paragon of speech]. (M.)
سِيَّدٌ: see the last sentence but one above.
سُوَيْدٌ the abbreviated dim. of أَسْوَدُ: (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb:) see the latter.
Also [as a subst., or an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates,] Water; (M, Mgh, L;) as alsoأَسْوَدُ↓: (M: [but see الأَسْوَدَانِ, voce أَسْوَدُ:]) the former is [said to be] used in this sense in negative phrases only: (M, L:) one says, مَاسَقَاهُمْ مِنْ سُوَيْدٍ قَطْرَةً He gave them not to drink a drop of water. (M, Mgh,* L.)
أُمُّ سُوَيْدٍ means The anus; syn. الاِسْتُ; (Ḳ;) [and] so السُّوَيْدَآءُ↓. (M.)
سَوَادَةُ القَلْبِ: see سَوَادٌ, near the beginning of the paragraph.
سُوَادِىٌّ [or perhaps سَوَادِىٌّ, i. e. “belonging to the Sawád of El-'Irák,”] i. q. سِهْرِيزٌ (M) A wellknown sort of dates, (Ḳ voce سهريز,) found in abundance at El-Basrah. (TA ibid.)
سَوَادِيَّةٌ: see سُودَانِيَّةٌ.
سُوَيْدَآءُ dim. of سُوْدَآءُ, fem. of أَسْوَدُ, q. v.: (Mgh:)
see also سَوَادٌ, in two places:
and أَسْوَدُ, near the end of the paragraph.
Also A certain bird. (M.)
And Salt tracts (سِبَاخ) of [plants of the kind called] نَجِيل: Kr explains it by نِبْتَةٌ [app. a mistranscription for نَبْتَةٌ a plant]; without describing it. (M.)
سَائِدٌ: see سَيِّدٌ, in the middle of the paragraph, in three places.
أَسْوَدُ Greater, and greatest, in respect of estimation, rank, or dignity; syn. أَجَلُّ: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) and, as some say, more [and most] liberal or bountiful or munificent: or more [and most] clement or forbearing. (TA.) One says, هُوَ أَسْوَدُ مِنْ فُلَانٍ He is greater &c. (أَجَلُّ) than such a one. (Ṣ.) And الأَسْوَدُ مِنَ القَوْمِ means The greatest &c. (الأَجَلُّ) of the people, or party. (Ḳ, TA.)
Also Black; i. e. having سَوَاد, (M,* Mgh,) which is the contr. of بَيَاض: (M, Mgh:) andأَسْوَدِىٌّ↓ signifies the same as أَسْوَدُ: (Ḥam p. 379:) [or has an intensive signification, like أَحْمَرىٌّ:] the fem. of أَسْوَدُ is سَوْدَآءُ: (Mgh, Mṣb:) the dim. of أَسْوَدُ is أُسَيِّدُ↓, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) and it is allowable to say أُسَيْوِدُ↓, [as is shown by an ex. voce أَسَكُّ,] meaning [a little black thing; or blackish, or] approaching to black; (Ṣ;) and the abbreviated dim. is سُوَيْدٌ↓: (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb:) the dim. of سَوْدَآءُ is سُوَيْدَآءُ↓: (Mgh:) the pl. of أَسْوَدُ (M, Mṣb) and of سَوْدَآءُ (Mṣb) is سُودٌ (M, Mṣb) and سُودَانٌ [which latter is especially applied to human beings]. (M.) السُّودَانُ is said in the R to denote [The negroes;] that particular people, or race, who are the most stinking of mankind in the armpits and sweat, and the more so those who are eunuchs. (TA.) [It (i. e. السودان) is also sometimes used for أَرْضُ السُّودَانِ, or بِلَادُ السُّودَانِ, (The land, or the country, of the negroes,) or the like: it is thus used in the TA voce سَمْغَرَةُ.] And the epithet أَسْوَدُ is also applied by the Arabs to a thing that is أَخْضَر [i. e. green]; because it appears to be thus at a distance. (Mṣb. [See أَخْضَرُ: and see حَدِيقَةٌ دَهْمَآءُ and مُدْهَامَّةٌ, voce أَدْهَمُ.])
[Hence,] أَسْوَدُ القَلْبِ and سَوْدَآؤُهُ: see سَوَادٌ.
[And السَّوْدَآءُ The black bile; one of the four humours of the body; of which the others are the yellow bile (الصَّفْرَآءُ), the blood (الدَّمُ), and the phlegm (البَلْغَمُ).]
أَسْوَدُ as opposed to أَحْمَرُ [and meaning The Arab race, and also, accord. to some, in this case also, the black]: see أَحْمَرُ, in two places.
As applied to a certain bird: see سُودَانِيَّةٌ, in two places.
Also, as a subst., (Ṣ,) or an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates, (Sh, M,) so that it is used as a subst., (Sh, TA,) but imperfectly decl., (TA,) ‡ A great serpent, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) in which is blackness: (Ṣ, M:) the worst and greatest and most noxious of serpents, than which there is none more daring, for sometimes it opposes itself to a company of travellers, and follows the voice, and it is that which seeks retaliation, and he who is bitten by it will not escape death: (Sh, TA:) it is pluralized as a subst., (Sh, Ṣ, M,) its pl. being أَسَاوِدُ (Ṣ, M) and أَسَاوِيدُ andأَسْوَدَاتٌ↓: (M:) were it an epithet [used as such], its pl. would be سُودٌ: it is also called أَسْوَدُ سَالِحٌ, because it casts off its slough every year: you do not say أَسْوَدُ سَالِخٍ: (Ṣ:) the female is called أَسْوَدَةٌ↓, (Ṣ, M,) which is extr.; (M;) and to this the epithet سَالِخَةٌ is not applied. (Ṣ.)
الأَسْوَدَانِ means † The serpent and the scorpion; (Sh, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ;) which are to be killed during prayer: (Sh, Mgh, Mṣb:) so called by the attribution of predominance [to the former]. (Sh, TA.)
And ‡ Dates and water; (El-Aḥmar, Aṣ, Ṣ, M, A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ;) both together being thus called by a term which properly applies to one only, [accord. to some,] for [they say that] الأَسْوَدُ alone signifies dates, not water, and especially, or mostly, the dates of El-Medeeneh; and in like manner, Aboo-Bekr and ʼOmar together are called العُمَرَانِ; and the sun and the moon together, القَمَرَانِ: (TA:) or, as some say, it means water and milk; and is applied by a rájiz to water and the herb called الفَثّ, of [the grain of] which bread is made, and is eaten [in time of dearth or drought]. (M, L.) See also سُوَيْدٌ.
Also † The حَرَّة [or tract strewn with black and crumbling stones] and night: (Ṣ, M, L:) so called because of their blackness. (M, L.) A party came as guests to Muzebbid El-Medenee, and he said to them, “There is nothing for you with us but the أَسْوَدَانِ:” and they replied, “Verily therein is a sufficiency: dates and water:” but he said, “I meant not that: I only meant the حَرَّة and the night.” (Ṣ, M.) And as to the saying of ʼÁïsheh, that she was with the Prophet when they had no food, but only the أَسْوَدَانِ, which is expl. by the lexicologists as meaning dates and water, [and thus by Mṭr in the Mgh, ISd says,] in my opinion she only meant the حَرَّة and night. (M.)
هُوَ أَسْوَدُ الكَبِدِ [lit. He is black-livered] means ‡ he is an enemy: (A, TA:) and سُودُ الأَكْبَادِ means ‡ enemies. (M, A.)
You say also, جَآءَ فُلَانٌ بِغَنَمِهِ سُودَ البُطُونِ, and, in like manner, حُمْرَ الكُلَى, both meaning ‡ Such a one brought his sheep, or goats, in a lean, or an emaciated, state. (Aṣ, Ṣ, and A in art. حمر.)
And رَمَى بِسَهْمِهِ الأَسْوَدِ ‡ He shot with his lucky arrow, (A, Ḳ,) that was smeared with blood, (A,) by means of which he looked for good fortune, (Ḳ, TA,) because he had shot with it and hit the object shot at, (TA,) or as though it were black (Ḳ, TA) with blood, (TA,) or by its having been much handled. (Ḳ, TA.)
And كَلَّمْتُهُ فَمَا رَدَّ عَلَىَّ سَوْدَآءَ وَلَا بَيْضَآءَ ‡ I spoke to him, and he did not return to me a bad word nor a good one: (Ṣ, L:) or a single word. (A.)
وَطْأَةٌ سَوْدَآءُ means † A footstep, or footprint, that is becoming effaced: a recent one is termed حَمْرَآءُ. (Ṣ.)
السَّوْدَآءُ † Cultivated, or planted, land; opposed to البَيْضَآءُ [q. v.]. (TA in art. بيض [See also سَوْدَةٌ.])
[But سَنَةٌ سَوْدَآءُ means † A very severe year; more severe than such as is termed حَمْرَآءُ; which is more severe than the بَيْضآء, and still more so than the شَهْبَآء: see arts. شهب and حمر.]
الحَبَّةُ السَّوْدَآءُ, said in a trad. to be a remedy for every disease except death, (TA,) i. q. الشُّونِيزُ [q. v.], (Ḳ,) as alsoالسُّوَيْدَآءُ↓, (TA,) [i. e.] this latter signifies حَبَّةُ الشُّونِيزِ, (M,) or properly الشِّينِيز, for thus the Arabs called it accord. to IAạr: or, as some say, i. q. الحَبَّةُ الخَضْرَآءُ [q. v. in art. حب], because the Arabs [often] call black أَخْضَر, and green أَسْوَد. (TA.)
It is also used as an epithet denoting excess; but as such is anomalous, being formed from a verb whence the simple epithet is of the measure أَفْعَلُ: so in the saying, أَسْوَدُ مِنْ حَلَكِ الغُرَابِ [Blacker than the blackness, or intense blackness, of the crow, or raven: see حَلَكٌ]. (I’Aḳ p. 237. [See also its contr. أَبْيَضُ, voce بَيَاضٌ; and see Ḥar p. 286.])
أَسْوَدَةٌ fem. of أَسْوَدُ, q. v., used as a subst. (Ṣ, M.)
أَسْوَدَاتٌ: see سَوْدٌ:
أَسْوَدِىٌّ: see أَسْوَدُ, fourth sentence.
أُسَيْدِىٌّ, rel. n. of أُسَيِّدُ with the movent ى rejected, Of, or relating to, [a blackish colour, or] a colour approaching to black. (Ṣ.)
أُسَيِّدُ and أُسَيْوِدُ: see أًسْوَدُ, fourth sentence.
مَسُودٌ One over whom rule, or dominion, is exercised; or of whom another is سَيِّد [or chief, lord, master, &c.]. (TA.)
مُسْوِدٌ [act. part. n. of أَسْوَدَ, q. v.:] with ة, i. e. مُسْوِدَةٌ, A woman who brings forth black children: the contr. is termed مُبْيِضَةٌ, (Fr, Ḳ in art. بيض,) or, more commonly, مُوضِحَةٌ. (O and TA in that art.)
مَآءٌ مَسْوَدَةٌ Water that is a cause of [the disease called] سُوَاد (M, Ḳ, TA) to such as drink it. (TA.)
ظّلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا, in the Ḳur [xvi. 60 and xliii. 16], means † [His face becomes, or continues, or continues all the day,] expressive of sorrow, or displeasure. (Mgh. [See the verb, 9.]) And أَيَّامٌ مُسْوَدَّةٌ means † [Days of] evil state or condition, and hardness, or difficulty, of living. (Ḥar p. 304.)
[مُسْوَدَّةٌ The first draught, or original copy, of a book, or the like: (not called مُسَوَّدَةٌ:) opposed to مُبْيَضَّةٌ, q. v.: probably postclassical.]
مُسَوَّدٌ Guts (مُصْرَان) containing blood drawn by venesection from a she-camel, bound at the head, roasted and eaten. (IAạr and Ḳ as expl. by MF.)
المُسَوِّدَةُ The partisans of the dynasty of the 'Abbásees; [so called because they made their clothes black;] opposed to the مُبَيِّضَة. (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. بيض.)
مَسْؤُودٌ part. n. of سُئِدُ. (Ḳ. [See 1, last signification.])