حسم حسن حسو
حَسُنَ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) which may also be written and pronounced حَسْنَ, with the ḍammeh suppressed, (Ṣ,) and حَسَنَ, (Ḳ,) aor. ـُ, (TA,) inf. n. حُسْنٌ (Ṣ,* Mṣb, Ḳ,* TA) and حُسْنَى, (Ḥam p. 657, and Bḍ in ii. 77,) He, or it (a thing, Ṣ, Mṣb), had, or possessed, the quality termed حَسْنٌ [which see below; i. e., was, or became, good, or goodly, (generally the latter,) beautiful, comely, or pleasing, &c.; andتحسّن↓ often signifies the same, as in the phrase تحسّن عِنْدَهُ it was, or became, good, &c., in his estimation]: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) and [in like manner]أَحْسَنَ↓ زَيْدٌ means Zeyd became possessed of حُسْن. (Mughnee in art. بِ.)
One may not say حُسْنَ, transferring the ḍammeh of the س to the ح and making the former letter quiescent, except in one case; because it is [virtually, together with its agent expressed or implied, in this case,] a predicate: [see I’Aḳ p. 234:] this is allowable only in the case of a verb of praise or dispraise; حُسْنَ, in respect of the transference of the medial vowel, being likened to نِعْمَ and بِئْسَ, which are originally نَعِمَ and بَئِسَ: and thus one does in all verbs like these two in meaning: a poet says,
* لَمْ يَمْنَعِ النَّاسُ مِنِّى مَا أَرَدْتُ وَمَا ** أُعْطِيهِمُ مَا أَرَادُوا حُسْنَ ذَا أَدَبَا *
[Men have not withheld from me what I have desired, nor do I give them what they have desired: good, or very good, is this as a mode of conduct!]: meaning حَسُنَ هٰذَا أَدَبًا. (Ṣ, TA.) You say also, حَسُنَ زَيْدٌ, [meaning Good, or goodly, &c., or very good &c., is Zeyd! or] meaningأَحْسِنْ↓ بِهِ [i. e. how good, or goodly, &c., is Zeyd! as alsoمَا أَحْسَنَهُ↓]. (B, TA in art. بِ.)
حسّنهُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَحْسِينٌ, (Ṣ,) He made it, or rendered it, Ḥَسَن [i. e. good, or goodly, (generally the latter,) beautiful, comely, or pleasing, &c.]; (Ḳ;) he beautified, embellished, or adorned, it; (Ṣ, TA;) as alsoاحسنهُ↓. (TA.) You say,أَحْسَنَ↓ الحَلَّاقُ رَأْسَهُ The shaver beautified, or trimmed, his head. (TA.) Andالَّذِى أَحْسَنَ↓ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلَقَهُ [Who hath made good, or goodly, everything that He hath created], in the Ḳur [xxxii. 6], means حَسَّنَ خَلْقَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ [hath made good, or goodly, the creation of everything]. (TA.)
إنِّى أُحَاسِنُ بِكَ النَّاسَ (Ṣ, TA) Verily I contend with men for thy superiority in حُسْن [i. e. goodness, or goodliness, &c.]. (TA.) [حَاسَنَ followed by an accus. is rendered by Golius, as on the authority of J, who gives no explanation of it, “Bene tractavit et egit.”]
احسن as an intrans. v.: see 1.
Also He did that which was Ḥَسَن [meaning good, comely, or pleasing; he acted well]; (Mṣb;) he did a good deed: (Er-Rághib, TA:) [for] إِحْسَانٌ is the contr. of إِسَآءَةٌ: (Ḳ:) it differs from إِنْعَامٌ in being to oneself and to another; whereas the latter is only to another: (TA:) and it surpasses عَدْلٌ, inasmuch as it means the giving more than one owes, and taking less than is owed to one; whereas the latter means the giving what one owes, and taking what is owed to one. (Er-Rághib, TA.) You say, أَحْسَنْتُ إِلَيْهِ and بِهِ [I acted, or behaved, with goodness, well, or in a good or comely or pleasing manner, towards him; did good to him; benefited him; conferred a benefit, or benefits, upon him]: both signify the same: (Ṣ, TA:) and hence, in the Ḳur [xii. 101], قَدْ أَحْسَنَ بِى إِذَ أَخْرَجَنِى مِنَ السِّجْنِ meaning إِلَىَّ [i. e. He hath acted well towards me, when he brought me forth from the prison]: (AHeyth, Az:) or, accord. to some, the verb in this case is made to import the meaning of لَطَفَ [which is trans. by means of بِ, i. e. He hath acted graciously with me]. (Mughnee in art. بِ.)
الإِحْسَانُ is also explained as meaning الإِخْلَاصُ [i. e. The being sincere, or without hypocrisy; or the asserting oneself to be clear of believing in any beside God]; which is a condition of the soundness, or validity, of الإِيمَان and الإِسْلَام together: and as denoting watchfulness, and good obedience: and as meaning the continuing in the right way, and following the way which those [of the righteous] who have gone before have trodden; this last being said to be the meaning in the Ḳur ix. 101. (TA.)
As a trans. v.: see 2, in three places.
احسنهُ also signifies ‡ He knew it: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) [or] he knew it well; (Er-Rághib, Mṣb;) and so احسن بِهِ, as in the saying, هُوَ يُحْسِنُ بِالعَرَبِيَّةِ † He knows well the Arabic language. (MA.) Hence the saying of ʼAlee, قِيمَةُ المَرْءِ مَا يُحْسِنُهُ ‡ [The value of the man is what he knows, or knows well]. (TA.) النَّاسُ أَبْنَآءُ مَا يُحْسِنُونَ is another saying of ʼAlee, meaning ‡ Men are named, or reputed, in relation to what they know, and to the good deeds that they do. (TA.)
أَحْسِنْ بِهِ and مَا أَحْسَنَهُ: see 1, last sentence. You say also,مَا أُحَيْسِنَهُ↓ [i. e. How very good, or goodly, &c., is he!]; using the dim. form; like مَا أُمَيْلِحَهُ [q. v.]. (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. ملح.)
Also He (a man, IAạr) sat upon a high hill, or heap, of sand, such as is termed حَسَنٌ. (IAạr, Ḳ.)
تحسّن: see 1.
Also i. q. تَجَمَّلَ [i. e. He beautified, embellished, or adorned, himself: and he affected what is beautiful, goodly, or comely, in person, or in action or actions or behaviour, or in moral character, &c.]. (TA.) [تَحَسَّنَتْ, said of a woman, occurs, in the former sense, in the Ṣ and Ḳ in art. رعد, and in the TA in art. نقط, &c.]
دَخَلَ الحَمَّامَ فَتَحَسَّنَ He entered the hot bath and was shaven. (TA.)
استحسنهُ He counted, accounted, reckoned, or esteemed, him, or it, Ḥَسَن [i. e. good, goodly, beautiful, comely, pleasing, &c.; he approved, thought well of, or liked, him, or it]; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as alsoحسّنهُ↓, inf. n. تَحْسِينٌ. (Ḥar p. 594.) Hence the saying, صَرْفُ هٰذَا ٱسْتِحْسَانٌ وَالمَنْعُ قِيَاسٌ [The making this word perfectly declinable is approvable, but the making it imperfectly declinable is agreeable with analogy]. (TA.)
حُسْنٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.) andحُسُنٌ↓, which is of the dial. of El-Ḥijáz, andحَسَنٌ↓, (MF, TA,) Goodness, or goodliness, [generally the latter,] beauty, comeliness, or pleasingness; contr. of قُبْحٌ: (Ṣ:) i. q. جَمَالٌ: (Ḳ:) but accord. to Aṣ, [when relating to the person,] حُسْنٌ is in the eyes, and جَمَالٌ is in the nose: (TA:) symmetry; or just proportion of the several parts of the person, one to another: (Kull:) or anything, moving the mind, that is desired, or wished for; such as is approved by the intellect; and such as is approved by natural desire; and such as is approved by the faculty of sense: in the common conventional language, mostly applied to what is approved by the sight: in the Ḳur, mostly to what is approved by mental perception: it is in accidents as well as in substances: (Er-Rághib, TA:) the pl. is مَحَاسِنُ↓, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) like مَلَامِحُ pl. of لَمْحَةٌ, and مَشَابِهُ pl. of شَبَهٌ, &c., (Ḥar p. 9,) contr. to rule, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) as though pl. ofمَحْسَنٌ↓ orمُحْسَنٌ↓: (Ṣ accord. to different copies:) or, accord. to Lh and Eth-Tha'álibee, مَحَاسِنُ has no proper sing. (TA.) وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا, in the Ḳur [ii. 77], means And say ye to men a saying having in it goodness (قَوْلًا ذَا حُسْنٍ): or حُسْنًا may mean حَسَنًا: (Zj, TA:) and some read here حَسَنًا: and some, حُسُنًا, accord. to the dial. of El-Ḥijáz: and some, حُسْنَى↓, as an inf. n., like بُشْرَى: (Bḍ:) but AḤát and Zj disallow this; the former saying that حُسْنَى is like فُعْلَى [as fem. of أَفْعَلُ denoting the comparative and superlative degrees], and therefore should have the article ال. (TA.) وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا, in the Ḳur [xxix. 7], means [in like manner] And we have enjoined man to do to his two parents what is good (مَا يَحْسُنُ حُسْنًا): (TA:) and here [also] some read حَسَنًا; and some, إِحْسَانًا. (Bḍ.) [See another ex. of a similar kind, from the Ḳur xviii. 85, voce إِمَّا, near the beginning of the paragraph.]
سِتُّ الحُسْنِ [The convolvulus caïricus of Linn.; abundant in the gardens of Cairo;] a certain plant that twines about trees and has a beautiful flower. (TA.)
حَسَنٌ Having, or possessing, the quality termed حُسْنٌ [which see above; good, or goodly, (generally the latter,) beautiful, comely, pleasing or pleasant, &c.]; (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA;) either intrinsically, as when applied to belief in God and in his attributes; or extrinsically, as when applied to war against unbelievers, for this is not good in itself: said to be the only epithet of its measure except بَطَلٌ: (TA:) andحَسِينٌ↓ signifies the same, (IB, Ḳ,) because from حَسُنَ, like عَظِيمٌ and كَريِمٌ from عَظُمَ and كَرُمَ, (IB, TA,) andحُسَانٌ↓, (Ḳ,) but this is an intensive epithet, [signifying very good or goodly &c.,] (IB, TA,) andحُسَّانٌ↓, (Ḳ,) also an intensive epithet, (Ṣ, IB,) andحَاسِنٌ↓, (Ḳ,) [properly signifying being, or becoming, good or goodly &c.,] cited by Lḥ as used in a future sense, (TA,) andمُحَسَّنٌ↓ as applied to a face: (Ḳ:) the fem. is حَسَنَةٌ, andحَسْنَآءُ↓, applied to a woman, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) though the corresponding masc. of this latter, namely, أَحْسَنُ↓, is [said to be] not used (Ṣ, Ḳ) as applied to a man [in the sense of حَسَنٌ], (Ṣ,) [but the phrase هُوَ أَحْسَنُهُمْ وَجْهًا as meaning حَسَنُهُمْ وَجْهًا is mentioned in the Ṣ in art. بيض, (see بَيَاضٌ, and see also the pl. أَحَاسِنُ in what here follows,)] andحُسَّانَةٌ↓: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the pl. masc. is حِسَانٌ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) pl. of حَسَنٌ used as an epithet; but when حَسَنٌ is used as a [proper] name, its pl. is حَسَنُونَ; (Mṣb;) and حِسَانٌ may also be pl. of حَسِينٌ; (TA;) and حُسَّانُونَ, (Sb, Ḳ,) pl. ofحُسَّانٌ↓, which has no broken pl.: (Sb:) and أَحَاسِنُ القَوْمِ means حِسَانُهُمْ [the good, or goodly, &c., of the party, or company of men]: (Ḳ:) the pl. fem. is حِسَانٌ, (Ḳ,) like the masc., pl. of حَسْنَآءُ, and the only instance of its kind except عِجَافٌ, pl. of عَجْفَآءُ. (TA.) You say رَجُلٌ حَسَنٌ بَسَنٌ [A man very good or goodly &c.], using بسن as an imitative sequent [for the purpose of corroboration]. (Ṣ.)
[حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ A tradition of good authority; generally applied to one transmitted in the first instance by two or more relaters.]
[Also meaning Good, comely, goodhumoured, pleasing, or pleasant, discourse or talk.]
الحَسَنُ The bone that is next to the elbow; as alsoالحُسْنُ↓: (Ḳ:) or the extremity of the bone of the upper half of the arm next the shoulder-joint, because of the abundance of flesh that is upon it; the extremity of that bone next the elbow being called القَبِيحُ: (TA in art. قبح:) or the upper part of that bone; the lower part thereof being called القبيح. (Fr, TA in that art.)
A kind of tree, of beautiful appearance, (Ḳ, TA,) also called the أَلآء, that grows in rows upon a hill, or heap, (كَثِيب,) of sand; so called because of its beauty; whence the كثيب is called نَقَا الحَسَنِ: thus described by Az, on the authority of ʼAlee Ibn-Hamzeh. (TA.)
[And hence, perhaps,] حَسَنٌ signifies also A high كَثِيب [or hill, or heap, of sand]: (IAạr, Ḳ:) whence it is used as a [proper] name of a boy. (IAạr, TA.)
See also حُسْنٌ, first sentence.
الحُسَنُ: see أَحْسَنُ.
حُسُنٌ: see حُسْنٌ, first sentence.
حِسْنَةٌ A ledge (رَيْدٌ) projecting from a mountain: pl. حِسَنٌ. (Ḳ.)
حَسَنَةٌ fem. of حَسَنٌ [q. v.]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
Also, [used as a subst., or as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. is predominant, A good act or action;] an act of obedience [to God; often particularly applied to an alms-deed]: (Ksh and Bḍ in iv. 80:) and the reward [of a good action]: (Er-Rághib, TA:) a good, benefit, benefaction, boon, or blessing: (Ksh and Bḍ ibid.:) contr. of سَيِّئَةٌ [in all these senses]: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) as contr. of this latter word, it signifies any rejoicing, or gladdening, good or benefit &c. that betides a man in his soul and his body and his circumstances: (Er-Rághib, TA:) pl. حَسَنَاتٌ: (Ḳ, and Ḳur vii. 167, &c.:) it has no broken pl. (TA.) Hence, in the Ḳur iv. 80, it means Abundance of herbage, or of the goods, conveniences, and comforts, of life; ampleness of circumstances; and success: and سَيِّئَة there means the contr. of these. (Er-Rághib, TA.) In the Ḳur xi. 116, الحَسَنَات is said to mean The five daily prayers, as expiating what has been between them. (TA.)
As an epithet, [fem. of حَسَنٌ,] it is applied to an accident as well as to a substance. (Er-Rághib, TA.)
حَسْنَآءُ: see حَسَنٌ.
حُسَانٌ: see حَسَنٌ.
حَسِينٌ: see حَسَنٌ.
حُسَيْنٌ [dim. of حَسَنٌ.]
[Also] A high mountain: whence it is used as a [proper] name of a boy. (TA.)
حُسَيْنَى One's utmost, [or rather one's best,] or the utmost of one's power or ability or deed or case: so in the saying, حُسَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ كَذَا [His utmost, or best, &c., is, or will be, the doing such a thing]: andحُسَيْنَاؤُهُ↓ means the same. (Ḳ,* TA.)
حُسَيْنَآءُ: see what next precedes.
Also A kind of tree, with small leaves. (Ḳ.)
حُسَّانٌ; and its fem., with ة: see حَسَنٌ, in three places.
حَاسِنٌ: see حَسَنٌ.
[Hence,] الحَاسِنُ The moon. (AA, Ṣ.)
أَحْسَنُ, fem. حَسْنَآءُ, pl. أَحَاسِنُ: see حَسَنٌ.
الأَحْسَنُ denotes the comparative and superlative degrees [of حُسْنٌ]; as in the phrase هُوَ الأَحْسَنُ [He, or it, is the better, and best; or the more, and most, goodly or beautiful or comely &c.]: (Ḳ:) الحُسْنَى↓ is the fem.; as in the phrase الأَسْمَآءُ الحُسْنَى The best names; those of God; which are ninety and nine: (Jel in vii. 179:) it signifies the contr. of السُّوْءَى: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the pl. of الأَحْسَنُ is الأَحَاسِنُ. (Ḳ.) In the saying, in the Ḳur [vi. 153 and xvii. 36], وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ اليَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ [And approach ye not the property of the orphan, to make use of it,] except by that act which is best to be done with it, the meaning is, such an act as the taking care of it, and increasing it: (Bḍ:) or, as some say, the meaning is, the taking, of his property, what will [suffice to] conceal those parts of one's person that should not be exposed, and stay one's hunger. (TA.) [The fem.] الحُسْنَى↓ is applied to accidents only: not to substances. (Er-Rághib, TA.) It means also, [as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates, That which is better, and that which is best. And hence,] The good final or ultimate state or condition [appointed for the faithful]: (Ḳ:) so, it is said, in the Ḳur xli. 50. (TA.) And The view, or vision, of God; (Ḳ;) accord. to some: but it is said that in the Ḳur x. 27, it means Paradise; and زِيَادَةٌ, which there follows it, means the view, or vision, of the face of God. (TA.) And Victory: and martyrdom: (Th, Ḳ:) whence, [in the Ḳur ix. 52,] إِحْدَى الحُسْنَيَيْنِ [one of the two best things]; (Ḳ;) victory or martyrdom. (Ksh, Bḍ, Jel.) And The saying لَا إِلَاهَ إِلَّا ٱللّٰهُ. (Jel in xcii. 6 and 9.) The pl. ofالحُسْنَى↓ is الحُسْنَيَاتُ andالحُسَنُ↓, (Ḳ, [the latter like رُجَعٌ pl. of رُجْعَى, but misunderstood by Freytag as syn. with المَحَاسِنُ, which next follows it in the Ḳ,]) neither of which is used without the article ال. (TA.)
مَا أُحَيْسِنَهُ: see 4, last sentence but one.
تَحْسِينٌ a subst. of the measure تَفْعِيلٌ; (Ḳ;) or rather an inf. n. used as a subst.; (TA;) pl. تَحَاسِينُ: whence كِتَابُ التَّحَاسِينِ (Ḳ) [Caligraphy; or] deliberate, orderly, and regular writing; (TḲ;) [or close and compact writing, without spaces, or gaps, and without elongation of the letters;] contr. of المَشْقُ. (Ḳ. [See كِتَابُ مَشْقٍ.])
مُحْسَنٌ: see حُسْنٌ.
مُحْسِنٌ Doing, or who does, that which is Ḥَسَن [meaning good, comely, or pleasing]; (Ḳ, TA;) as alsoمِحْسَانٌ↓: (Ḳ:) or the latter [is an intensive epithet, meaning doing, or who does, much that is good, comely, or pleasing: or] means constantly doing that which is Ḥَسَن. (TA.)
إِنَّا نَرَاكَ مِنَ المُحْسِنِينَ, in the Ḳur xii. 36, means ‡ Verily we see thee to be of those who know, or know well, the interpretation of dreams: (Ksh, Bḍ, TA:*) or † of those endowed with knowledge: or of the doers of good to the prisoners: (Ksh, Bḍ:) or of those who aid the weak and the sufferer of wrong, and visit the sick. (TA.)
مَحْسَنَةٌ [A cause of good: pl., app., مَحَاسِنُ↓; like as مَسَاوٍ, originally مَسَاوِئُ, is said to be pl. of مَسَآءَةٌ, originally مَسْوَأَةٌ]. You say, هٰذَا الطَّعَامُ مَحْسَنَةٌ لِلْجِسْمِ [This food is a cause of good, i. e. beneficial, to the body]. (Ṣ.)
مُحَسَّنٌ: see حَسَنٌ.
مِحْسَانٌ: see مُحْسِنٌ.
مَحَاسِنُ The beautiful places [or parts] of the body: (Ḳ:) accord. to some, (TA,) the sing. is مَحْسَنٌ↓: or it has no sing.: (Ḳ:) the former opinion is disapproved by ISd.: the latter is the opinion of the grammarians and of the generality of the lexicologists: and therefore, says Sb, the rel. n. is مَحَاسِنِىٌّ↓; for if مَحَاسِنُ had a sing., it would be restored to the sing. in forming the rel. n. (TA.) You say, فُلَانَةُ كَثِيرَةُ المَحَاسِنِ Such a woman has many beautiful places [or parts] of the body. (TA.) And مَحَاسِنُ الوَجْهِ وَمَسَاوِيهِ [The beauties of the face, and its defects]: (Ḳ in art. لمح:) [for] مَحَاسِنُ signifies the contr. of مَسَاوٍ. (Ṣ.)
[As contr. of مَسَاوٍ, it signifies also Good qualities of any kind: and also good actions; like حَسَنَاتٌ: agreeably with an explanation in the KL, نيكوئيها.]
مَحَاسِنِىٌّ: see the next preceding paragraph.