جنى جهد جهر
1. ⇒ جهد
جَهَدَ, (Ṣ, A, L, &c.,) aor. ـَ
جَهَدَبِهِ He tried, proved, or examined, him, (L, Ḳ,) عَنِ الخَيْرِ وَغَيْرِهِ [respecting good qualities, &c.]. (L.)
جَهَدَهُ, (Mgh, L, Mṣb,) aor. ـَ
Also, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) aor. as above, (A,) and so the inf. n., (Mṣb,) ‡ He deprived it (namely, milk,) of its butter, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,) entirely: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or churned it so as to extract its butter and render it sweet and pleasant: or mixed it with water: (Mṣb:) or diluted it so that it consisted for the most part of water: and in like manner is used in relation to broth. (A.)
Hence, (Mṣb,) جَهَدَهَا † He lay with her; or compressed her: (L, Mṣb, from a trad.:) or i. q. دَفَعَهَا, and حَفَزَهَا [which has a similar meaning]. (L.)
جَهَدَ الطَّعَامِ † He desired the food eagerly; longed for it; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as alsoاجهدهُ↓. (Ḳ.) And جُهِدَ الطَّعَامُ andأُجْهِدَ↓ † The food was eagerly desired, or longed for. (Ṣ.)
Also ‡ He ate much of the food: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) he left nothing of it. (A.) You say also, هٰذَا كَلَأٌ يَجْهَدُهُ المَالُ † This is herbage, or pasture, of which the cattle eat perseveringly. (AA, TA.)
جَهِدَ It (a state of life) was, or became, hard, difficult, strait, or distressful. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
3. ⇒ جاهد
جِهَادٌ, inf. n. of جاهد, properly signifies The using, or exerting, one's utmost power, efforts, endeavours, or ability, in contending with an object of disapprobation; and this is of three kinds, namely, a visible enemy, the devil, and one's self; all of which are included in the term as used in the Ḳur xxii. 77. (Er-Rághib, TA.) See also 1, first sentence. You say, جاهد العَدُوَّ, (JK, A, Mgh,) inf. n. as above (JK, Mgh, Ḳ) and مُجَاهَدَةٌ, (JK, Ḳ,) He fought with the enemy: (Ḳ:) or he encountered the enemy, imposing upon himself difficulty or distress or fatigue, or exerting his power or efforts or endeavours or ability, [or the utmost thereof,] to repel him, his enemy doing the like: and hence جاهد came to be used by the Muslims to signify generally he fought, warred, or waged war, against unbelievers and the like. (Mgh.) You say also, جاهد فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللّٰهِ, inf. n. جِهَادٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb) and مُجَاهَدَةٌ, (Ṣ,) [He fought, &c., in the way of God; i. e., in the cause of religion.]
4. ⇒ اجهد
اجهد, as trans.: see 1, in six places.
Also He made, or incited, another, to strive or labour or toil, to exert himself or his power or efforts or endeavours or ability,, &c.; trans. of 1 in the first of the senses assigned to it above. (JK.)
أُجْهِدَ He was thrown into a state of difficulty, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, or fatigue. (L.)
اجهد مَالَهُ He consumed, or wasted, and dispersed, his property: (Ḳ:) or gave it away, and dispersed it, altogether, here and there. (En-Naḍr, TA.)
As intrans., He (an enemy) strove, laboured, or exerted himself, in enmity, (Ḳ, TA,) عَلَيْنَا against us. (TA.)
He acted with energy, or with the utmost energy: so in the phrases سَارَ فَأَجْهَدَ He marched, or journeyed, and did so with energy, or with the utmost energy; and حَلَفَ بِٱللّٰهِ فَأَجْهَدَ He swore by God, and did so with energy,, &c.: in which cases one should not say فَجَهَدَ. (Aboo-ʼAmr Ibn-El-ʼAlà, L.)
He took the course prescribed by prudence, precaution, and sound judgment, فِى الأَمْرِ in the affair; syn. اِحْتَاطَ. (L, Ḳ.)
He became in a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, or fatigue. (L.)
† It (a thing) became mixed, or confused. (Ḳ.)
He entered upon land such as is termed جَهَاد: he went forth into the desert; and into the plain, or open country. (JK.)
It rose up; rose into view; appeared. (JK.) You say, اجهد لِىَ القَوْمُ The people, or company of men, came within my sight, or view; syn. أَشْرَفُوا. (AA, Ḳ.) And اجهد فِيهِ الشَّيْبُ Hoariness appeared upon him, and became much: (TA:) or ‡ became much, and spread: (A:) or became much, and was quick in its progress, (Ḳ, TA,) and spread. (TA.) And أَجْهَدَتْ لَهُ الأَرْضُ The land became open to him. (L, Ḳ.*) And in like manner, اجهد له الطَّرِيقُ, (L,) and الحَقُّ, (L, Ḳ,*) The road, and † the truth, became open, apparent, and manifest, to him. (L, Ḳ.*) And اجهد لَكَ الأَمْرُ † The thing became, or has become, within thy power, or reach; (Aboo-Saʼeed, Ḳ;) and offered, or presented, itself to thee. (Aboo-Saʼeed, TA.)
6. ⇒ تجاهد
8. ⇒ اجتهد
see 1, in five places.
اِجْتِهَادٌ as a conventional term means A lawyer's exerting the faculties [of the mind] to the utmost, for the purpose of forming an opinion in a case of law [respecting a doubtful and difficult point]: (KT:) the seeking to form a right opinion: (KL:) [investigation of the law, or the working out a solution of any difficulty in the law, by means of reason and comparison: and] the referring a case proposed to the judge, [respecting a doubtful and difficult point,] from the method of analogy, to the Kur-Án and the Sunneh. (L, TA.*)
Power; ability; as alsoجُهْدٌ↓; (Ṣ, A, IAth, L, Mṣb, Ḳ;) the latter of the dial. of El-Ḥijáz, and the former of other dials.; (Mṣb;) andمَجْهُودٌ↓: (A:) جهد in the Ḳur ix. 80 is read both جَهْد andجُهد↓: (Ṣ:) and جَهْدٌ signifies also labour, toil, exertion, effort, endeavour, energy, diligence, painstaking, or extraordinary painstaking: (L: [see جَهَدَ:]) orجُهْدٌ↓ has the signification first mentioned above, (Fr, Ṣ, IAth, Mṣb,) and جَهْدٌ, with fet-ḥ, is from اِجْهَدْ جَهْدَكَ فِى هٰذَا الأَمْرِ, (Fr, Ṣ,) or from جَهَدَ فِى الأَمْرِ, being an inf. n. from this verb, (Mṣb,) and signifies, [as alsoمَجْهُودٌ↓,] one's utmost; the utmost of one's power or ability or efforts or endeavours or energy. (Fr, Ṣ, IAth, Mṣb, Ḳ.) You say, بَذَلَ الجَهْدَ, (Mṣb in art. بلغ, &c.,) andالمَجْهُودَ↓, (Ṣ, A,) or جَهْدَهُ, (Mgh,) [andمَجْهُودَهُ↓,] He exerted unsparingly his power or ability: (Mgh:) [or his utmost power or ability or efforts or endeavours or energy; as shown above.] And بَلَغَ جَهْدَهُ, (A, L,) andمَجْهُودَهُ↓, (A,) He accomplished the utmost of his power or ability; did his utmost. (A, L. [Like جَهَدَ جَهْدَهُ. See also بَلَغَ جَهْدَ دَابَّتِهِ, below.]) Andجُهَيْدَى↓ is syn. with جَهْدٌ; (Ḳ;) as in the saying, لَأَبْلُغَنَّ جُهَيْدَاىَ فِى الأَمْرِ (JK, TḲ,) i. e. I will assuredly accomplish the utmost of my power, or ability, in the affair. (TḲ. [In a copy of the A, جُهَيْدَاكَ; and so in the TA, I believe from that same copy.]) [So, too, is جُهَادَى↓; as in the saying,] جُهَادَاكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ The utmost of thy power, or ability, and the utmost of thy case, is, or will be, thy doing [such a thing]; syn. قُصَارَاكَ [q. v.], (JK, Ḳ,) and غَايَةُ أَمْرِكَ. (TA.) الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُوا بِٱللّٰهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ, in the Ḳur [v. 58, &c.], means Who swore by God with the most energetic of their oaths: (Ḳ,* Jel:) or the strongest, or most forcible, of their oaths; جهد being originally an inf. n., and in the accus. as a denotative of state with يَجْهَدُونَ understood before it, or as an inf. n. (Bḍ.)
Also Difficulty, or grievousness; embarrassment, distress, affliction, trouble, inconvenience, fatigue, or weariness; (Ṣ, A, IAth, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ;) so accord. to some who say that جُهْدٌ↓, with damm, has the first of the significations assigned to it above; (Mṣb;) as alsoمَجْهُودٌ↓: (Mgh:) a disease, or difficulty, that distresses or afflicts, a man; as alsoجُهْدٌ↓. (JK.) Hence, جَهْدُ البَلَآءِ, (Mṣb,) i. e. A state of difficulty, or trouble, to which death is preferred: or largeness of one's family, or household, combined with poverty. (L, Ḳ.*) [Hence also,] بَلَغَ جَهْدَ دَابَّتِهِ, [i. e. بَلَغَ مَشَقَّتَهَا,] i. q. جَهَدَهَا: see 1. (Ḳ.)
Also Small provision, upon which a man possessing little property can live (JK, L) with difficulty. (L.) And جَهْدٌ المُقِلِّ What a man who possesses little property can afford to give in payment of the poor-rate required by the law. (L, from a trad.)
جُهْدٌ: see جَهْدٌ, in five places.
Also Milk mixed [with water: see مَجْهُودٌ]. (JK.)
جَهَادٌ Hard land: (JK, Ṣ:) or land in which is no herbage: (TA:) or hard land in which is no herbage: (Ḳ:) or level, or even, land: or rugged land: also used as an epithet; so that you say أَرْضٌ جَهَادٌ: (TA:) or level, smooth land, in which is no hill: (JK:) or the most plain and even of land, whether it have produced herbage or not, not having any mountain or hill near it: and such is what is termed a صَحْرَآء: (ISh, TA:) or an open tract of land: (Fr, TA:) or sterile, barren, or unfruitful, land, in which is nothing; as also جَمَادٌ: pl. جُهُدٌ. (AA, L.)
Also The fruit of the أَرَاك; (IAạr, Ḳ;) and so جَهَاضٌ. (IAạr, TA.)
مَرْعًى جَهِيدٌ ‡ Pasture much eaten by cattle. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.) And أَرْضٌ جَهِيدَةُ الكَلَأِ ‡ Land of which the herbage is much eaten by cattle. (A.)
جُهَادَى: see جَهْدٌ.
جُهَيْدَى: see جَهْدٌ.
جَاهِدٌ [Striving, labouring, or toiling;, &c.: see 1. Hence,] سَيْرُنَا جَاهِدٌ [Our journeying is laborious]. (TA in art. اخو.) And جَهْدٌ جَاهِدٌ [Intense labour or exertion, or the like: or severe difficulty or distress, &c.]: an intensive expression, (Ḳ, TA,) like شِعْرٌ شَاعِرٌ and لَيْلٌ لَائِلٌ. (TA.)
† Eagerly desiring [food]; longing for [it]: (JK, Ṣ:) pl. أَجْهَادٌ. (JK.)
غَرْثَانُ جَاهِدٌ ‡ Hungry and greedy, leaving no food. (A.)
مُجْهَدٌ A man thrown into a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, inconvenience, trouble, or fatigue. (L.)
هُوَ مُجْهَدُ لَكَ He is one who takes the course prescribed by prudence, precaution, or sound judgment, for thee; syn. مُحْتِيطٌ. (L.) And نَصِيحٌ مُجْهِدٌ A sincere, or faithful, and careful, adviser, or counsellor. (L.)
رَجُلٌ مُجْهِدٌ A man in a state of difficulty, embarrassment, distress, affliction, inconvenience, trouble or fatigue: possessing little property; poor. (L.)
And A man whose beast is weak by reason of fatigue. (L.)
مَجْهُودٌ Severely affected, harassed, embarrassed, distressed, afflicted, troubled, inconvenienced, fatigued, or wearied: (Ṣ, Mgh, L:) distressed, or afflicted, by disease or difficulty: (JK:) afflicted with drought, barrenness, or dearth; or with drought, and dryness of the earth: (L:) and angry. (JK.)
A hard, difficult, strait, or distressful, state of life. (TA.)
‡ Milk deprived of its butter (Ṣ, A) entirely: (Ṣ:) or mixed with water: (Mṣb:) or diluted so as to consist for the most part of water; and in like manner, broth: (A:) or churned so that its butter is extracted and it is rendered sweet and pleasant: and used as meaning eagerly desired, or longed for, and drunk without its occasioning disgust, by reason of its sweetness and pleasantness: (Mṣb:) or eagerly desired, or longed for; and so food in general: (JK, L:) or eagerly desired, or longed for, and drunk with perseverance, on account of its pleasantness and sweetness. (L.)
See also جَهْدٌ, in six places.