جهد جهر جهز
جَهَرَ, (A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. جَهْرٌ and جِهَارٌ, (Er-Rághib, TA,) It (a thing, A, Mṣb) was, or became, plain, apparent, conspicuous, open, or public; syn. ظَهَرَ, (A, Mṣb,) and بَدَا, (TA,) and عَلَنَ: (Ḳ:) or the radical signification is, it (a thing) was, or became, exceedingly plain to be perceived, either by the sense of sight or by that of hearing. (Er-Rághib, TA.) [Accord. to some, when relating to what is visible, it is tropical; and when relating to what is audible, proper: but if so, it seems to be so much used in the former sense as to be, in that sense, conventionally regarded as proper. See also جَهْرَةٌ.]
جَهُرَ, aor. ـُ [inf. n., app., جَهَارَةٌ and جُهُورَةٌ,] He (a man, TA) was, or became, great, or bulky, (Ḳ, TA,) [and therefore a conspicuous object,] before the eyes of the beholder. (TA.) [And He was, or became, pleasing, or goodly, in aspect: see جَهَارَةٌ, below.]
Also, (A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. جَهَارَةٌ, (A, Mṣb,) It (the voice) rose [so as to be plainly heard]; was, or became, high, or loud. (A, Mṣb,* Ḳ.)
Also, (Ṣ,) inf. n. جَهَارَةٌ, (TA,) He, (a man) was, or became, high, or loud, of voice. (Ṣ, TA.)
جِبِر aor. ـَ, (Mṣb,) inf. n. جَهَرٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) He (a man) was unable to see in the sun. (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA.) And in like manner said of the eye. (Ḳ.)
جَهَرَهُ, (Mṣb, TA,) inf. n. جَهْرٌ; (TA;) and جَهَرَ بِهِ; (A, Mṣb;) andاجهرهُ↓, (A, Mṣb, TA,) [andاجهر↓ بِهِ;] andجَهْوَرَهُ↓; (TA;) He made it plain, apparent, conspicuous, open, or public. (A, Mṣb, TA.)
جَهَرَ الكَلَامَ, and جَهَرَبِهِ; (Ḳ;) andاجهرهُ↓, inf. n. إِجْهَارٌ; (Ṣ;) andاجهر↓ بِهِ; (Ḳ;) andجَهْوَرَ↓; (TA;) and جَهَرَ بِالقَوْلِ, and بِدُعَائِهِ, and بِصَلَاتِهِ, (TA,) and بِقِرَآءَتِهِ, (Ṣgh, Mṣb, TA,) aor. ـَ, inf. n. جَهْرٌ and جِهَارٌ; (TA;) andاجهر↓ بقرآءته; (Ṣgh, Mṣb, TA;) He uttered the speech, and the saying, and his supplication, and his prayer, and his recitation, with a plain, or an open, voice; openly; publicly: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA:) or جَهَرَ بِكَلَامِهِ, (A,) and بِالقَوْلِ, andجَهْوَرَ↓; (Ṣ;) and بِقِرَآءَتِهِ; (A;) he uttered his speech, and the saying, and his recitation, with a raised, or loud, voice; aloud: (Ṣ, A:) and جَهَرَ الصَّوْتَ he raised the voice [so as to make it plainly heard]. (Ḳ.)
جَهَرَ بِالمَعَاصِى, andاجهر↓, andجاهر↓, he made known the acts of disobedience that he had committed, by talking of them: he who does so is termedمُجَاهِرٌ↓ بِالمُعَاصِى, and simply مُجَاهِرٌ. (TA.) Andاجهر↓ مَا فِى صَدْرِهِ He revealed what was in his bosom. (A.) Andجَهْوَرَ↓ الحَدِيثَ بَعْدَ مَا هَيْنَمَهُ He revealed the story after he had concealed it. (A.) Andاجهر↓ الأَمْرَ He made the case, or affair, notorious. (TA.)
Also جَهَرَهُ He discovered it (Ḳ, TA) ocularly. (TA.)
He saw him (a man) without any veil (Ḳ, TA) intervening; (TA;) as alsoاجتهرهُ↓: (Ḳ:) or he looked towards him, or regarded him. (Ḳ.) You say, مَا فِى الحَىِّ أَحَدٌ تَجْهَرَهُ عَيْنِى There is not in the tribe any one whom my eye regards as worthy of notice or respect by reason of his greatness therein; syn. تَأْخُذُهُ. (TA.) Andاجتهر↓ القَوْمُ فُلَانًا The people looked towards such a one without any veil intervening between them and him. (TA.)
He treated him, or regarded him, with reverence, veneration, respect, or honour: (Ḳ:) or (TA) he regarded him as great in his eyes: (Ḳ, TA:) he saw him to be great in aspect, or appearance; (Ṣ;) as alsoاجتهرهُ↓ (Ṣ, Ḳ) andاستجرهُ↓: (A:) he was pleased with his beauty, and his form, or appearance, or state of apparel or the like; as alsoاجتهرهُ↓: (Lḥ,* Ḳ:) or he pleased him by his beauty and form or appearance &c.: (A:) or it pleased him by its beauty; as alsoاجتهرهُ↓. (TA.)
He saw it (an army, Ṣ, A, Ḳ, and a people, TA) to be numerous in his eyes; as alsoاجتهرهُ↓. (Ṣ A, Ḳ.)
جَهَرَ البِئْرَ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ, inf. n. جَهْرٌ, (TA,) He cleared out the well, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) and took forth from it the black fetid mud that it contained; as alsoاجترها↓: (Ṣ:) or both signify he entirely, or nearly, exhausted the well of its water: (Ḳ:) or the former, he reached the water of the well, (Ḳ, TA,) in digging: or so جَهَرَ alone: (TA:) and accord. to Akh, جَهَرْتُ الرَّكِيَّةَ signifies I cleared out the mud that the water covered in the well, so that the water appeared and became clear. (Ṣ.) ʼÁïsheh said, describing her father,اجتهر↓ دُفُنَ الرَّوَآءِ, lit., He cleared out the filled-up wells of abundant water so as to make the water well forth; alluding to his rectifying affairs that had become disordered. (TA from a trad.)
جَهَرْنَاهُمْ We came to them in the morning, at the time called الصَّبَاح, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ, TA,) when they were inadvertent. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.)
جَهَرَ الأَرْضَ He traversed the land (Ṣ, Ḳ) without knowledge. (Ṣ.)
جَهَرَ السِّقَآءَ He shook the milk-skin to make butter, (Fr, Ṣ, Ḳ,) and took forth its butter. (Fr, TA.)
جَهَرَتِ الشَّمْسُ المُسَافِرَ The sun dazzled the eye, and confused the sight, of the traveller; syn. أَسْدَرَتْ عَيْنَهُ. (Ḳ.)
جاهر: see 1.
[Its inf. n.] مُجَاهَرَةٌ signifies The fighting [with any one] face to face: and the showing open enmity, or hostility, with any one: and the reading, or reciting, a thing aloud: and the speaking loudly. (KL.) You say, جاهر بِالعَدَاوَةِ, (Mṣb,) inf. n. مُجَاهَرَةٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb) and جِهَارٌ, (Mṣb,) He showed open enmity or hostility, with another. (Ṣ,* Mṣb.) And جَاهَرْتُهُمْ بِالأَمْرِ I acted openly with them in the affair, or case; syn. عَالَنْتُهُمْ بِهِ. (JK.) [And جاهرهُ He treated him openly with enmity &c.]
جَاهَرَهُمْ بِالأَمْرِ, (TA,) inf. n. مُجَاهَرَةٌ and جِهَارٌ, (Ḳ,) [is explained as signifying] He vied with them, or strove to overcome or surpass them, in the affair, or case. (Ḳ,* TA.) [But غالبهم, in the TA, and المُغَالَبَةُ, in the Ḳ, are here evidently mistranscriptions for عَالَنَهُمْ and المُعَالَنَةُ.]
see 1, in eight places.
اجهر also signifies He begat sons goodly in stature (IAạr, Ḳ) and in aspect, (IAạr, TA,) or in cheeks: (Ḳ:) or, a squint-eyed son. (IAạr, Ḳ.)
[تَجَاهُرٌ signifies The showing oneself openly: and acting openly, or being open in one's conduct or converse, with others. You say,] تَجَاهَرُوا بِالعَدَاوَةِ They showed open enmity, or hostility, one with another; syn. تَبَادَوْابِهَا. (Ṣ in art. بدو.)
[And تجاهر He feigned himself unable to see in the sun: see the part. n., below.]
see 1, in eight places.
استجهرهُ: see 1.
Also He took it forth. (TA from a trad.)
Q. Q. 1. جَهْوَرَ
جَهْوَرَ: see 1, in four places.
جَهْرًا: see جَهْرَةٌ, in two places.
جُهْرٌ: see جَهَارَةٌ, in six places.
جَهِرٌ: see جَهِيرٌ, in two places.
جَهْرَةٌ A thing that is plain, apparent, conspicuous, open, or public. (Ḳ.) You say, رَآهُ جَهْرَةً (Ṣ, A, &c.) He saw him, or it, [plainly,] without the intervention of any veil: (TA:) andرآه جِهَارًا↓ [signifies the same: or] he saw him, or it, with exceeding plainness: (Er-Rághib, TA:) or the former signifies he saw him, or it, with his eyes, ocularly, or before his eyes, (Ṣ, A, Bḍ in ii. 52, Mṣb,) without anything intervening: (Ṣ:) so in the Ḳur. [ii. 52], حَتَّى نَرَى ٱللّٰهَ جَهْرَةً: (Ṣ, Bḍ:) and [some say that] جَهْرَةً is here originally an inf. n. of جَهَرْتُ in جَهَرْتُ بِالقِرَآءَةِ, [like جَهْرًا↓,] and metaphorically used in the sense of مُعَايَنَةً: it is in the accus. case as an inf. n.: or it is thus used as a denotative of state relating to the agent or the object: and some readجَهَرَةً↓, as an inf. n. like غَلَبَة, or as pl. of جَاهِرٌ, and as such it is a denotative of state: (Bḍ:) or جَهْرَةً is here from جَهَرْتُ الرَّكِيَّةَ: (Akh, Ṣ:) accord. to Ibn-ʼArafeh, it here signifies unconcealed from us: (TA:) and in the Ḳur. iv. 152, ocularly; not concealed from us by anything. (Ḳ,* TA.)
You say also, كَلَّمَهُ جَهْرَةً [andجَهْرًا↓ He spoke to him plainly, with an open voice, aloud, or publicly]. (Ṣ, TA.)
Andلَقِيَهُ نَهَارًا جِهَارًا↓ andجَهَارًا↓ [He met him in the daytime, openly, or publicly]. (Ḳ.)
جُهْرَةٌ [A blaze covering the face of a horse: or the quality of having such a blaze:] a subst. from أَجْهَرُ applied to a horse. (TA.)
A cast in the eye. (AA, TA. [See also أَجْهَرُ.])
جَهَرَةً: see جَهْرَةٌ.
جَهَارًا and جِهَارًا: see جَهْرَةٌ, in three places.
جَهْوَرٌ: see جَهِيرٌ.
Also, andمُجْتَهَرٌ↓, An army seen to be numerous. (A.)
And the former, Bold; daring: in the Ḳ, erroneously, جَوْهَرٌ↓. (TA.)
جَهِيرٌ (in the TA, here,جَهِرٌ↓, but in another place, جَهِيرٌ,) High, loud, or vehement, speech; (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA;) as alsoمُجْهَرٌ↓ andجَهْوَرِىٌّ↓: (Ḳ:) and so applied to the voice; (Mṣb, TA;) as alsoجَهْوَرِىٌّ↓. (A, TA.) Also, andمُجْهَرٌ↓ (TA) andجَهْوَرِىٌّ↓ (A, TA) andجَهْوَرٌ↓ (A) and جَهِيرُ الصَّوْتِ (Ṣ, A) andجَهْوَرِىُّ↓ الصَّوْتِ, (Ṣ,) A man having a high, loud, or strong voice. (Ṣ, A, TA.)
A man (Ṣ, A) of pleasing, or goodly, aspect; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) as alsoجَهِرٌ↓: (Ḳ:) fem. of the former with ة: (Ṣ:) beautiful: (Ḳ:) of goodly aspect, who pleases the beholder by his beauty: and a face of goodly, or beautiful, fairness: (TA:) andأَجْهَرُ↓ a man (TA) of goodly aspect, (Ḳ, TA,) and of goodly and perfect body. (AA, Ḳ, TA.)
Also, (Ḳ,) or جَهِيرٌ لِلْخَيْرِ and لِلْمَعْرُوفِ, (A,) Adapted to, or constituted for, goodness: (A, Ḳ:) because he who beholds him desires his beneficence: (TA:) pl. جُهَرَآءُ. (A, Ḳ.)
Also Milk not mixed with water: (Fr, Ṣ, Ḳ:) or from which the butter has been taken forth. (TA.)
جَهَارَةٌ [an inf. n. (see جَهُرَ)] Pleasingness, or goodliness, of aspect; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) as alsoجُهُورَةٌ↓ (Ḳ) andجُهْرٌ↓: (TA:) [and a quality pleasing to behold: for] Abu-n-Nejm says,
* وَأَرَى البَيَاضَ عَلَى النِّسَآءِ جَهَارَةً *
[And I regard fairness in women as a quality pleasing to behold]: (Ṣ:) andجُهْرٌ↓ signifies the form, or appearance, or the like, and goodliness of aspect, of a man: (Ḳ:) or what pleases by its beauty, of the form or appearance or the like, of a man, and and goodliness of aspect: (Ṣ:) [and simply aspect, or outward appearance.] You say, بَنُونَ ذَوُو جَهَارةٍ Sons goodly in stature and in aspect: (IAạr, TA:) or in stature and in cheeks: (Ḳ:) but the former is the more agreeable with authority. (TA.) Andمَا أَحْسَنَ جُهْرَ↓ فُلَانٍ How goodly is the form, or appearance, or the like, and the beauty of aspect, of such a one! (Ṣ, A:*) [or simply, the aspect; for] you say also, مَا أَسْوَأَ جُهْرَهُ↓ [How evil is his aspect!]. (A.) And رَجُلٌ حَسَنُ الجَهَارَةِ andالجُهْرِ↓ A man goodly in aspect. (TA.) Andرَأَيْتُ جُهْرَهُ↓ فَعَرَفْتُ سِرَّهُ [I saw his aspect, and so knew his mind]. (A.)
جُهُورَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
فُلَانٌ عَفِيفُ السَّرِيرَةِ وَالجَهِيرَةِ [Such a one is chaste in secret conduct and in public behaviour]. (A.)
جَهْوَرِىٌّ: see جَهِيرٌ, in four places.
جَوْهَرٌ a word of well-known meaning, (Mṣb,) [a coll. gen. n., Jewels; precious stones; gems; pearls: any kind of jewel, precious stone, or gem: and also applied (as in the T, M, Mgh, Mṣb, and Ḳ, voce تِبْرٌ, q. v.,) to native ore:] any stone from which is extracted, or elicited, anything by which one may profit: (Ḳ:) n. un. with ة: (Ṣ:) [pl. جَوَاهِرُ:] it is of the measure فَوْعَلُ, (Mṣb,) and is from الجَهْرُ signifying a thing's “becoming exceedingly plain to be perceived by the sense of sight:” (Er-Rághib, TA:) or it is of Persian origin, (TA,) arabicized, (Ṣ, TA,) [from غَوْهَرْ,] accord. to most persons. (TA.)
جَوْهَرُ سَيْفٍ The diversified wavy marks, streaks, or grain, of a sword; syn. فِرِنْدٌ. (T and Ḳ voce فِرِنْدٌ.)
جَوْهَرُ شَىْءٍ [The essence of a thing; or that whereby a thing is what it is; the substance of a thing: the constituent of a thing; the material part thereof;] that upon which the natural constitution of a thing is as it were based; or of which its natural constitution is made to be; [or, as IbrD thinks to be meant in the Ḳ, the collective parts and materials of a thing, of which its natural constitution is moulded;] expl. by مَاوُضِعَتْ عَلَيْهِ جِبِلَّتُهُ, (Ḳ,) or, as in some Lexicons, [as the JK and the Mṣb,] مَا خُلِقَتْ عَلَيْهِ جِبِلَّتُهُ [which is virtually the same]: (TA:) الجَوْهَرُ and الذَّاتُ and المَاهِيَّةُ and الحَقِيقَةُ are all syn. terms; and the first has other significations; but in the classical language it signifies الأَصْلُ, i. e., أَصْلُ المُرَكَّبَاتِ [the original of compound things]; and not what subsists by itself. (Kull.)
[Hence, الجَوْهَرُ الفَرْدُ † The indivisible atom.]
In the conventional language of scholastic theology, جَوْهَرٌ signifies ‡ Substance, as opposed to accident; in which sense, some assert the word to be so much used as to be, in this sense, conventionally regarded as proper. (TA.)
جَوْهَرِىٌّ A jeweller; a seller of جَوْهَر [or جَوَاهِر]. (TA.)
[In scholastic theology, † Of, or relating to, substance, as opposed to accident.]
أَجْهَرُ: see جَهِيرٌ.
Also A man having the eyeball, or globe of the eye, prominent and apparent, or large and prominent; syn. جَاحِظٌ: or resembling such as is termed جاحظ: fem. جَهْرَآءُ. (TA.) And this latter, An eye having the ball, or globe, prominent and apparent, or large and prominent; syn. جَاحِظَةٌ: (Ḳ:) or resembling what is thus termed. (TA.)
Having a pretty cast in the eye: (AA, Ḳ:) fem. as above. (Ḳ.)
That cannot see in the sun; (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ;) applied to a man, (A, Mṣb,) and to a ram: (Ṣ:) fem. as above: (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or weak-sighted in the sun: (Lḥ, TA:) or that cannot see in the daytime; أَعْشَى signifying “that cannot see in the night:” (TA:) and the fem., a woman who closes her eyes in the sun. (A.)
A horse having a blaze that covers his face: fem. as above. (Ḳ.)
Also the fem., Open, bare, land, not concealed by anything: (A:) or plain land, in which are no trees nor hills (Ḳ, TA) nor sands: (TA:) pl. جَهْرَاوَاتٌ. (A, TA.)
And A company (Ṣ, Ḳ) consisting of the distinguished part (TA) of a people: (Ṣ:) the more, or most, excellent persons of a tribe. (Ḳ.) You say, [with reference to distinguished persons,] كَيْفَ جَهْرَاؤُكُمْ How is your company? (Ṣ.)
مِجْهَرٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) andمِجْهَارٌ↓ (Ḳ) A man accustomed to speak with a plain, or an open, voice; openly; or publicly. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
مِجْهَارٌ: see what next precedes.
مَجْهُورٌ بِهِ Notorious; applied to a thing: (TA:) and soمُجْتَهَرٌ↓ applied to a man: (A, TA:) andمُجْهَرٌ↓ plain, apparent, or conspicuous; applied to a thing. (TA.)
الحُرُوفُ المَجْهُورَةُ [The letters that are pronounced with the voice, and not with the breath only; the vocal letters;] the letters (nineteen in number, Ṣ) that are comprised in the saying ظِلُّ قَوٍّ رَبَضٌ إِذْ غَزَا جُنْدُ مُطِيعٌ: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) opposed to المَهْمُوسَةُ: (TA:) so called [accord. to some] because there is a full stress in the place where any one of them occurs, and the breath is prevented from passing with it until the stress is ended with the passage of the voice. (Sb, Ṣ.)
مَآءٌ مَجْهُورٌ Water which, having been buried in the earth, has been drawn until it has become sweet. (TA.)
مَجْهُورَةٌ A well (بِئْرٌ) cleared out, and cleansed from the black fetid mud which it had contained. (Ṣ.)
And Wells frequented [and in use], (Ḳ,) whether their water be sweet or salt. (TA.)
مُجَاهِرٌ: see, above, جَهَرَ بِالمَعَاصِى.
مُتَجَاهِرٌ Feigning himself أَجْهَر; as in the saying, cited by Th,
* كَالنَّاظِرِ المُتَجَاهِرِ *
[Like the looker that feigns himself unable to see in the sun]. (TA.)