نفز نفس نفش
نَفُسَ, aor. ـُ, inf. n. نَفَاسَةٌ (Ṣ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ) and نِفَاسٌ and نَفسٌ (Ḳ) and نُفُوسٌ; (TA;) andأَنْفَسَ↓, (M, A, Mṣb,) inf. n. إِنْفَاسٌ; (A, Mṣb;) It was, or became, high in estimation, of high account, or excellent; (M, Mṣb, TA;) [highly prized; precious, or valuable;] and therefore, (TA,) was desired with emulation, or in much request: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) and the↓ latter verb, said of property, it was, or became, loved, and highly esteemed. (TA.)
نَفِسَ بِهِ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. نَفَسٌ (M) [and app. نَفْسٌ as will be shown below] and نَفَاسَةٌ and نَفَاسِيَةٌ, which last is extr., (M, TA,) He was, or became avaricious, tenacious, or niggardly, of it, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) because of its being in high estimation, or excellent. (Mṣb.) Hence the saying in the Ḳur, [xlvii. 40,] فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ [app. meaning He is only avaricious from his avarice.] (TA.) You say, نَفِسَ عَلَيْهِ بِالشَّىْءِ, (M,) or عَنْهُ [in the place of عليه], (TA,) He was, or became, avaricious, &c., of the thing, towards him, or withholding it from him. (M, TA.) And نَفِسَ عَلَيْهِ الشَّىْءَ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, TA,) and بِالشَّىْءِ, (M,) inf. n. نَفَاسَةٌ. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) He was, or became, avaricious, &c., of the thing, towards him, and thought him not worthy of it, and was not pleased at its coming to him: (TA:) or [simply] he thought him not worthy of it: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) as alsoنافسهُ↓ فِيهِ; of which last verb we have an ex. in the phrase تُنَافِسُ دُنْيَا, used by a poet in speaking of the tribe of Kureysh, meaning either تُنَافِسُ فِى دُنْبَا [they think others not worthy of worldly good]. or تُنَافسُ أَهْلَ دُنْيَا [they think the possessors of worldly good unworthy thereof]. (M.) [See also 3, below.] You say also, نَفِسْتَ عَلَىَّ بِخَيْرٍ, (A, Ḳ,) or بِخَيْرٍ قَلِيل, (Ṣ,) and نَفِسْتَ عَلَىَّ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا, (A,) inf. n. نَفْسٌ and نَفَاسَةٌ, (A,) Thou enviedst me (Ṣ, A, Ḳ) good, (A, Ḳ,) or a little good, (Ṣ,) and much good, (A.) and didst not consider me worthy of it. (A.) And فُلَانٌ مَا يَتَنَغَّسُ عَلَيْنَا الغَنِيمَةَ وَالظَّفَرَ [app. meaning Such a one does not envy us the spoil and the victory.] (A, in continuation of what here immediately precedes.) And مَا هٰذَا النَّفَسُ What is this envying? (A, TA.)
نُفِسَتْ; (Ṣ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ;) and نَفِسَتْ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) as some of the Arabs say, (Mṣb.) aor. ـَ, (Mṣb, Ḳ:) inf. n. نِفَاسٌ and نِفَاسةٌ (Ṣ, M) and نَفَسٌ, (M, TA,) or the first of these ns. is a simple subst.; (Mṣb;) ‡ She (a woman) brought forth; (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) and نُفِسَتْ وَلَدًا [she brought forth a child]: (Th, M:) and نُفِسَتْ بِوَلَدِهَا [she brought forth her child]. (A.) You say also, وَرِث فُلَانٌ هٰذَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْفَسَ فُلَانٌ, meaning, Such a one inherited this before such a one was born. (Ṣ.)
Also, both these verbs, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) or the latter, نَفِسَتْ, only, (Az, Mgh, TA,) or the latter is the more common, (Ḳ.) the former, which is related on the authority of Aṣ, not being well known, (Mṣb,) ‡ She (a woman) menstruated. (Az, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ.) [In the CK, a confusion is made by the omission of a و before the verb which explains this last signification.] This signification and that next preceding it are from نَفْسٌ meaning “blood.” (Mgh.)
نَفَسْتُهُ بِنَفْسِ ‡ I smote him with an [evil or envious] eye. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.)
نفّسهُ فِيهِ, or بِهِ: see 4.
نفّس كُرْبَتَهُ, (A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,*) and نفّس عَنْهُ كُرْبَتَهُ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. تَنْفِيسٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) and [quasi-inf. n.] نَفَسٌ, (Ḳ,) ‡ He (God) removed, or cleared away, his grief, or sorrow, or anxiety: (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ *:) and نفّس عَنْهُ signifies the same; (M, Mgh;) and He made his circumstances ample and easy; (M, TA;) and he (a man) eased him, or relieved him, syn. رَفَّهَ: (Ṣ, TA:) and also, this last phrase, he granted him a delay: the objective compliment being omitted: and نَفِّسْنِى is used as meaning grant thou to me a delay: or, elliptically, نَفِّسْ كَرْبِى or غَمِّى [remove thou my grief, &c.]. (Mgh.)
[Hence] حَرْفُ تَنْفِيسٍ, applied to the prefix سَ [and its variants سَوْفَ &c.], meaning A particle of amplification; because changing the aor. from the strait time which is the present, to the ample time, which is the future. (Mughnee, in art. س.)
نفّس القَوْسَ ‡ He cracked the bow: (Kr. M:) [see 5:] accord. to ISh, he put (حَطَّ) its string [upon the bow]. (TA.)
نافس فِى الشَّىْءِ, (Ṣ, Ḳ.*) inf. n. مُنَافَسَةٌ and نِفَاسٌ, (Ṣ,) He desired the thing, [or aspired to it.] with generous emulation; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as alsoتنافس↓: (Ḳ:) and نافس صَاحِبَهُ فِيهِ [he vied with his companion in desire for it]: (A:) orتنافسوا↓ فيه signifies they desired it [or aspired to it]: (Ṣ:) or they vied, one with another, in desiring it: or they desired it with emulation; syn. فَراغَبَوا: (A, TA:) [and يُنَنَافسُ فيه it is emulously desired, or in request; or in great request:] or مُنَافَسَهٌ andتَنَافُسٌ↓ signify the desiring to have a thing, and to have it for himself exclusively of any other person; from نَفِيسٌ, signifying a thing “good, or goodly, or excellent, in its kind:” (TA:) and تَنَافَسْنَا ذٰلِكَ الأَمْرَ and تنافسنا فيه we envied one another for that thing, and strove for priority in attaining it. (M.) See also تَفِسَ عَلَيْهِ الشَّىْءَ, with which نَافَسَهُ فِيهِ is syn. (M.)
انفس: see نَفُسَ, in two places.
انفسهُ It (a thing, TA) pleased him, (Ḳ, TA,) and made him desirous of it: (TA:) or became highly esteemed by him. (IḲṭṭ.)
أَنْفَسَنى فِيهِ He made me desirous of it; (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ:) as also تَفَّسَنِى فيه, (IAạr, M, TA,) or بِهِ. (So in my copy of the A.)
مَا أَنْفَسَهُ How powerful is his evil, or envious, eye! (Lḥ, M.)
تنفّس [He breathed] is said of a man and of every animal having lungs: (Ṣ:) [or it signifies] he drew (اِسْتَمَدَّ) breath: (M:) or [he respired, i. e.] he drew breath with the air-passages in his nose; to his inside, and emitted it. (Mṣb.) You say also, تنفّس الصُّعَدَآءَ [He sighed: see also art. صعد]. (Ṣ.)
‡ He (a man) emitted wind from beneath him. (TA.)
Also, (TA,) or تنفّس فِى الإِنَآءِ, (Ḳ,) ‡ He drank (Ḳ, TA) from the vessel (TA) with three restings between draughts, and separated the vessel from his mouth at every such resting: (Ḳ, TA.) and, contr., the latter phrase, † he drank [from the vessel] without separating it from his mouth: (Ḳ, TA:) which latter mode of drinking is disapproved. (TA.)
Also تنفّس † He lengthened in speech; he spoke long; for when a speaker takes breath, it is easy to him to lengthen his speech; and تنفس فِى الكَلَامِ signifies the same. (TA.)
‡ It (said of the day, M, A, and of the dawn, A, and of other things, M) became extended; (M;) it became long; (M, A;) or, said of the day, accord. to Lḥ, it advanced so that it became noon: (M:) or it increased: (Ṣ:) and it extended far: and hence it is said of life, meaning either it became protracted, and extended far, or it became ample: (M:) and, said of the dawn, it shone forth, (Akh, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) and extended so that it became clear day: (Fr, TA:) or it broke, so that things became plain in consequence of it: (TA:) or it rose: (Mujáhid:) or its dusty hue shone at the approach of a gentle wind. (Bḍ, lxxxi. 18.) You say also, تنفّس بِهِ العُمُرُ ‡ [Life became long, or protracted, &c., with him]. (A.) And تنفّست دِجْلَةُ † The water of the Tigris increased. (TA.)
تنفّس المَوْجُ ‡ The waves sprinkled the water. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
تنفّست القَوْسُ ‡ The bow cracked. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ.) It is only the stick that is not split in twain that does so; and this is the best of bows. And تنفّس in the same sense is said of an arrow. (M.)
[تنفّس عَلَيْهِ الشَّىْءَ app. signifies the same as نَفِسَ عليه الشىء, q. v.]
see 3, throughout.
نَفْسٌ The soul; the spirit; the vital principle; syn. رُوحٌ: (Ṣ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ:) but between these two words is a difference [which must be fully explained hereafter, though ISd says, that it is not of the purpose of his book, the M, to explain it]: (M:) in this sense it is fem.: (Mṣb:)pl. [of pauc.] أَنْفُسٌ and [of mult.] نُفُوسٌ. (M, Mṣb.) You say, خَرَجَتْ نَفْسُهُ [His soul, or spirit, went forth]; (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) and so جَادَتْ نَفْسُهُ. (Mṣb.) And a poet says, not Aboo-Khirásh as in the Ṣ, but Hudheyfeh Ibn-Anas, (IB,)
* نَجَا سَالِمٌ والنَّفْسُ مِنْهُ بِشِدْقِهِ ** وَلَمْ يَنْجُ إِلَّا جَفْنَ سَيْفٍ وَمِئْزَرَا *
i. e., [Sálim escaped when the soul was in the side of his mouth; but he escaped not save] with the scabbard of a sword and with a waist-wrapper. (Ṣ.) In the same sense the word is used in the saying. فِى نَفْسِ فُلَانٍ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ كَذَا وَكَذَا [but this seems rather to mean, It is in the mind of such a one to do so and so]. (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, M.) Some of the lexicologists assert the نَفْس and the رُوح to be one and the same, except that the former is fem., and the latter [generally or often] masc.: others say, that the latter is that whereby is life; and the former, that whereby is intellect, or reason; so that when one sleeps, God takes away his نفس, but not his روح, which is not taken save at death: and the نَفْس is thus called because of its connexion with the نَفَس [or breath]. (IAmb.) Or every man has نَفْسَانِ [two souls]: (I’Ab, Zj:) نَفْسُ العَقْلِ [the soul of intellect, or reason, also called النَّفْسُ النَّاطِقَةُ (see رُوحٌ)], whereby one discriminates, [i. e., the mind,] (I’Ab,) or نَفْسُ التَّمْيِيزِ [the soul of discrimination], which quits him when he sleeps, so that he does not understand thereby, God taking it away: (Zj:) and نَفْسُ الرُّوحِ [the soul of the breath], whereby one lives, (I’Ab,) or نَفْسُ الحَيَاةِ [the soul of life], and when this quits him, the breath quits with it; whereas the sleeper breathes: and this is the difference between the taking away of the نفس of the sleeper in sleep and the taking away of the نفس of the living [at death.] (Zj.) Much has been said respecting the نَفْس and the رُوح; whether they be one, or different: but the truth is, that there is a difference between them, since they are not always interchangeable: for it is said in the Ḳur, [xv. 29 and xxxviii. 72,] وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِى [And I have blown into him of my spirit.]; not مِنْ نَفْسِى: and [v. 116,] تَعْلَمُ مَا فِى نَفْسِى [to be explained hereafter]; not فِى رُوحِى, nor would this expression be well except from Jesus: and [lviii. 9,] وَيَقُولُونَ فِى أَنْفُسِهِمْ [And they say in their souls, or within themselves]: for which it would not be well to say فِى أَرْوَاحِهِمْ: and [xxxix. 57,] أَنْ تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ [That a soul shall say]; for which no Arab would say أَنْ تَقُولَ رُوحٌ: hence, the difference between them depends upon the considerations of relation: and this is indicated by a trad., in which it is said that God created Adam, and put into him a نَفْس and a رُوح; and that from the latter was his quality of abstaining from unlawful and indecorous things, and his understanding, and his clemency, or forbearance, and his liberality, and his fidelity; and from the former, [which is also called النَّفْسُ الأَمَّارَةُ, q. v., in art. أمر,] his appetence, and his unsteadiness, and his hastiness of disposition, and his anger: therefore one should not say that نَفْسٌ is the same as رُوحٌ absolutely, without restriction, nor رُوحٌ the same as نَفْس. (R.) The Arabs also make the discriminative نَفْس to be two; because it sometimes commands the man to do a thing or forbids him to do it; and this is on the occasion of setting about an affair that is disliked: therefore they make that which commands him to be a نفس, and that which forbids him to be as though it were another نفس: and hence the saying, mentioned by Z, فُلَانٌ يُؤَامِرُ نَفْسَيْهِ ‡ [Such a one consults his two souls, or minds]; said of a man when two opinions occur to him. (TA.) [بِنَفْسِى فُلَانٌ is an elliptical phrase sometimes used, for بِنَفْسِى فُلَانٌ مَفْدِىٌّ, which see in art. فدى.]
† A thing's self; (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ, TA;) used as a corroborative; (Ṣ, TA;) its whole, (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, M, TA,) and essential constituent: (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, M, A, Ḳ, TA:) pl. as above, أَنْفُسٌ and نُفُوسٌ. (M.) You say, رَأَيْتُ فُلَانًا نَفْسَهُ † I saw such a one himself, (Ṣ,) and جَآءَنِى بِنَفْسِهِ [or, more properly, حَآءَنِى هُوَ بِنَفْسِهِ (see, under the head of بِ, a remark on that preposition when used in a case of this kind, redundantly,)] He came to me himself. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And وَلِىَ الأَمْرَ بِنَفْسِهِ [He superintended, managed, or conducted, the affair in his own person]. (Ḳ, in art. بشر, &c.) And حَدَّثَ نَفْسَهُ [He talked to himself; soliloquized]. (Mṣb, in art. بلو; &c.) And قَتَلَ فُلَانٌ نَفْسَهُ † [Such a one killed himself]: and أَهْلَكَ نَفْسَهُ † made his whole self to fall into destruction. (Aboo-Is-ḥáḳ, M.) And hence, (TA,) from نَفْسُ الشَّىْءِ signifying ذَاتُهُ, (M,) the saying mentioned by Sb, نَزَلْتُ بِنَفْسِ الجَبَلِ † [I alighted in the mountain itself]: and نَفْسُ الجَبَلِ مُقَابِلِى † [The mountain itself is facing me]. (M, TA.) [Hence also the phrase] فِى نَفْسِ الأَمْرِ [meaning † in reality; in the thing itself]: as in the saying, قَلَّلَهُ فِى نَفْسِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ قَلِيلًا فِى نَفْسِ الأَمْرِ † [He held it to be little in his mind though it was not little in reality]. (Mṣb, art. قل.) The words of the Ḳur, [v. 116,] تَعْلَمُ مَا فِى نَفْسِى وَلَا أَعْلَمُ مَا فِى نَفْسِكَ mean † Thou knowest what is in myself, or in my essence, and I know not what is in thyself, or in thine essence: (Bḍ, Ḳ:) or Thou knowest what I conceal (M, Bḍ, Jel) in my نفس [or mind], (Bḍ, Jel,) and I know not what is in thyself, or in thine essence, nor that whereof Thou hast the knowledge, (M.) or what Thou concealest of the things which Thou knowest; (Bḍ, Jel;) so that the interpretation is, Thou knowest what I know, and I know not what Thou knowest: (M:) or نفس is here syn. with عِنْد; and the meaning is, تَعْلَمُ مَا عِنْدِى وَلَا أَعْلَمُ مَا عِنْدَكَ; (Ḳ,* TA;) [i. e., Thou knowest what is in my particular place of being, and I know not what is in thy particular place of being; for] the adverbiality in this instance is that of مَكَانَة, not of مَكَان: (TA:) but the best explanation is that of IAmb, who says that نفس is here syn. with غَيْب; so that the meaning is, Thou knowest غَيْبِى [my hidden things, or what is hidden from me, and I know not thy hidden things, or what Thou hidest]; and the correctness of this is testified by the concluding words of the verse, إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الغُيُوبِ [for Thou art he who well knoweth the hidden things]: (TA:) [and here it must be remarked that] العَيْبُ, which occurs afterwards in the Ḳ as one of the significations of النَّفْسُ, is a mistake for الغَيْبُ, the word used by IAmb in explaining the above verse. (TA.)
† A person; a being; an individual; syn. شَخْصٌ; (Mṣb;) a man, (Sb, Ṣ, M, TA,) altogether, his soul and his body; (TA;) a living being, altogether. (Mgh, Mṣb.) In this sense of شخص it is masc.: (Mṣb:) or, accord to Lḥ, the Arabs said, رَأَيْتُ نَفْسًا وَاحِدَةً † [I saw one person], making it fem.; and in like manner, رَأَيْتُ نَفْسَيْنِ ثِنْتَيْنِ † [I saw two persons]; but they said, رَأَيْتُ ثَلَاثَةَ أَنْفُسٍ † [I saw three persons], and so all the succeeding numbers, making it masc.: but, he says, it is allowable to make it masc. in the sing. and dual., and fem. in the pl.: and all this, he says, is related on the authority of Ks: (M:) Sb says, (M.) they said ثَلَاثَةُ أَنْفُسٍ, (Ṣ, M,) making it masc., (Ṣ,) because they mean by نفس “a man,” (Ṣ, M,) as is shown also by their saying نَفْسٌ وَاحِدٌ: (M:) but Yoo asserts of Ru-beh, that he said ثَلَاثُ أَنْفُسٍ, making نفس fem., like as you say ثَلَاثُ أَعْيُنٍ, meaning, of men; and ثَلَاثَةُ أَشْخُصٍ, meaning, of women: and it is said in the Ḳur, [iv. l, &c.,] اَلَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ † [who created you from one man], meaning, Adam. (M.) You also say, مَا رَأَيْتُ ثَمَّ نَفْسًا † I saw not there any one. (TA.)
† A brother: (IKh, IB:) a copartner in religion and relationship: (Bḍ, xxiv. 61:) a copartner in faith and religion. (Ibn-ʼArafeh.) † It is said in the Ḳur, [xxiv. 61,] فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمْ بُيُوتًا فَسَلِّمُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُمْ And when ye enter houses, salute ye your brethren: (IB:) or your copartners in religion and relationship. (Bḍ.) And in verse 12 of the same chapter. بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ means † Of their copartners in faith and religion. (Ibn-ʼArafeh.)
‡ Blood: (Ṣ, M, A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ:) [or the life-blood: in this sense, fem.:] pl. [of pauc. أَنْفُسٌ and of mult.] نُفُوسٌ: (IB:) so called [because the animal soul was believed by the Arabs, as it was by many others in ancient times, (see Gen. ix. 4, and Aristotle, De Anim. i. 2, and Virgil's Æn. ix. 349.) to diffuse itself throughout the body by means of the arteries: or] because the نَفْس [in its proper sense, i. e. the soul,] goes forth with it: (TA:) or because it sustains the whole animal. (Mgh, Mṣb.) You say, سَالَتْ نَفْسُهُ ‡ [His blood flowed]. (Ṣ.) And نَفْسٌ سَائِلَةٌ ‡ [Flowing blood]. (Ṣ, A, Mgh.) And دَفَقَ نَفْسَهُ ‡ He shed his blood. (A, TA.)
‡ The body. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.)
† [Sometimes it seems to signify The stomach. So in the present day. You say, لَعِبَتْ نَفْسُهُ, meaning He was sick in the stomach. See غَثَتْ نَفْسُهُ, in art. غثى; and مَذِرَتْ مَعِدَتُهُ and نَفْسُهُ, in art. مذر.]
† [The pudendum: so in the present day: in the Ḳ, art. حشو, applied to a woman's vulva.]
[From the primary signification are derived several others, of attributes of the rational and animal souls; and such are most of the signification here following.]
† Knowledge. (A.) [See, above, an explanation of the words cited from ch. v. verse 116 of the Ḳur-án.]
† Pride: (A, Ḳ, TA:) and self-magnification; syn. عِزَّةٌ. (A, Ḳ.)
† Disdain, or scorn. (A, Ḳ.)
† Purpose, or intention: or strong determination: syn. هِمَّةٌ. (A, Ḳ.)
† Will, wish, or desire. (A, Ḳ.)
[Copulation: see 3, art رود.]
[† Stomach, or appetite.]
‡ An [evil or envious] eye, (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ, TA,) that smites the person or thing at which it is cast: pl. أَنْفُسٌ. (TA.) [See 1, last signification.] So in a trad., in which it is said, that the نَمْلَة and the حُمَة and the نَفْس are the only things for which a charm is allowable. (TA.) You say, أَصَابَتْ فُلَانًا نَفْسٌ ‡ [An evil or envious eye smote such a one]. (Ṣ.) And Moḥammad said, of a piece of green fat that he threw away, كَانَ فِيهَا سَبْعَةُ أَنْفُسٍ, meaning, ‡ There were upon it seven [evil or envious] eyes. (TA.)
† Strength of make, and hardiness, of a man: and † closeness of texture, and strength, of a garment or piece of cloth. (M.)
Punishment. (A, Ḳ.) Ex. وَيُحَذِّرُكُم ٱللّٰهُ نَفْسَهُ, (Ḳ,) in the Ḳur, [iii. 27 and 28, meaning, And God maketh you to fear his punishment]; accord. to F; but others say that the meaning is, Himself. (TA.)
A quantity (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) of قَرَظ, and of other things, with which hides are tanned, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) sufficient for one tanning: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) or enough for two tannings: (TA:) or a handful thereof: (M:) pl. أَنَفُسٌ. (M.) You say, هَبْ لِى نفْسًا مِنْ دِبَاغٍ [Give thou to me a quantity of material for tanning sufficient for one tanning, or for two tannings, &c.]. (Ṣ.)
نَفَسٌ [Breath;] what is drawn in by the airpassages in the nose, [or by the mouth,] to the inside, and emitted, (Mṣb;) what comes forth from a living being in the act of تَنَفُّس. (Mgh:) or the exit of wind from the nose and the mouth: (M:) pl. أَنْفَاسٌ. (Ṣ, M, A. Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
A gentle air: pl. as above. (M, Mṣb.) You say also, نَفَسُ الرِّيحِ [The breath of the wind]: and نَفَسُ الرَّوْصَةِ the sweet [breath or] odour [of the meadow, or of the garden, &c.]. (TA.)
[Hence, app., its application in the phrase] نَفَسَ السَّاعَةِ [The blast of the last hour; meaning,] the end of time. (Kr, M.)
[Hence also, † Speech: and kind speech: (see an ex. voce أَمْلَحَ:) so in the present day.]
[And † Voice, or a sweet voice, in singing: so in the present day.]
A gulp. or as much as is swallowed at once in drinking: (Ṣ, L, Ḳ:) but this requires consideration; for in one نَفَس a man takes a number of gulps, more or less according to the length or shortness of his breath, so that we [sometimes] see a man drink [the contents of] a large vessel in one نَفَس, at a number of gulps: (L:) [therefore it signifies sometimes, if not always, a draught, or as much as is swallowed without taking breath:] pl. as above. (Ṣ.) You say, إِكْرَعْ فِى الإِتَآءِ نَفَسًا أَوْ نَفَسَيْنِ ‡ [Put thou thy mouth into the vessel and drink] a gulp, or two gulps: [or a draught, or two draughts:] and exceed not that. (Ṣ;) And شَربْتُ نَفَسًا وَأَنْفَاسًا ‡ [I drank a gulp, and gulps: or a draught, and draughts]. (A.) And فُلَانٌ شَرِبَ الإِنَآءَ كُلَّهُ عَلَى نَفَسٍ وَاحِدٍ ‡ [Such a one drank the whole contents of the vessel at one gulp or at one draught]. (L.)
‡ Every resting between two draughts: (M, TA:) [pl. as above.] You say, شَرِبَ بِنَفَسٍ وَاحِدٍ ‡ [He drank with one resting between draughts]. (A.) And شَربَ بِثَلَاثَةِ أَنْفَاسٍ ‡ [He drank with three restings between draughts]. (A. Ḳ.) [And hence,] شَرَابٌ ذُو نَفَسِ ‡ Beverage in which is ampleness, [so that one pauses while drinking it, to take breath,] and which satisfies thirst. (IAạr, Ḳ.) And شَرَابٌ غَيْرُ ذِى نَفَسٍ ‡ Beverage of disagreeable taste, (A, Ḳ,*) changed in taste and odour, (Ḳ,) in drinking which one does not take breath (A, Ḳ) when he has tasted it; (Ḳ;) taking a first draught, as much as will keep in the remains of life, and not returning to it. (TA.)
[And hence it is said that] نَفَسٌ signifies † Satisfaction, or the state of being satisfied, with drink; syn. دِىَّ. (IAạr, Ḳ.)
[Hence also.] ‡ Plenty, and redundance. So in the saying إِنّ فِى المَآءِ نَفَسًا لِى وَلَكَ [Verily in the water is plenty, and redundance, for me and for thee]. (Lḥ, M.)
‡ A wide space: (TA:) ‡ a distance (A.) You say, بَيْنَ الفَر يقَيْن نَفَسٌ ‡ Between the two parties is a wide space. (TA.) And بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَهٌ نَفَسٌ ‡ Between me and him is a distance. (A.)
‡ Ample scope for action &c.; and a state in which is ample scope for action &c., syn. سعةٌ, (Ṣ, M, A, Mgh, Ḳ,) and فُسْحَةٌ, (A, Ḳ,) in an affair. (Ṣ, M, A, Ḳ.) You say, لَك فِى هٰذَا نَفَسٌ [There is ample scope for action &c. for thee in this.] (Mgh.) And أَنْتَ فِى نَفِس مِنْ أَمْرِكَ ‡ [Thou art in a state in which is ample scope for action &c. with respect to thine affair.] (Ṣ, M.) And إِعْملْ وَأَنْتَ فِى نَفَسٍ مِنْ أَمْرِكَ ‡ Work thou while thou art in a state in which is ample scope for action &c. (فِى فُسْحَةٍ وَسَعَة) with respect to thine affair, before extreme old age, and diseases, and calamities. (TA.) See also نُفْسَةٌ.
‡ Length. (M.) So in the saying زِدْنى نَفَسًا فِى أَجَلِى ‡ [Add thou to me length in my term of life]: (M:) or lengthen thou my term of life. (TA.) You say also,فِى عُمُرِهِ مُتَنَفَّسٌ↓ ‡ [In his life is length: see 5]. (A, TA.)
The pl., in the accus. case, also signifies † Time after time. So in the saying of the poet,
* عَيْنَىَّ جُودَا عَبْرَةً أَنْفَاسَا *
[O my two eyes, pour forth a flow of tears time after time]. (Ṣ.)
نَفَسٌ is also a subst. put in the place of the proper inf. n. of نَفَّسَ; and is so used in the two following sayings, (Ḳ, TA,) of Moḥammad. (TA.) لَا تَسبُوُّا الرِّيحَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ نَفَسِ الرَّحْمٰنِ, i. e. ‡ [Revile not ye the wind, for] it is a means whereby the Compassionate removes grief, or sorrow, or anxiety, (Ḳ, TA,) and raises the clouds, (TA,) and scatters the rain, and dispels dearth, or drought. (Ḳ, TA.) And أَجِدُ نَفَسَ رَبَِّكُمْ مِنْ قِبَلِ اليَمَنِ ‡ I perceive your Lord's removal of grief, &c., from the direction of El-Yemen: meaning, through the aid and hospitality of the people of El-Medeeneh, who were of El-Yemen; (Ḳ, TA;) i. e., of the Ansár, who were of [the tribe of] El-Azd, from El-Yemen. (TA.) It is [said by some to be] a metaphor, from نَفَسُ الهَوَآءِ, which the act of breathing draws back into the inside, so that its heat becomes cooled and moderated: or from نَفَسُ الرِّيِح, which one scents, so that thereby he refreshes himself: or from نَفَسُ الرَّوْضَةِ. (TA.) You also say, مَا لِى نَفَسٌ, meaning, ‡ There is not for me any removal, or clearing away, of grief. (A.)
It is also used as an epithet, signifying † Long; (AZ, Ḳ;) applied to speech, (Ḳ,) and to writing, or book, or letter. (AZ, Ḳ.)
نُفْسَةٌ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ,) with damm, (Ḳ,) [in a copy of the Ṣ, نَفْسَةٌ,] † Delay; syn. مَهْلَةٌ; (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ;) and ample space, syn. مُتَّسَعٌ. (TA.) Ex. لَكَ فِى هٰذَا الأَمْرِ نُفْسَةٌ † [Thou shalt have, in this affair, a delay, and ample space]. (Ṣ, Mgh,* TA.) See also نَفَسٌ.
[نَفْسِىٌ Relating to the نَفْس, or soul, &c.: vital: and sensual; as alsoنَفْسَانِىٌّ↓.]
نُفَسَآءُ (Th, Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) and نَفَسَآءُ and نَفْسَآءُ (M, Ḳ) ‡ A woman in the state following childbirth: (Ṣ, M,* Mgh,* Mṣb,* Ḳ:) or bringing forth: and pregnant: and menstruating: (Th, M:) and نَافِسٌ signifies the same; (Mṣb;) and soمَنْفُوسَةٌ↓: (A:) [see نُفِسَتْ:] dual نُفَسَاوَانِ; the fem. ء being changed into و as in عُشَرَاوَانِ: (Ṣ:) pl. نِفَاسٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) like as عِشَارٌ is pl. of عُشَرَآءُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the only other instance of the kind, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) and نُفَاسٌ, (M, Ḳ,) which is also the only instance of the kind except عُشَارٌ, (Ḳ,) and نُفَّاسٌ, and نُفَّسٌ and نُفَسٌ (M) and نُفُسٌ (M, Ḳ) and نُفْسٌ (Ḳ) and نُفَسَاوَاتٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and [accord. to analogy, of نَافِسٌ,] نَوَافِسُ. (Ḳ.)
نَفْسَانٌ, or نَفْسَانِىٌّ: see نَفُوسٌ.
نَفْسَانِىٌّ: see نَفْسِىٌّ:
نِفَاسٌ ‡ Childbirth (Ṣ, Ḳ) from نَفْسٌ signifying “blood.” (Mṣb, TA.) See نُفِسَتْ.
Also, ‡ The blood that comes forth immediately after the child: an inf. n. used as a subst. (Mgh.)
A poet says, (namely, Ows Ibn-Hajar, O, in art. طرق,)
* لَنَا صَرْخَةٌ ثُمَّ إِسْكَاتَةٌ ** كَمَا طَرَّقَتْ بِنِفَاسٍ بِكِرْ *
[We utter a cry; then keep a short silence; like as when one that has never yet brought forth experiences resistance and difficulty in giving birth to a child, or young one]; meaning, بِوَلَدٍ. (Ṣ.)
نَفُوسٌ An envious man: (M, TA:) ‡ one who looks with an evil eye, with injurious intent, at the property of others: (M, A,* TA:) as alsoنَفْسَانٌ↓, (TA,) orنَفْسَانِىٌّ↓. (A.)
نَفِيسٌ A thing high in estimation; of high account; excellent; (Lḥ, M, Mṣb, TA;) highly prized; precious; valuable; and therefore (TA) desired with emulation, or in much request; (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) good, goodly, or excellent, in its kind; (TA;) andنَافِسٌ↓ signifies the same, (M,) and so doesمُنْفِسٌ↓, (Lḥ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andمَنْفُوسٌ↓: (Ḳ:) it signifies thus when applied to property, as well as other things; as alsoمَنْفِسٌ↓: (Lḥ, M:) and, when so applied, of which one is avaricious, or tenacious: (M:) orمُنْفِسٌ↓, so applied, abundant; much; (Ḳ;) as alsoمُنْفَسٌ↓: (Fr, Ḳ:) andنَافِسٌ↓, a thing of high account or estimation, and an object of desire: (TA:) this last is also applied, in like manner, to a man; as also نَفِيسٌ: and the pl. [of either] is نِفَاسٌ (M, TA) You also say,أَمْرٌ مَنْفُوسٌ فِيهِ↓, meaning, A thing that is desired. (M.) Andشَىْءٌ مُتَنَافَسٌ↓ فِيهِ A thing emulously desired, or in much request. (A.)
Also, [as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates,] Much property; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) and soمُنْفِسٌ↓. (Ṣ.) You say, لِفُلَانٍ مُنْفِسٌ and نَفِيسٌ Such a one has much property. (Ṣ.) And مَا يَسُرُّنِى بِهٰذَا الأَمْرِ مَنْفِسٌ and نَفِيسٌ [Much property does not rejoice me with this affair]. (Ṣ.)
نَافِسٌ: see نَفِيسٌ, in three places.
‡ Smiting with an evil, or envious, eye. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ.)
The fifth of the arrows used in the game called المَيْسِر; (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) which has five notches; and for which one wins five portions if it be successful, and loses five portions if it be unsuccessful: (Lḥ, M:) or, as some say, the fourth. (Ṣ.)
هٰذَا أَنْفَسُ مَالِى This is the most loved and highly esteemed of my property. (Ṣ, TA.)
بَلَّغَكَ ٱللّٰهُ أَنْفَسَ الأَعْمَارِ ‡ [May God cause thee to attain to the most protracted, or most ample, of lives: see 5]. (A, TA.) And دَارُكَ أَنْفَسُ مِنْ دَارِى ‡ Thy house is more ample, or spacious, than my house: (M:) and the like is said of two places: (M:) and of two lands. (A.) And هٰذَا التَّوْبُ أَنْفَسُ مِنْ هٰذَا ‡ This garment, or piece of cloth, is wider and longer and more excellent than this. (M.) And ثَوْبٌ أَنْفَسُ الثَّوْبَيْنِ ‡ A garment, or piece of cloth, the longer and wider of the two garments, or pieces of cloth. (A.)
مُنْفَسٌ: see نَفِيسٌ; for the latter, throughout.
مُنْفِسٌ: see نَفِيسٌ; for the latter, throughout.
مَنْفُوسٌ: see نَفِيسٌ, in two places.
‡ Brought forth; born. (Ṣ, M, A, Mṣb, Ḳ.) It is said in a trad., مَا مِنْ نَفْسٍ مَنْفُوسَةٍ إِلَّا وَقَذْ كُتِبَ مَكَانُهَا مِنَ الجَنَّةِ أَوِ النَّارِ ‡ [There is not any soul born but its place in Paradise or Hell has been written]. (Ṣ.)
مَنْفُوسَةٌ applied to a woman: see نُفَسَآءُ.
‡ Smitten with an evil, or envious, eye. (M.)
[مُتَنَفَّسٌ A place of passage of the breath.]
فى عُمُرِهِ مُتَنَفَّسٌ: see نَفَسٌ.
مُتَنَفِّسٌ [Breathing;] having breath: (TA:) or having a soul: (so in a copy of the M:) an epithet applied to everything having lungs. (Ṣ, TA.)
غَائِطٌ مُتَنَفِّسٌ ‡ A depressed expanse of land extending far. (A, TA.)
أَنْفٌ مُتَنَفِّسٌ ‡ A nose of which the bone is wide and depressed; or depressed and expanded; or a nose spreading upon the face: syn. أَفْطَسُ. (A, TA.)
شَىْءٌ مُتَنَافَسٌ فِيهِ: see نَفِيسٌ.