, (T, Ṣ, M, &c.,) aor. يَفْدِيهِ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. فِدَآءٌ (T, Ṣ, M, Mgh, Ḳ,) [omitted in my copy of the Mṣb, probably by inadvertence,]) and فَدًى, (Mgh,) or فِدًى, (so in the M, accord. to the TT,) or also both of these, (Fr, T, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the latter of them said by Fr, on one occasion, to be the more common, (T, TA,) [which is the case when it is a subst., like فِدْيَةٌ,] but 'Alee Ibn-Suleymán El-Akhfash [i. e. El-Akhfash El-Asghar] is related to have said that this is not allowable except by poetic license, and El-Kálee says that الفِدَى was used by the Arabs in conjunction with الحِمَى, [see حِمَآءُ, in art. حمى,] but other forms were used in other cases [among which he seems to mention فَدَآء, with fet-h and the lengthened alif, but the words in which I find this expressed are somewhat ambiguous, and are also rendered doubtful by an erasure and an alteration]; (TA;) and ↓افتداهُ, (M,) [whence an ex. in a verse which will be found in what follows,] or بِهِ ↓افتدى (Ḳ, TA) and مِنْهُ, (TA,) [but I do not know افتدى in either of these phrases as having any other than the well-known meaning of فَدَى نَفْسَهُ, which is strangely omitted in the Ḳ;] and know ↓فادِاهُ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. مُفَادَاةٌ and فِدَآءٌ; (Mṣb, TA;) but some explain this differently [as will be shown in what follows]; (T, Mgh, Mṣb, TA;) He gave his ransom; (Ṣ;) he gave a thing, (Ḳ, TA, [اَعْطاهُ in the CK being a mistake for أَعْطَى, without the affixed pronoun,]) or a captive, for him, (TA,) and so liberated him; (Ḳ, TA;) [i. e. he ransomed him;] or he liberated him, or ransomed him, مِنَ الأَسْرِ [from captivity]: (Mgh, Mṣb:) or ↓فاداهُ signifies he loosed him, or set him free, and took his ransom: (Mgh, Mṣb, TA:) or مُفَادَاةٌ signifies the giving a man and taking a man [in exchange]: and فِدَآءٌ, [as inf. n. of فَدَاهُ,] the purchasing him [from captivity or the like]: (Mbr, T, Mgh, Mṣb, TA:) or the preserving a man from misfortune by what one gives by way of compensation for him; as also فَدًى: (Er-Rághib, TA:) you say, فَدَيْتُهُ بِمَالِى I purchased [i. e. ransomed] him with my property, and بِنَفْسِى with myself: (T:) or, accord. to Nuseyr Er-Rázee, the Arabs say, الأَسِيرَ ↓فَادَيْتُ [I ransomed the captive], and فَدَيْتُهُ بِأَبِى وَ أُمِى [I ransomed him in a tropical sense with my father and my mother], and بِمَالٍ [with property], as though thou purchasedst him and freedst him therewith, when he was not a captive; and you may say, فَدَيْتُ الأَسيرَ meaning I freed the captive from the state in which he was, though ↓فَادَيْتُ is better in this sense: as to the reading تَفْدُوهُمْ [in the Ḳur ii. 79], Aboo-Mo'ádh says, it means Ye purchase them from the enemy and liberate them; but the reading ↓تُفَادُوهُمْ, he says, means ye contend with them who are in your hands respecting the price and they so contend with you: (T, TA:) [that ↓افتداهُ is syn. with فَدَاهُ is shown by what here follows:] a poet says,―
[And if a person dead were to be ransomed, assuredly I would ransom him with what minds would not be willing to relinquish]. (M, TA.)* يُفْتَدَى لَفَدَيْتُهُ فَلَوْ كَانَ مَيتٌ ** بِمَا لَمْ تَكُنْ عَنْهُ النُّفُوسُ تَطِيبُ *
[The inf. ns. of the first of these verbs are much used in precative phrases:] they said, فَدًى لَكَ [for فَدَاكَ فَدًى, and therefore virtually meaning فُدِيتَ Mayest thou be ransomed; the ل being لِلتَّبْيِينِ i. e. “ for the purpose of notifying ” the person addressed]: (TA:) and بِى أَ فَدًى لَكَ [for فَدَاكَ أَبِى بِنَفْسِهِ فَدًى, and therefore virtually meaning simply فَدَاكَ أَبِى بِنَفْسِهِ May my father ransom thee with himself; so that it may be well rendered may my father be a ransom for thee]: (Ṣ:) and فِدَآء, with tenween, some of the Arabs pronounce with kesr [to the ء, i. e. they pronounce فِدَآء with the tenween of kesr], peculiarly when it is next to [meaning immediately followed by] the preposition ل, saying فِدَآءٍ لَكَ, because it is indeterminate; they intending thereby the meaning of a prayer; and As has cited [as an ex. thereof] the saying of En-Nábighah [Edh-Dhubyánee],―
[Act gently: may the peoples, all of them, and what I make to be abundant of wealth and of offspring, give themselves as a ransom, or be a ransom, for thee: فِدَآءٍ being app. assimilated to an indeterminate imperative verbal noun such as صَهٍ in the phrase صَهٍ يَا رَجُلُ, which is as though one said اُسْكُتْ سُكُوتًا يَا رَجُلُ; thus meaning here لِيَفْدِكَ: but De Sacy mentions, in his “ Chrest. Arabe, ” see. ed., vol. ii., p. 460, three allowable readings (not the foregoing reading) in this verse, namely, فدآءٌ and فدآءً and فدآءٍ; and adds that what here follows is said by a commentator to be, of several explanations, that which is the right: والقول الآخر وهو الصحيح ان فدآءِ بمعنى ليُفدِكَ فبناه كما بنى الامر وكذلك تَراكِ و دَراكِ لانه بمعنى اترك و ادرك: this, it will be observed, is similar to the explanation which I have offered of فِدَآءٍ لك; for ليُفدِك is app. a typographical mistake for ليَفدِك: and I incline to think that فدآءِ, though supposed to be correct and therefore likened to تَراكِ and دَراكِ, is a mistake of a copyist for فدآءٍ; and the more so because I find in Ahlwardt's “ Divans of the Six Ancient Arabic Poets ” the three readings فِداءٌ and فِداءً and فِداءٍ, but not فِداءِ]. (Ṣ, TA.)* مَهْلًا فِدَآءٍ لَكَ الأَقْوَامُ كُلُّهُمُ ** وَمَا أُثَمِرُ مِنْ مَالٍ وَمِنْ وَلَدِ *
وَفَدَيْنَاهُ بِذِبْحٍ [in the Ḳur xxxvii. 107] means And we made an animal prepared for sacrifice to be a ransom for him, and freed him from slaughter. (T, TA.)―
فَدَتْ نَفْسَهَا مِنْ زَوْجِهَا and ↓افتدت [alone] mean She gave property to her husband so that she became free from him by divorce. (Mṣb, TA.)―
See also what next follows.