علك علم علن
عَلِمَهُ, aor. ـَ, inf. n. عِلْمٌ, He knew it; or he was, or became, acquainted with it; syn. عَرَفَهُ: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or he knew it (عَرَفَهُ) truly, or certainly: (B, TA:) by what is said above, and by what is afterwards said in the Ḳ, العِلْمُ and المَعْرِفَةُ and الشُّعُورُ are made to have one meaning; and this is nearly what is said by most of the lexicologists: but most of the critics discriminate every one of these from the others; and العِلْمُ, accord. to them, denotes the highest quality, because it is that which they allow to be an attribute of God; whereas they did not say [that He is] عَارِفٌ, in the most correct language, nor شَاعِرٌ: (TA:) [respecting other differences between العِلْم and المَعْرِفَة, the former of which is more general in signification than the latter, see the first paragraph of art. عرف: much might be added to what is there stated on that subject, and in explanation of العِلْم, from the TA, but not without controversy:] or عَلِمَ signifies تَيَقَّنَ [i. e. he knew a thing, intuitively, and inferentially, as expl. in the Mṣb in art. يقن]; العِلْمُ being syn. with اليَقِينُ; but it occurs with the meaning of الَمَعْرِفَةُ, like as المَعْرِفَةُ occurs with the meaning of العلْمُ, each being made to import the meaning of the other because each is preceded by ignorance [when not attributed to God]: Zuheyr says, [in his Mo'allakah,]
* وَأَعْلَمُ عِلْمَ اليَوْمِ وَٱلْأَمْسِ قَبْلَهُ ** وَلٰكِنِّنِى عَنْ عِلْمِ مَا فِى غَدٍ عَمِ *
meaning وَأَعْرِفُ [i. e. And I know the knowledge of the present day, and of yesterday before it; but to the knowledge of what will be to-morrow I am blind]: and it is said in the Ḳur [viii. 62], لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمْ اَللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ, meaning لَا تَعْرِفُونَهُمْ اَللّٰهُ يَعْرِفُهُمْ [i. e. Ye know them not, but God knoweth them]; المَعْرِفَة being attributed to God because it is one of the two kinds of عِلْم, [the intuitive and the inferential,] and the discrimination between them is conventional, on account of their different dependencies, though He is declared to be free from the imputation of antecedent ignorance and from acquisition [of knowledge], for He knows what has been and what will be and how that which will not be would be if it were, his عِلْم being an eternal and essential attribute: when عَلِمَ denotes اليَقِين, it [sometimes] has two objective complements; but as syn. with عَرَفَ, it has a single objective complement: (Mṣb:) it has two objective complements in the saying, in the Ḳur [lx. 10], فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ [And if ye know them to be believers]; and [in like manner] they allowed one's saying عَلِمْتُنِى [meaning I knew myself to be], like as they said رَأَيْتُنِى and حَسِبْتُنِى &c.: (TA:) and sometimes it imports the meaning of شَعَرَ, and is therefore followed by بِ: (Mṣb:) [thus] عَلِمَ بِهِ signifies شَعَرَ or شَعُرَ (accord. to different copies of the Ḳ) [i. e. He knew it; as meaning he knew, or had knowledge, of it; was cognizant of it; or understood it: or he knew the minute particulars of it: or he perceived it by means of any of the senses: and sometimes this means he became informed, or apprised, of it: and sometimes, he was, or became, knowing in it]: or in this case, [as meaning شَعَرْتُ بِهِ,] you say, عَلِمْتُهُ and عَلِمْتُ بِهِ [I knew it; &c.]: (Mṣb:) and one says, مَا عَلِمْتُ بِخَبَرِ قُدُومِهِ, meaning مَا شَعَرْتُ [I knew not, &c., the tidings of his coming, or arrival]. (TA.) اعتلمهُ↓, also, signifies عَلِمَهُ [He knew it; &c.]. (Ḳ.) And one saysتَعَلَّمْ↓ in the place of اِعْلَمْ [Know thou; &c.]: ISk says, تَعَلَّمْتُ أَنَّ فُلَانًا خَارِجٌ is a phrase used in the place of عَلِمْتُ [as meaning I knew, or, emphatically, I know, that such a one was, or is, going forth]; adding, [however,] when it is said to thee, اِعْلَمْ أَنَّ زَيْدًا خَارِجٌ [Know thou that Zeyd is going forth], thou sayest قَدْ عَلِمْتُ [lit. I have known, meaning I do know]; but when it is said, تَعَلَّمْ أَنَّ زَيْدًا خَارِجٌ, thou dost not say, قَدْ تَعَلَّمْتُ; (Ṣ:) accord. to IB, these two verbs are not used as syn. except in the imperative forms: (TA:) [or] عَلِمَ الأَمْرَ andتَعَلَّمَهُ↓ are syn. as signifying أَتْقَنَهُ [app. meaning he knew, or learned, the case, or affair, soundly, thoroughly, or well: see art. تقن: but I think it not improbable, though I do not find it in any copy of the Ḳ, that the right reading may be أَيْقَنَهُ, which is syn. with تَيَقَّنَهُ; an explanation of عَلِمَ in the Mṣb, as mentioned above, being تَيَقَّنَ]. (Ḳ, TA.) Andتعالمهُ↓ الجَمِيعُ means عَلِمُوهُ [i. e. All knew him; &c.]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
عَلِمْتُ عِلْمَهُ [lit. I knew his knowledge, or what he knew, app. meaning I tried, proved, or tested, him, and so knew what he knew; and hence I knew his case or state or condition, or his qualities;] is a phrase mentioned by Fr in explanation of رَبَأْتُ فِيهِ. (TA voce رَبَأَ, q. v. See also the explanation of لَأَ خْبُرَنَّ خَبَرَكَ, in the first paragraph of art. خبر: and see غَبَنُوا خَبَرَهَا, in art. غبن.)
عَلِمْتُ is also used in the manner of a verb signifying swearing, or asseveration, so as to have a similar complement; as in the saying,
* وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ لَتَأْتِيَنَّ عَشِيَّةً *
[And I certainly knew that thou wouldst, or that she would, assuredly come in the evening]. (TA in art. شهد.) And يَعْلَمُ ٱللّٰهُ [God knoweth] is a form of asseveration. (IAth, TA voce قَيْرَوَانٌ: see an ex. in art. قير.)
عَلُمَ, agreeably with what is said in the M, which is عَلُمَ هُوَ نَفْسُهُ, accord. to the Ḳ عَلِمَ هُوَ فِى نَفْسِهِ, but the verb in this case is correctly like كَرُمَ, (TA,) He was, or became, such as is termed عَالِم and عَلِيم; (M,* Ḳ,* TA;) meaning he possessed knowledge (العِلْم) as a faculty firmly rooted in his mind: (IJ,* TA:) accord. to IB, i. q.تعلّم↓ [q. v., as intrans.]: and he was, or became, equal to the عُلَمَآء [pl. of عَالِمٌ and of عَلِيمٌ]. (TA.)
عَالَمَهُ فَعَلَمَهُ, aor. ـُ: see 3.
عَلَمَهُ, aor. ـُ and ـِ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. عَلْمٌ, (TA.) signifies He marked it; syn. وَسَمَهُ. (Ḳ.) And one says, عَلَمْتُ عِمَّتِى, meaning I wound my turban upon my head with a mark whereby its mode should be known. (TA.) [See also 4.]
عَلَمَ شَفَتَهُ, aor. ـِ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) inf. n. عَلْمٌ, (Ṣ,) He slit his [upper] lip. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
عَلِمَ, aor. ـَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. عَلَمٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) He (a man, Ṣ) had a fissure in his upper lip: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or in one of its two sides. (Ḳ.)
علّمهُ [He, or it, made him to be such as is termed عَالِم and عَلِيم; i. e., made him to possess knowledge (العِلْم) as a faculty firmly rooted in his mind: and hence, he taught him. And it generally has a second objective complement]. You say, عَلَّمْتُهُ الشَّىْءَ [I made him to know, or taught him, the thing], in which case the teshdeed is [said to be] not for the purpose of denoting muchness [of the action; but see what follows]; (Ṣ;) and عَلَّمْتُهُ الفَاتِحَةَ [I taught him the Opening Chapter of the Ḳur-án], and الصَّنْعَةَ [the art, or craft], &c.; inf. n. تَعْلِيمٌ; (Mṣb;) and علّمهُ العِلْمَ, inf. n. تَعْلِيمٌ and عِلَّامٌ, the latter like كِذَّابٌ; andاعلمهُ↓ إِيَّاهُ; (Ḳ;) both, accord. to the Ḳ, signifying the same [i. e. he taught him knowledge, or science]; but Sb makes a distinction between them, saying that عَلَّمْتُ is like أَذَّنْتُ, and that أَعْلَمْتُ↓ is like آذَنْتُ; and Er-Rághib says that الإِعْلَامُ↓ is particularly applied to quick information; and التَّعْلِيمُ is particularly applied to that which is repeated and much, so that an impression is produced thereby upon the mind of the مُتَعَلِّم: and some say that the latter is the exciting the attention of the mind to the conception of meanings; and sometimes it is used in the sense of الإِعْلَام when there is in it muchness: (TA:) you say,أَعْلَمْتُهُ↓ الخَبَرَ and بِالخْبَرِ [meaning I made known, or notified, or announced, to him, or I told him, or I made him to know, or have knowledge of, the news, or piece of information; I acquainted him with it; told, informed, apprised, advertised, or certified, him of it; gave him information, intelligence, notice, or advice, of it]: (Mṣb:) see also 10: [hence the inf. n. إِعْلَامٌ↓ is often used, as a simple subst., to signify a notification, a notice, an announcement, or an advertisement:] and sometimes اعلم↓ has three objective complements, like أَرَى; as in the saying, أَعْلَمْتُ زَيْدًا عَمْرًا مُنْطَلِقًا [I made known, &c., to Zeyd that ʼAmr was going away]. (I’Aḳ p. 117.)
See also 4, in three places.
عَالَمَهُ فَعَلَمَهُ↓, aor. of the latter ـُ, means [I contended with him, or strove to surpass him, in عِلْم,] and I surpassed him in عِلْم [i. e. knowledge, &c.]: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) [the measure يَفْعَلُ,] and in like manner the measure يَفْعِلُ, in every case of this kind, is changed into يَفْعُلُ: so says Az: [but see 3 in art. خصم:] and Lḥ mentions the phrase, مَا كُنْتُ أَرَانِى أَنْ أَعْلُمَهُ [I did not think, or know, that I should surpass him in knowledge]. (TA.)
see 2, in six places.
One says also, اعلم الثَّوْبَ (Ṣ, Mgh, TA) He (i. e. a beater and washer and whitener of clothes, Ṣ, Mgh) made the garment, or piece of cloth, to have a mark; (Mgh;) or he made upon it, or in it, a mark. (TA.) [And, said of a weaver, or an embroiderer,] He made to the garment, or piece of cloth, a border, or borders, of figured, or variegated, or embroidered, work, or the like. (Mṣb.)
And اعلم عَلَيْهِ He made, or put, or set, a mark upon it; namely, a writing, or book, &c.: (Mṣb:) [or] اعلم عَلَى مَوْضِعِ كَذَا مِنَ الكِتَابِ عَلَامَةً [He made, &c., a mark upon such a place of the writing, or book]. (TA.)
اعلم الفَرَسَ He suspended upon the horse some coloured wool, (Ḳ, TA,) red, or white, (TA,) in war, or battle. (Ḳ, TA.) And اعلم نَفْسَهُ He marked himself with the mark, sign, token, or badge, of war; as alsoعَلَّمَهَا↓. (Ḳ.) [Or] اعلم الفَارِسُ The horseman made, or appointed, for himself, [or distinguished himself by,] the mark, sign, token, or badge, of the men of courage. (Ṣ.) Andعَلَّمْتُ↓ لَهُ عَلَامَةً I appointed to him (وَضَعْتُ لَهُ) a mark, sign, or token, which he would, or should, know. (Mṣb.)
Andعلّم↓ القَبْرَ (Ḳ in art. رجم) He put a tombstone [as a mark] to the grave. (TḲ in that art.)
اعلم said of a well-sinker, He found the well that he was digging to be one having much water. (TA.)
تعلّم is quasi-pass. of 2 [i. e. it signifies He was, or became, made to know, or taught; or he learned: and is trans. and intrans.]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,* TA.) You say, تعلّم العِلْمَ (MA, Ḳ) He learned [knowledge, or science]. (MA.) See also 1, latter half, in three places. [In the last of those places, تعلّم app. signifies, as it often does, He possessed knowledge as a faculty firmly rooted in his mind.] Accord. to some, التَّعَلُّمُ signifies The mind's having its attention excited to the conception of meanings, or ideas. (TA.)
تعالمهُ الجَمِيعُ: see 1, latter half.
اعتلمهُ: see 1, latter half.
اعتلم said of water, It flowed (Ḳ, TA) upon the ground. (TA.)
And said of lightning it means لَمَعَ فى العلم [app. فِى العَلَمِ, and, if so, meaning It shone, shone brightly, or gleamed, in, or upon, the long mountain]: a poet says,
* بَلْ بُرَيْقًا بِتُّ أَرْقُبُهُ ** لَا يُرَى إِلَّا إِذَا ٱعْتَلَمَا *
[But a little lightning, in watching which I passed the night, not to be seen save when it shone, &c.]. (TA.)
استعلمهُ He asked, or desired, him to tell him [a thing; or to make it known to him]. (MA, KL.*) You say,اِسْتَعْلَمَنِى الخَبَرَ فَأَعْلَمْتُهُ↓ إِيَّاهُ [He asked, or desired, me to tell him, or make known to him, the news, or piece of information, and I told him it, or made it known to him]. (Ṣ.)
عَلْمٌ: see مَعْلَمٌ, in two places.
عِلْمٌ is an inf. n., (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.,) and [as such] has no pl. [in the classical language]. (Sb, TA voce فِكْرٌ.) [As a post-classical term, used as a simple subst., its pl. is عُلُومٌ, signifying The sciences, or several species of knowledge.]
Sometimes it is applied to Predominant opinion; [i. e. preponderant belief;] because it stands in stead of that which is عِلْم properly so termed. (Ḥam p. 632.)
And sometimes it is used in the sense of عَمَلٌ [A doing, &c.], as mentioned by Az, on the authority of Ibn-'Oyeyneh, agreeably with an explanation of عَالِمٌ as signifying one “who does according to his knowledge;” and it has been expl. as having this meaning in the Ḳur xii. 68 [where the primary meaning seems to be much more apposite]. (TA.)
لَقِيتُهُ أَدْنَى عِلْمٍ means [I met him the first thing, like لقيته أَدْنَى دَنِّىِ and أَدْنَى دَنًا; or] before everything [else]. (TA.)
عَلَمٌ: see عَلَامَةٌ.
Also An impression, or impress; or a footstep, or track, or trace. (TA.)
And The عَلَم of a garment, or piece of cloth; (Ṣ;) [i. e. the ornamental, or figured, or variegated, border or borders thereof;] the figured, or variegated, or embroidered, work or decoration, (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) in the borders, (TA,) thereof: (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA:) pl. أَعْلَامٌ. (Mṣb.)
And [A way-mark; i. e.] a thing set up, or erected, in the way, (Ḳ, TA,) or, as in the M, in the deserts, or waterless deserts, (TA,) for guidance, (Ḳ, TA,) in the M, for the guidance of those going astray; (TA;) as alsoعَلَامَةٌ↓: (Ḳ:) the former is also applied to a building raised in the beaten track of the road, of such as are places of alighting for travellers, whereby one is guided to the land [that is the object of a journey]: pl. أَعْلَامٌ: and عَلَمٌ also signifies a مَنَارَة [app. a mistranscription for مَنَار, without ة: see these two words]. (TA. [See also مَعْلَمٌ.]) [Hence, أَعْلَامُ الكَوَاكِبِ The stars, or asterisms, that are signs of the way to travellers: see مِصْبَاحٌ.]
And A separation between two lands; [like مَنَارٌ;] as alsoعَلَامَةٌ↓. (Ḳ.) [Hence,] أَعْلَامُ الحَرَمِ The limits that are set to the Sacred Territory. (TA.)
And A mountain; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as a general term: or a long mountain: (Ḳ:) [app. as forming a separation: or as being a known sign of the way:] pl. أَعْلَامٌ and عِلَامٌ: (Ḳ:) the former pl. occurring in the Ḳur [xlii. 31 and] lv. 24. (TA.)
And A banner, or standard, syn. رَايَةٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) to which the soldiers congregate: (TA:) and, (Ḳ,) some say, (TA,) the thing [i. e. flag, or strip of cloth,] that is tied upon the spear: (Ḳ, TA:) it occurs in a verse of Aboo-Sakhr El-Hudhalee with the second fet-ḥah lengthened by an alif after it [so that it becomes عَلَام↓]. (IJ, TA.)
And ‡ The chief of a people or party: (Ḳ, TA:) from the same word as signifying “a mountain” or “a banner:” (TA:) pl. أَعْلَامٌ. (Ḳ.)
[In grammar, it signifies A proper name of a person or place &c.]
[And the pl. أَعْلَامٌ is applied to Things pertaining to rites and ceremonies of the pilgrimage or the like, as being signs thereof; such as the places where such rites and ceremonies are performed, the beasts destined for sacrifice, and the various practices performed during the pilgrimage &c.; as also مَعَالِمُ, pl. ofمَعْلَمٌ↓: the former word is applied to such places in the Ksh and Bḍ and the Jel in ii. 153; and the latter, in the Ksh and Bḍ in ii. 194: the former is also applied to the beasts destined for sacrifice in the Ksh and Bḍ and the Jel in xxii. 37; and the latter, in the Ksh and Bḍ in xxii. 33: and both are applied to the practices above mentioned, the former in the TA and the latter in the Ḳ, in art. شعر: see شِعَارٌ.]
عُلْمَةٌ andعَلَمَةٌ↓ andعَلَمٌ↓ [the last of which is originally an inf. n., see 1, last sentence,] A fissure in the upper lip, or in one of its two sides. (Ḳ.)
عَلَمَةٌ: see what next precedes.
عَلْمَآءُ fem. of أَعْلَمُ [q. v.].
عَلْمَآءِ in the saying عَلْمَآءِ بَنُو فُلَانٍ [meaning At the water are the sons of such a one] is a contraction of عَلَى المَآءِ. (Ṣ.)
[عِلْمِىٌّ Of, or relating to, knowledge or science; scientific; theoretical; opposed to عَمَلِىٌّ.]
[عَلَمِيَّةٌ, in grammar, The quality of a proper name.]
عَلَامٌ: see عَلَامَةٌ:
[عَلَامَ is for عَلَى مَ.]
عُلَامٌ: see عُلَّامٌ.
Also i. q. غُلَامٌ [q. v.]: an instance of the substitution of ع for غ. (MF and TA on the letter ع.)
عَلِيمٌ: see عَالِمٌ.
العَلِيمُ andالعَالِمُ↓ andالعَلَّامُ↓, as epithets applied to God, signify [The Omniscient;] He who knows what has been and what will be; who ever has known, and ever will know, what has been and what will be; from whom nothing is concealed in the earth nor in the heaven; whose knowledge comprehends all things, the covert thereof and the overt, the small thereof and the great, in the most complete manner. (TA.)
عَلَامَةٌ i. q. سِمَةٌ [A mark, sign, or token, by which a person or thing is known; a cognizance, or badge; a characteristic; an indication; a symptom]; (Ḳ; [see also مَعْلَمٌ;]) andعَلَمٌ↓ is syn. therewith [as meaning thus]; (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA;) and soأُعْلُومَةٌ↓, (Abu-l-ʼOmeythil El-Aarábee, TA,) as in the saying بَيْنَ القَوْمِ أُعْلُومَةٌ↓ [Among the people, or party, is a mark, sign, or token]; and the pl. of this last is أَعَالِيمُ: (TA:) the pl. of عَلَامَةٌ is عَلَامَاتٌ (Mṣb) and [the coll. gen. n.] عَلَامٌ↓, (Ḳ, TA,) differing from عَلَامَةٌ only by the apocopating of the ة. (TA.)
See also عَلَمٌ, in two places.
عُلَامِىٌّ Light, or active; and sharp, or acute, in mind; (Ḳ, TA;) applied to a man: it is without teshdeed, and with the relative ى; from عُلَامٌ [signifying “a hawk”]. (TA.)
عَلَّامٌ andعُلَّامٌ↓, (Ḳ, TA,) both mentioned by ISd, the latter [which is less used] from Lḥ, (TA,) andعَلَّامَةٌ↓ (Ṣ, Ḳ) andتِعْلِمَةٌ↓ andتِعْلَامَةٌ↓, (Ḳ,) Very knowing or scientific or learned: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the ة in عَلَّامَةٌ↓ is added to denote intensiveness; (Ṣ;) or [rather] to denote that the person to whom it is applied has attained the utmost degree of the quality signified thereby; [so that it means knowing &c. in the utmost degree; or it may be rendered very very, or singularly, knowing or scientific or learned;] and this epithet is applied also to a woman: (IJ, TA:) [تِعْلَامَةٌ↓, likewise, is doubly intensive; and so, app., is تِعْلِمَةٌ↓:] the pl. of عَلَّامٌ is عَلَّامُونَ; and that ofعُلَّامٌ↓ is عُلَّامُونَ. (TA.) See also, for the first, عَلِيمٌ.
Also the same epithets, (Ḳ,) or عَلَّامٌ andعَلَّامَةٌ↓, (TA,) i. q. نَسَّابَةٌ; (Ḳ, TA;) [or rather عَلَّامٌ signifies نَسَّابٌ, i. e. very skilful in genealogies, or a great genealogist; andعَلَّامَةٌ↓ signifies نَسَّابَةٌ, i. e. possessing the utmost knowledge in genealogies, or a most skilful genealogist;] from العِلْمُ. (TA.)
عُلَّامٌ: see the next preceding paragraph, in two places.
Also, andعُلَامٌ↓, The صَقْر [or hawk]; (Ḳ;) the latter on the authority of IAạr: (TA:) and [particularly] the بَاشَق [i. e. the musket, or sparrow-hawk]; (Ḳ;) as some say: (TA:) or so the former word, (T,* Ṣ, TA,) or the latter word accord. to Kr and IB. (TA.)
And the former word, The [plant called] حِنَّآء [i. e. Lawsonia inermis]: (IAạr, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) thus correctly, but mentioned by Kr as without tesh-deed. (TA.)
And the same, i. e. with tesh-deed, The kernel of the stone of the نَبِق [or fruit, i. e. drupe, of the lote-tree called سِدْر]. (TA.)
عَلَّامَةٌ: see عَلَّامٌ, in four places.
عُلَّامَةٌ: see مَعْلَمٌ.
العَالَمُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) said by some to be also pronounced العَالِمُ↓, (MF, TA,) and pronounced by El-Hajjáj with hemz [i. e. العَأْلَمُ], is primarily a name for That by means of which one knows [a thing]; like as الخَاتَمُ is a name for “that by means of which one seals” [a thing]: accord. to some of the expositors of the Ḳur-án, its predominant application is to that by means of which the Creator is known: then to the intelligent beings of mankind and of the jinn or genii: or to mankind and the jinn and the angels: and mankind [alone]: Es-Seyyid Esh-Shereef [El- Jurjánee] adopts the opinion that it is applied to every kind [of these, so that one says عَالَمُ الإِنْسِ (which may be rendered the world of mankind) and عَالَمُ الجِنِّ (the world of the jinn or genii) and عَالَمُ المَلَائِكَةِ (the world of the angels), all of which phrases are of frequent occurrence], and to the kinds [thereof] collectively: (TA:) or it signifies الخَلْقُ [i. e. the creation, as meaning the beings, or things, that are created], (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) altogether [i. e. all the created beings or things, or all creatures]: (Ḳ:) or, as some say, peculiarly, the intelligent creatures: (Mṣb:) or what the cavity (lit. belly) of the celestial sphere comprises, (Ḳ, TA,) of substances and accidents: (TA:) [it may often be rendered the world, as meaning the universe; and as meaning the earth with all its inhabitants and other appertenances; and in more restricted senses, as instanced above: and one says عَالَمُ الحَيَوَانِ meaning the animal kingdom, and عَالَمُ النَّبَات the vegetable kingdom, and عَالَمُ المَعَادِنِ the mineral kingdom:] Jaạfar Es-Sádik says that the عَالَم is twofold: namely, العَالَمُ الكَبِيرُ, which is the celestial sphere with what is within it; and العَالَمُ الصَّغِيرُ, which is man, as being [a microcosm, i. e.] an epitome of all that is in the كَبِير: and Zj says that العَالَمُ has no literal sing., because it is [significant of] a plurality [of classes] of diverse things; and if made a sing. of one of them, it is [significant of] a plurality of congruous things: (TA:) the pl. is العَالَمُونَ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) and العَوَالِمُ: (Ṣ, TA:) and the sing. is [said to be] the only instance of a word of the measure فَاعَلٌ having a pl. formed with و and ن, (ISd, Ḳ, TA,) except يَاسَمٌ: (Ḳ, TA:) [but see this latter word:] العَالَمُونَ signifies the [several] sorts of created beings or things: (Ṣ:) [or all the sorts thereof: or the beings of the universe, or of the whole world:] it has this form because it includes mankind: or because it denotes particularly the sorts of created beings consisting of the angels and the jinn and mankind, exclusively of others: I’Ab is related to have explained رَبُّ العَالَمِينَ as meaning the Lord of the jinn, or genii, and of mankind: Ḳatádeh says, the Lord of all the created beings: but accord. to Az, the correctness of the explanation of I’Ab is shown by the saying in the beginning of ch. xxv. of the Ḳur-án that the Prophet was to be a نَذِير [or warner] لِلْعَالَمِينَ; and he was not a نذير to the beasts, nor to the angels, though all of them are the creatures of God; but only to the jinn, or genii, and mankind. (TA.)
عَالَمٌ is also syn. with قَرْنٌ [as meaning A generation of mankind; or the people of one time]. (O, voce طَبَقٌ, q. v.)
عَالِمٌ andعَلِيمٌ↓ signify the same, (IJ, Mṣb, Ḳ,*) as epithets applied to a man; (Ḳ;) i. e. Possessing the attribute of عِلْم (IJ, Mṣb, TA) as a faculty firmly rooted in the mind; [or learned; or versed in science and literature;] the former being used in [what is more properly] the sense of the latter; (IJ, TA;) which is an intensive epithet: (TA:) the pl. is عُلَمَآءُ and عُلَّامٌ, (Ḳ,) the latter of which is pl. of عَالِمٌ; (IB, TA;) the former being [properly] pl. of عَلِيمٌ; and عَالِمُونَ is [a] pl. of عَالِمٌ; (Mṣb;) [but] عُلَمَآءُ is used as a pl. of both, (IJ, TA,) and by him who says only عَالِمٌ [as the sing.], (Sb, TA;) because عَالِمٌ is used in the sense of عَلِيمٌ: to him who is entering upon the study of العِلْم, the epithetمُتَعَلِّمٌ↓ [which may generally be rendered learning, or a learner,] is applied; not عَالِمٌ. (IJ, TA.) عَالِمٌ is also expl. as signifying One who does according to his knowledge. (TA.)
See also عَلِيمٌ: and أَعْلَمُ.
عَيْلَمٌ A well having much water: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or of which the water is salt: (Ḳ:) and a wide well: and sometimes a man was reviled by the saying, يَا ٱبْنَ العَيْلَمِ, referring to the width of his mother [in respect of the فَرْج]: (TA:) pl. عَيَالِمُ or عَيَالِيمُ. (Ṣ, accord. to different copies: in the TA, in this instance, the latter.)
And The sea: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) pl. عَيَالِمُ. (TA.)
And The water upon which is the earth: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or water concealed, or covered, in the earth; or beneath layers, or strata, of earth; mentioned by Kr: (TA:) [عَيْلَمُ المَآءِ occurs in the JK and TA in art. خسف, and is there plainly shown to mean the water that is beneath a mountain, or stratum of rock: (see also غَيِّثٌ: and see غَيِّثٌ:) and it is said that] المَأءُ العَيْلَمُ means copious water. (Ḥam p. 750.)
And A large cooking-pot. (T, TA voce هِلْجَابٌ.)
Also Plump, and soft, tender, or delicate. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
And The frog. (AAF, Ḳ. [This meaning is also assigned to غَيْلَمٌ.])
And i. q.عَيْلَامٌ↓; (Ḳ;) which signifies A male hyena; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) occurring in a trad. (خَبَر) respecting Abraham, relating that he will take up his father to pass with him the [bridge called] صِرَاط, and will look at him, and lo, he will be عَيْلَامٌ أَمْدَرُ [a male hyena inflated in the sides, big in the belly, or having his sides defiled with earth or dust]. (TA.)
عَيْلَامٌ: see the next preceding sentence.
أَعْلَمُ [More, and most, knowing or learned]. Applied to God, [it may often be rendered Supreme in knowledge: or omniscient: but often, in this case,] it means [simply] عَالِمٌ↓ [in the sense of knowing, or cognizant]. (Jel in iii. 31, and I’Aḳ p. 240.) [Therefore اَللّٰهُ أَعْلَمُ virtually means, sometimes, God knows best; or knows all things: and sometimes, simply, God knows.]
Also [Harelipped; i. e.] having a fissure in his upper lip: (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or in one of its two sides: (Ḳ:) the camel is said to be اعلم because of the fissure in his upper lip: when the fissure is in the lower lip, the epithet أَفْلَحُ is used: and أَشْرَمُ is used in both of these, and also in other, similar, senses: (TA:) the fem. of أَعْلَمُ is عَلْمَآءُ: (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA:) which is likewise applied to a lip (شَفَةٌ). (TA.)
العَلْمَآءُ signifies also The coat of mail: (Ḳ:) mentioned by Sh, in the book entitled كِتَابُ السِّلَاحِ; but as not heard by him except in a verse of Zuheyr Ibn-Khabbáb [?]. (TA.)
أُعْلُومَةٌ: see عَلَامَةٌ, in two places.
تِعْلِمَةٌ and تِعْلَامَةٌ: see عَلَّامٌ; each in two places.
مَعْلَمٌ i. q. مَظِنَّةٌ; مَعْلَمُ الشَّىْءِ signifying مَظِنَّتُهُ; (Ḳ, TA;) as meaning The place in which is known the existence of the thing: (Mṣb in art. ظن:) pl. مَعَالِمُ; (TA;) which is the contr. of مَجَاهِلُ, pl. of مَجْهَلٌ [q. v.] as applied to a land; meaning in which are signs of the way. (TA in art. جهل.) And hence, [A person in whom is known the existence of a quality &c.:] one says, هُوَ مَعْلَمٌ لِلْخَيْرِ [He is one in whom good, or goodness, is known to be]. (TA.)
Also A thing, (Ḳ,) or a mark, trace, or track, (Ṣ, TA,) by which one guides himself, or is guided, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) to the road, or way; (Ṣ, TA;) as alsoعُلَّامَةٌ↓ andعَلْمٌ↓: (Ḳ: [in several copies of which, in all as far as I know, وَالعَلْمُ is here put in the place of والعَلْمِ; whereby العَلْمُ is made to be syn. with العَالَمُ: but accord. to SM, it is syn. with المَعْلَمُ, as is shown by what here follows:]) and hence a reading in the Ḳur [xliii. 61], وَإِنَّهُ لَعَلْمٌ↓ لِلسَّاعَةِ, meaning And verily he, i. e. Jesus, by his appearing, and descending to the earth, shall be a sign of the approach of the hour [of resurrection]: it is also said, in a trad., that on the day of resurrection there shall not be a مَعْلَم for any one: and the pl. is مَعَالِمُ. (TA.) And مَعْلَمُ الطِّرِيقِ signifies The indication, or indicator, of the road, or way. (TA.)
[And hence it signifies likewise An indication, or a symptom, of anything; like عَلَامَةٌ.]
See also عَلَمٌ, last quarter.
مُعْلَمٌ pass. part. n. of أَعْلَمَ [q. v.] in the phrase اعلم الثَّوْبَ, and thus applied as an epithet to a garment, or piece of cloth: (Ṣ:) [and also in other senses: thus in a verse of 'Antarah cited voce مَشُوفٌ:] and applied to a قِدْح [or gamingarrow] as meaning Having a mark [made] upon it. (TA.)
[See also a verse of 'Antarah cited voce مِشَكٌّ.]
مُعْلِمٌ act. part. n. of أَعْلَمَ [q. v.] in the phrase اعلم الثَّوْبَ: [and in other senses:]
thus also of the same verb in the phrase اعلم الفَارِسُ. (Ṣ.)
مُعَلَّمٌ [pass. part. n. of 2, in all its senses:]
[and hence particularly signifying] Directed by inspiration to that which is right and good. (TA.)
مُعَلِّمٌ [act. part. n. of 2, in all its senses: and generally meaning] A teacher. (KL.)
[It is now also a common title of address to a Christian and to a Jew.]
مَعْلُومٌ [Known; &c.]. الوَقْتُ المَعْلُومُ [mentioned in the Ḳur xv. 38 and xxxviii. 82] means [The time of] the resurrection. (TA.) And الأَيَّامُ المَعْلُومَاتُ [mentioned in the Ḳur xxii. 29] means [The first] ten days of Dhu-l-Hijjeh, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the last of which is the day of the sacrifice. (TA.)
[In grammar, The active voice.]
مُتَعَلِّمٌ: see عَالِمٌ.