شهب شهد شهدانج
شَهِدَ, (Ṣ, A, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ; (Ḳ;) and شَهُدَ, aor. ـُ; (Ḳ;) also pronounced and written شَهْدَ, (Akh, Ṣ, Ḳ,) and شِهْدَ, and شِهِدَ, accord. to a rule applying to all verbs of the measure فَعِلَ of which the medial radical letter is a faucial; (MF;) inf. n. شَهَادَةٌ (Ṣ, A, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ) and شهد; (TA; [there written without any syll. sign, and not found by me in any other Lex.;]) He told, or gave information of, what he had witnessed, or seen or beheld with his eye: (Mgh, L, Mṣb:) this is the primary signification: (L:) he declared what he knew: he gave testimony, attestation, or evidence; he bore witness: (L:) he gave decisive information. (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ.) [See also شَهَادَةٌ below.] You say, شَهِدَ بِكَذَا, inf. n. as above, (Ṣ, A, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ,) He told, or gave information of, such a thing, as having witnessed it, or seen or beheld it with his eye; (Mgh, Mṣb;) or declared such a thing as knowing it; (L;) or gave his testimony, attestation, or evidence, respecting it; or bore witness of it, or to it; (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ;) عِنْدَ الحَاكِمِ [in the presence of the judge]; لِفُلَانٍ [for, or in favour of, such a one], (Ṣ, Mgh, L, Ḳ,) and عَلَى فُلَانٍ [against, or in opposition to, such a one]. (Mgh.) And شَهِدَ عَلَى كَذَا He gave decisive information [respecting such a thing (as in the Ḳur xlvi. 9, and in many other instances); he testified respecting it]. (Ṣ, L. [See also another meaning of this phrase in what follows.]) [Hence,] شَهِدَ ٱللّٰهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَاهَ إِلَّا هُوَ, in the Ḳur [iii. 16], means God hath given evidence that there is no deity but He: (Abu-l- ʼAbbás, IAmb, Jel:) or God knoweth &c.; (Ah- mad Ibn-Yaḥyà, Ḳ;) and so شَهِدَ ٱللّٰهُ throughout the Ḳur-án: (Aḥmad Ibn-Yaḥyà:) or God saith &c.: or God hath written &c. (Ḳ.) And أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَاهَ إِلَّاٱللّٰهُ I know, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) [or acknowledge,] and I declare, [or testify, that there is no deity but God:] (Ḳ:) [Fei says,] the verb is trans. in this phrase by itself [i. e. without the intervention of a prep.] because it is used in the sense of أَعْلَمُ. (Mṣb.) [And hence, كَلِمَةُ الشَّهَادَةِ means The sentence declaring that there is no deity but God and that Moḥammad is God's apostle.]
شَهِدَ بِٱللّٰهِ, (Mgh,* Mṣb,) aor. ـَ, inf. n. شَهَادَةٌ, (Mgh,) means He swore by God: (Mgh, Mṣb:) and أَشْهَدُ بِكَذَا I swear by such a thing. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) أَشْهَدُ بِٱللّٰهِ لَقَدْ كَانَ كَذَا I swear by God that such a thing happened, or took place, combines the meaning of witnessing with that of swearing and that of informing at the time of uttering these words; as though the speaker said, I swear by God that I witnessed such a thing, and now I inform of it. (Mṣb.) Accord. to some, when one says only أَشْهَدُ, not adding بِٱللّٰهِ, it is an oath. (TA.)
شَهِدَ عَلَى كَذَا, a phrase of which one meaning has been expl. above, means also He became a witness (شَاهِد) of, or to, such a thing; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) he had knowledge of such a thing, and witnessed it, or saw it or beheld it with his eye: (Mṣb:) and شَهِدَهُ, (Mgh, L,) inf. n. شَهَادَةٌ, (L,) [likewise] signifies he witnessed it; or saw, or beheld, it, or him, with his eye; (Mgh, L;) and (Mgh, L, Mṣb) so شاهدهُ↓, (A, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. مُشَاهَدَةٌ. (Ṣ, A, L, Mṣb.) [Hence,] one says,شُوهِدَتْ↓ مِنْهُ حَالٌ جَمِيلَةٌ [A comely, or pleasing, state, or condition, of him was witnessed]. (A.)
And شَهِدَهُ, (aor. ـَ K,) inf. n. شُهُودٌ, He was, or became, present at it, or in it; (Ṣ, A, Mgh, L, Mṣb,* Ḳ;) namely, a place, (Mgh,) or an assembly. (Mṣb.) Hence the saying, (Mṣb,) فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ, in the Ḳur [ii. 181], Therefore whosoever of you shall be present in the month, and stationary, not journeying, he shall fast therein (Mgh, Mṣb) as long as he shall remain present and stationary: (Mṣb:) الشهر being here in the accus. case as an adv. n. of time. (Mgh, Mṣb.) [And hence,] شَهِدَ الجُمْعَةَ He attained to [the being present at] the جُمْعَة [here meaning, as in many other instances, the prayer of Friday]: (Mgh:) and شَهِدَ العِيدَ he attained to [the being present at] the عِيد [or festival, or the prayer thereof]. (Mṣb.) [Hence also,] it is said in a trad., يَشْهَدُ بَيْعَكُمُ الحَلِفُ وَاللَّغْوُ [Swearing, and unprofitable speech, attend your selling]. (TA in art. شوب: see 1 in that art.)
see 1, latter half, in two places.
أَشْهَدْتُهُ عَلَى كَذَا I made him to be a witness (شَاهِد) of, or to such a thing: (Ṣ, Mgh, L:) [and in like manner,] أَشْهَدْتُهُ الشَّىْءَ I made him to have knowledge of the thing, and to witness it, or see it or behold it with his eye. (Mṣb.) See also 10. إِشْهَادٌ in relation to criminal matters means [The causing one to take notice of a thing that threatens to occasion some injury, with a view to the prevention of such injury; as, for instance,] the saying to the owner of a house, “This thy wall is leaning, therefore demolish it,” or “feared, therefore repair it.” (Mgh.)
اشهدهُ also signifies He caused him to be present. (Ḳ.) You say, أَشْهَدَنِى إِمْلَاكَهُ He caused me to be present [at, or on the occasion of, his being put in possession]. (Ṣ.)
أُشْهِدَ: see 10.
اشهد [as intrans.] † Humorem tenuem e pene emisit vir propter lusum amatorium vel osculum; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as alsoشهّد↓, (Ḳ,) inf. n. تَشْهِيدٌ: (TA:) [from شَهْدٌ signifying “honey;” for] عُسَيْلَةٌ is a term for مَذْىٌ. (Ṣ.) † He rendered his مِئْزَر [or waist-wrapper] of a reddish hue and of a dark dust-colour (أَخْضَر) [by the act above-mentioned]. (L.) † He (a boy) attained to puberty. (Th, TA.) And اشهدت She (a girl) menstruated: and attained to puberty. (Ḳ.)
التَّشَهُّدُ in prayer is well known; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) The reciting of the form of words commencing with التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلّٰهِ: [see art. حى:] from the occurrence therein of the words أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَاهَ إِلَّا ٱللّٰهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. (Mgh,* TA. [See also Ḥar p. 611.])
And تَشَهَّدَ also signifies He sought, or desired to obtain, martyrdom. (L.)
استشهدهُ He asked him, or required him, to tell what he had witnessed, or seen or beheld with his eye; to declare what he knew; to give testimony, or evidence; to bear witness; or to give decisive information. (Ṣ, Mgh, L, Mṣb, Ḳ.) You say, اِسْتَشْهَدْتُ فُلَانًا عَلَى فُلَانٍ I asked, or required, [or cited, or summoned,] such a one to give his testimony, or evidence, or to bear witness, against such a one. (L.) And اِسْتَشْهَدْتُ الرَّجُلَ عَلَى إِقْرَارِ الغَرِيمِ andأَشْهَدْتُهُ↓ I asked, or required, [&c., and made,] the man to bear witness to, or to be witness of or to, the confession, or acknowledgment, of the debtor. (L.)
[Hence,] استشهد بِبَيْتٍ عَلَى مَعْنَى كَلِمَةٍ [He adduced, or urged, or cited, a verse as an evidential example of the meaning of a word]. (A phrase of frequent occurrence in the larger lexicons.)
اُسْتُشْهِدَ (Ṣ, Ḳ) andأُشْهِدَ↓ (Ḳ) He was slain a martyr in the cause of God's religion. (Ṣ, Ḳ. [See شَهِيدٌ.])
شَهْدٌ: see شَاهِدٌ, first sentence.
Also, andشُهْدٌ↓, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the former of the dial. of Temeem, and the latter of the people of El-ʼÁliyeh, (Mṣb, TA,) Honey: (Ḳ:) or honey in its wax [i. e. its comb]; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) honey not expressed from its wax [or comb]: (TA:) pl. شِهَادٌ: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) شَهْدَةٌ is a more particular term, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) the n. un., [signifying a portion thereof; and a honey-comb, or a portion of a honey-comb;] as also شُهْدَةٌ. (TA.)
شُهْدٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
شُهُودٌ: see شَاهِدٌ, in two places.
شَهِيدٌ is also written and pronounced شِهِيدٌ, with kesr to the ش: (Ḳ, TA:) and in like manner is every word of the measure فَعِيلٌ having a faucial letter for its, medial radical, whether an epithet, like this, or a subst., like رَغِيفٌ and بَعِيرٌ: El-Hemdánee says, in the “Iaráb el-Ḳur-án,” that the people of El-Ḥijáz, and Benoo-Asad, say رَحِيمٌ and رَغِيفٌ and بَعِيرٌ, with fet-ḥ to the first letter; and Keys and Rabee'ah and Temeem say رَحِيمٌ and رِغِيفٌ and بِعِيرٌ, with kesr to the first letter: Sub says, in the R, that Temeem pronounce every فَعِيل of which the medial radical letter is hemzeh or any other faucial with kesr to the first letter: and En-Nawawee states, on the authority of Lth, that some of the Arabs do the same when the medial radical letter is not a faucial; as in كبير and كريم and جليل and the like thereof. (TA.) [This last pronunciation obtains extensively in the present day: and so, in similar cases, does the intermediate pronunciation termed إِمَالَةُ الفَتْحِ, (i. e. the pronouncing fet-ḥ like “e” in the English word “bed,”) which may be justly regarded as the best to be followed because intermediate and because sanctioned by the usage of the classical times, except in cases that are pointed out by the grammarians as presenting obstacles to the pronunciation thus termed.]
شَهِيدٌ is syn. with شَاهِدٌ [in several senses, as shown below]: and its pl. is شُهَدَآءُ. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) See شَاهِدٌ, in six places.
Also Possessing much knowledge with respect to external things: خَبِيرٌ is used in the like sense with respect to internal things; and عَلِيمٌ, in the like sense absolutely. (L.) [Hence, perhaps,] وَٱدْعُوا شُهَدآءَكُمْ, in the Ḳur ii. 21, [as though meaning And call ye to your aid those of you who possess much knowledge: or] the meaning here is, your helpers: (Bḍ:) or your gods whom ye worship. (Jel.) الشَّهِيدُ as a name of God means The Faithful, or Trusty, in his testimony (Zj, L,) or in testimony: (Ḳ:) and (Zj, Ḳ) as some say, (Zj,) He from whose knowledge nothing is hidden; the Omniscient. (Zj, L, Ḳ.)
Also, derived from الشَّهَادَةُ, or from المُشَاهَدَةُ, or from الشُّهُودُ, [all inf. ns.,] accord. to different opinions; (TA;) and of the measure فَعِيلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ; (Mṣb, TA;) or in the sense of the measure فَاعِلٌ; (TA;) A martyr who is slain in the cause of God's religion; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) [i. e.] one who is slain by unbelievers on a field of battle; (Mṣb;) one who is slain fighting in the cause of God's religion: (IAth:) so called because the angels of mercy are present with him; (Ḳ;) because the angels are present at the washing of his corpse, or at the removal of his soul to Paradise: (Mṣb:) or because God and his angels are witnesses for him of his title to a place in Paradise: (IAmb, Mgh,* Ḳ:) or because he is one of those who shall be required to bear witness on the day of resurrection, (Ḳ, TA,) with the Prophet, (TA,) against the people of past times, (Ḳ, TA,) who charged their prophets with falsehood: (TA:) or because of his falling upon the شَاهِدَة↓, or ground: (Ḳ:) or because he is still living, and present with his Lord: (ISh, Mgh, Ḳ:) or because he witnesses. or beholds, God's world of spirits and his world of corporeal beings: (Ḳ,* TA:) [and several other reasons are assigned for this appellation:] the primary application is that expl. above: but it is also applied by the Prophet to one who dies of colic: one who is drowned: one who is burned to death: one who is killed by a building falling to ruin upon him: one who dies of pleurisy: (IAth, L:) one who dies of plague, or pestilence: a woman who dies in a state of pregnancy: (L:) and to some others: (IAth:) the pl. is شُهَدَآءُ. (A, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.)
شَهَادَةٌ [see 1:] Information of what one has witnessed, or seen or beheld with his eye: (IF, Mgh, L, Mṣb:) this is the primary signification: (L:) said to be a subst. from المُشَاهَدَةُ: (Mṣb:) declaration of what one knows: testimony, attestation, evidence, or witness: (L:) decisive information. (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ.)
An oath: pl. شَهَادَاتٌ: so in the Ḳur xxiv. 6 [and 8]. (TA.)
Martyrdom in the cause of God's religion. (Ṣ, Ḳ. [See شَهِيدٌ.])
Also i. q. مَشْهَدٌ as expl. below: see the latter word.
[And it is used in the sense of مُشَاهَدٌ: thus,] عَالِمُ الغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ, in the Ḳur vi. 73 &c., means The Knower of what is unseen and of what is seen. (Jel.)
شَهِيدَةٌ A roasted lamb: or [the kind of food called] هَرِيسَة [q. v.]: pl. شِهَادٌ. (Ḥar. p. 609.)
[شَهَّادٌ Always present. (Freytag from the Deewán of the Hudhalees.)]
شَاهِدٌ (Ṣ, Mgh, L, Ḳ) andشَهِيدٌ↓ (Ṣ,* Mgh, L) One who tells, or gives information of, what he has witnessed, or seen or beheld with his eye: (Mgh, L:) one who declares what he knows: (L:) one who knows, and declares what he knows: (ISd, TA:) a witness, as meaning one who gives testimony, or evidence; who bears witness: (Ṣ,* L, Ḳ:*) [one who gives decisive information: (see 1, first sentence:)] pl. of the former شَهْدٌ↓, (Akh, Ṣ, Ḳ,) or [rather] this is a quasi-pl. n., (Sb, TA,) like as صَحْبٌ is of صَاحِبٌ, and سَفْرٌ of سَافِرٌ, (Ṣ,) but some disallow this; (TA;) andشُهُودٌ↓ [but see what is said of this in the latter half of the paragraph] and أَشْهَادٌ are also pls. of شَاهِدٌ, (Mgh, L,) or of شَهْدٌ: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the pl. ofشَهِيدٌ↓ is شُهَدَآءُ. (Ṣ, Mgh.) [Hence,]مَعَهَا سَائِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ↓, in the Ḳur 1. 20: see art. سوق.
[Hence also] الشَّاهِدُ a name of the Prophet; (Ḳ;) meaning The witness against those to whom he has been sent. (Jel in xxxiii. 44.)
And شَاهِدٌ An angel: (Ṣ, L, Ḳ:) or a guardian angel: (Mujáhid:) pl. أَشْهَادٌ: or this means the prophets. (TA.)
And The tongue: (Ṣ, L, Ḳ:) from the saying, لِفُلَانٍ شَاهِدٌ حَسَنٌ Such a one has an elegant diction. (L.) One says also, مَا لِفُلَانٍ رُوَآءٌ وَلَا شَاهِدٌ Such a one has neither goodliness of aspect nor tongue. (Aboo-Bekr, L.)
[As a conventional term used in lexicology &c.,] An evidential example, generally poetical, of the form or meaning of a word or phrase: pl. شَوَاهِدُ: the sciences that require شَوَاهِد being those of اللُّغَة and الصَّرْف and النَّحْو and المَعَانِى and البَيَان and البَدِيع and العَرُوض and القَوَافِى. (MF on the خُطْبَة of the Ḳ.) [One says, هٰذَا شَاهِدٌ لِكَذَا and عَلَى كَذَا This is an evidential example of such a thing.] With respect to the classical language, absolutely, شواهد are taken, by universal consent, from the Ḳur-án, and from the language [both verse and prose (Kull p. 348)] of those Arabs who lived before the period of the corruption [in any considerable degree] of the Arabic tongue: [see مُوَلَّدٌ:] also, accord. to the general decision of the learned, from the Traditions of Moḥammad; [which last source is excluded by some because traditions may be corrupted in language by their transmitters, and interpolated, and even forged;] and electively from the language of those Arabs who lived after the first corruption of the Arabic tongue, but before the corruption had become extensive. (Mz, 1st نوع; and MF ubi suprà. [See, again, مُوَلَّدٌ.]) The classes of the poets from whose poetry شواهد are taken are the Pagan Arabs, the Mukhadrams, the Islámees, and the Muwelleds: [see جَاهِلِىٌّ and مُخَضْرَمٌ and إِسْلَامِىٌّ and مُوَلَّدٌ:] with respect to all the sciences above mentioned, they are taken from the poetry of the first, second, and third, classes; from that of the first and second by universal consent, and from that of the third electively: (MF ubi suprá:) but they are taken from the poetry of the fourth class with respect only to the sciences of المَعَانِى and البَيَان and البَدِيع. (Idem, and Kull p. 348.) [The age of the earliest existing classical poems (though some older fragments and couplets and single verses have been preserved) is only about a century before the birth of Moḥammad: that of the latest, about a century after his death. (See the Preface to this work.)]
Knowing, (Mṣb,) and witnessing, or seeing or beholding with his eye; a witness, as meaning an eyewitness; (L, Mṣb;) as alsoشَهِيدٌ↓: pl. of the former [or, as is said in the L in art. مجد, of the former or of the latter,] أَشْهَادٌ and شُهُودٌ; [but see what is said of these pls. in the first sentence of this paragraph;] and of the latter شُهَدَآءُ. (Mṣb.) [See an ex. of شَهِيدٌ↓ in this sense in a verse cited voce رَبٌّ.]
[Hence, in the present day, applied to A notary, who hears and writes and attests cases to be submitted for judgment in the court of a ḳádee.]
Present; a witness as meaning one personally present; (Ṣ, L, Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoشَهِيدٌ↓: (Mṣb:) pl. of the former شُهَّدٌ (Ṣ, L, Ḳ) [and أَشْهَادٌ, as above,] andشُهُودٌ↓, (Ḳ,) or this last is used as a pl. but is originally an inf. n. (Ṣ, L.) One says, الشَّاهِدُ يَرَى مَا لَا يَرَى الغَائِبُ, meaning The present knows what the absent knows not. (Mṣb.) And قَوْمٌ شُهُودٌ People, or persons, present. (Ṣ, A.) And كَلَّمْتُهُ عَلَى رُؤُوسِ الأَشْهَادِ [I spoke to him before witnesses, or persons present]. (A.)
[Hence, app., being opposed to غَائِبٌ,] A running in which a horse exerts his force unsparingly; (A, L;) as in the saying, لِلْفَرَسِ غَائِبٌ وَشَاهِدٌ The horse has a run which he reserves [for the time of need], and a run which he performs unsparingly; like the saying, لَهُ صَوْنٌ وَبَذْلٌ: (A: [see 1 in art. بذل:]) or شَاهِدٌ means a running that testifies the excellence of a horse, (IAạr, Ḳ,) and his quality of outstripping others. (IAạr, TA.)
A star [app. when visible]; (Aboo-Eiyoob, Ḳ;) as being present and apparent in the night. (TA.)
[Hence, accord. to some,] صَلَاةُ الشَّاهِدِ The prayer of sunset; (A, L, Mṣb, Ḳ;) because it is the prayer that is performed when the star becomes visible; (Sh, L;) also called صَلَاةُ البَصَرِ, because the stars are seen at the time thereof: or, accord. to some, the prayer of daybreak; (L;) [and so, accord. to some, صَلَاةُ البَصَرِ; (see art. بصر;)] as alsoالمَشْهُودُ↓; (TA;) and it is said to be so called because he who is travelling must perform it without abridging it, like him who is present at his home: Aboo-Saʼeed Ed-Dareer says that the former prayer is so called for this reason [as is also said in the A and Mṣb]: AM asserts that the first reason assigned above is the right one, because the prayer of daybreak, in like manner, may not be abridged, and is not thus called; but it is thus called by a poet. (L.)
And الشَّاهِدُ is a name of Friday; (Fr, Ḳ;) as alsoالمَشْهُودُ↓: or the latter is the day of resurrection: (Ḳ:) or the day of ʼArafeh: (Fr, Ḳ: [see عَرَفَةُ:]) because of the presence and congregation of people on each of those days. (TA.)
شَاهِدٌ also signifies Matter resembling mucus, that comes forth with the fœtus: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) pl. شُهُودٌ: which latter, accord. to ISd, means the أَغْرَاس [pl. of غِرْسٌ, q. v.,] upon the head of a young camel at the time of its birth. (TA.) And شُهُودٌ النَّاقَةِ means The marks left by the blood, or by the membrane that enclosed the fœtus, of the she-camel, in the place where she has brought forth. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
Also A quick, or an expeditious, thing or affair. (Ḳ.)
الشَّاهِدَةُ The earth, or ground. (Ḳ.) See شَهِيدٌ, last sentence.
مَشْهَدٌ A place where people are present or assembled; a place of assembling; an assembly; (Ṣ, L, Ḳ;) as alsoمَشْهَدَةٌ↓ andمَشْهُدَةٌ↓ (Ḳ) andشَهَادَةٌ↓: (L:) pl. مَشَاهِدُ. (A.) [Hence,] مَشَاهِدُ مَكَّةَ The places of religious visitation, where the ceremonies of the pilgrimage &c. are performed, at Mekkeh. (L.)
[A funeral assembly or procession.]
[A place where a martyr has died or is buried.]
[And The aspect, or outward appearance, of a person; like مَرْأًى: see an instance voce عَوْدٌ.]
مُشْهَدٌ Slain a martyr in the cause of God's religion. (Ḳ. [See also شَهِيدٌ.])
اِمْرَأَةٌ مُشْهِدٌ, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,) without ة, (Ṣ,) and مُشْهِدَةٌ, (A,) A woman whose husband is present with her: (Ṣ, A, Ḳ:) opposed to اِمْرَأَةٌ مُغِيبَةٌ; (Ṣ, A;) this last with ة. (Ṣ.)
مَشْهَدَةٌ and مَشْهُدَةٌ: see مَشْهَدٌ.
مَجْلِسٌ مَشْهُودٌ [A place of assembling at which numerous persons are present]. (A.) And يَوْمٌ مَشْهُودٌ [A day on which numerous persons are present: and particularly] a day on which the inhabitants of heaven and earth will be present. (TA.) And صَلَاةٌ مَشْهُودَةٌ مَكْتُوبَةٌ A prayer at the performance of which the angels are present, and the recompense of which, for the performer, is written, or registered. (L.) See also شَاهِدٌ, in two places, in the last quarter of the paragraph.
مَعْهُودٌ وَمَشْهُودٌ وَمَوْعُودٌ Past and present and future; the tenses of a verb. (Kh, L in art. عهد.)