شرع شرف شرق
شَرُفَ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـُ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. شَرَفٌ (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb,* Ḳ, TA) and شَرَافَةٌ, (TA,) said of a man, (Ṣ, O, TA,) He was, or became, high, elevated, exalted, or eminent, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) [in rank, condition, or estimation,] in respect of religion or of worldly things: (Ḳ, TA:) [generally meaning he was high-born, or noble:] part. n. شَرِيفٌ [q. v.]. (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA.) [See also شَرَفٌ, below.]
[Hence one says,] شَرُفَتْ نَفْسُهُ عَنِ الشَّىْءِ His soul was above the thing; disdained, or scorned, it. (L in art. انف.)
شَرَفَتِ النَّاقَةُ, and شَرُفَت, (O, Ḳ,) aor. of each ـُ, inf. n. شُرُوفٌ, (Ḳ,) reg. as of the former verb, and irreg. as of the latter, (TA,) The she-camel was, or became, such as is termed شَارِفٌ [q. v.]. (O, Ḳ.)
شَرَفَهُ, aor. ـُ, (IJ, Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. شَرْفٌ, (TA,) He overcame him, or surpassed him, in شَرَف [i. e. highness, elevation, or eminence, of rank, condition, or estimation; or nobility]; (IJ, Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA;) and so شَرُفَ عَلَيْهِ: (Z, TA:) or he excelled him (طَالَهُ, Ḳ, TA, in the CK [erroneously] طاوَلَهُ,) in the grounds of pretension to respect or honour (فِى الحَسَبِ). (Ḳ, TA.) See 3.
شَرَفَ الحَائِطَ, (Ḳ, TA,) aor. ـُ, inf. n. شَرْفٌ, (TA,) He put to the wall a شُرْفَة [q. v.]. (Ḳ, TA.) [See also 2.]
شَرِفَتِ الأُذُنُ, and شَرِفَ المَنْكِبُ, aor. ـَ, (Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. شَرَفٌ, (TA,) The ear, and in like manner the shoulder, was, or became, high, (Ḳ, TA,) and prominent: or, as some say, stood up. (TA.)
And شَرِفَ, [from شَرَفٌ signifying the “hump” of a camel,] (O, Ḳ,) said of a man, (O,) He kept constantly, or continually, to the eating of the [camel's] hump. (O, Ḳ.)
شرّفهُ, inf. n. تَشْرِيفٌ, He (God) rendered him high, elevated, exalted, or eminent, [in rank, condition, or estimation; or ennobled him:] (Ṣ, KL,* PṢ:*) and he held him, or esteemed him, to be so. (MA, PṢ.) ISd thinks that the verb may also mean He regarded with more, or exceeding, honour. (TA.) [And Golius explains it as meaning He decked with a royal garment; on the authority of the KL; in my copy of which I find no other meaning assigned to it than the first mentioned above.] One says, شَرَّفَ ٱللّٰهُ الكَعْبَةَ, (O, Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. as above, (TA,) [God rendered, or may God render, the Kaabeh an object of honour, or glorious,] from الشَّرَفُ, (O, Ḳ, TA,) i. e. المَجْدُ. (TA.) [تَشْرِيفٌ is also used as a subst. properly so called; and as such is expl. by itself in this art.]
Also He put to it شُرَف [pl. of شُرْفَةٌ, q. v.]; (O, Ḳ;) namely, his house, (Ḳ,) or a [palace, or pavilion, or other building such as is called] قَصْر, &c.; inf. n. as above. (O.) [See also شَرَفَ الحَائِطَ.]
شرّف المَرْبَأَ, expl. in the Ḳ as syn. with اشرفهُ and شارفهُ, is a mistake for تشرّفهُ [q. v.]. (TA.)
شرّف النَّاقَةَ, inf. n. as above, means He almost severed the teats of the she-camel by binding them [tightly] with the صِرَار [q. v.]: (IAạr, O, TA:) this being done for the preservation of her [stoutness of] body, and her fatness, so that burdens may be put upon her in the coming year. (TA.)
[شرّف, app. for شرّف العُنُقَ, is also said by Reiske, as mentioned by Freytag in his Lexicon, to signify He (a camel going along) raised the neck: but his authority for this is not stated.]
شارفهُ, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) inf. n. مُشَارَفَةٌ, (TA,) He vied with him, or contended with him for superiority, in شَرَف [i. e. highness, elevation, or eminence, of rank, condition, or estimation; or nobility]; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA;) فَشَرَفَهُ↓ and he overcame, or surpassed, him therein. (TA.)
Also He was, or became, near to it; he drew near to it, or approached it; namely, a thing: and he was, or became, near to attaining it, [and in like manner شارف عَلَيْهِ, as used in the Ṣ and Ḳ in the beginning of art. بلغ, he was, or became, at the point of reaching it, or attaining it, namely, a place,] or of obtaining it, or getting possession of it: [and he was, or became, at the point of experiencing it, (See Bḍ in lxxviii. 14,) and doing it; followed by أَنْ and an aor.:] and, as some say, he looked for it, or expected it; his mind told him of it; he looked for its coming to pass. (TA.) See also 4, in two places.
اشرف It rose; or it was, or became, high or elevated; [so as to overtop, or overlook, what was around it or adjacent to it: overtopped, surmounted, overpeered, overlooked, overhung; was, or became, protuberant, prominent, or projecting: and rose into view, came within sight or view, or became within a commanding, or near, view:] said of a place [&c.]. (Mṣb.) One says of a piece of ground, أَشْرَفَ عَلَى مَا حَوْلَهُ [It rose above, or overtopped, what was around it]. (Sh, TA.) And أَشْرَفَ لِى شَرَفٌ فَمَا زِلْتُ أَرْكُضُ حَتَّى عَلَوْتُهُ [An eminence rose into view to me, and I ceased not to urge on my beast until I ascended, or mounted, upon it]. (TA.)
[Hence,] أَشْرَفْتُ عَلَيْهِ I looked upon it, or viewed it, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,*) from above; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) [I overlooked it, or looked down upon it: and I came in sight of it: got a view of it: and got knowledge of it; became acquainted with it; or knew it: all of which meanings may be intended to be conveyed by the explanation in the Mṣb, which is اِطَّلَعْتُ عَلَيْهِ:] andشَارَفْتُ↓ الشَّىْءَ signifies the same as أَشْرَفْتُ عَلَيْهِ [app. in the first of the senses expl. in this sentence, as well as in another sense expl. in what follows]: (Ṣ, O:) andشَارَفُوهُمْ↓ signifies the same as أَشْرَفُوا عَلَيْهِمْ. (TA.)
And اشرف عَلَى المَوْتِ He (a sick man) was, or became, on the brink, or verge, or at the point, of death. (O, Ḳ.) And اشرف بِهِ عَلَى المَوْتِ [He made him to be on the brink, or verge, or at the point, of death]. (T and Ḳ in art. ذرف.)
And أَشْرَفَتْ نَفْسُهُ عَلَى شَىْءٍ His soul was vehemently eager for a thing. (Mgh. [See also 10.]) إِشْرَافٌ signifies The being eager, and the being vehemently eager: and hence the saying, in a trad., مَنْ أَخَذَ الدُّنْيَا بِإِشْرَافِ نَفْسٍ لَمْ يُبَارَكْ لَهُ فِيهَا [Whoso takes the enjoyments of the present world with eagerness, or vehement eagerness, of soul, he will not be blessed therein]. (TA.)
And اشرف عَلَيْهِ He regarded him with solicitous affection or pity or compassion. (O,* Ḳ.)
[And اشرف لِى He, or it, came within sight, or view, to me; or came within a commanding, or near, view of me: see an ex. voce أَجْهَدَ; and another voce رَبَأَ.]
And [hence,] اشرف لَكَ الشَّىْءُ The thing became, or has become, within thy power or reach; or possible, practicable, or easy, to thee. (TA.)
See also 5, in two places.
تشرّف, said of a man, is from الشَّرَفُ, (O,) and signifies صَارَ مُشَرَّفًا [He became elevated, or exalted, in rank, condition, or estimation; or ennobled]. (Ḳ.)
تشرّف بِهِ He became elevated, or exalted, in rank, condition, or estimation; or ennobled; by, or by means of, him, or it: (MA:) [or he gloried, or prided himself, by reason of it, or in it; i. e.] he reckoned it, (Ṣ,) or regarded it, (O,) as a glory or an honour [to himself], (Ṣ, O,) and a favour. (O.)
تشرّف المَرْبَأَ, (Ṣ, O, TA,) in the Ḳ, erroneously, شَرَّفَهُ; (TA;) andاشرفهُ↓; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) andشارفهُ↓, (Ḳ,) inf. n. مُشَارَفَةٌ; (TA;) He (a man, Ṣ, O) ascended, or mounted, upon the elevated place of observation. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) Andاشرف↓ الشَّىْءَ and عَلَى الشَّىْءِ signify the same as [تشرّفهُ and] تشرّف عَلَيْهِ, i. e. He ascended, or mounted, upon the thing. (TA.)
It is said in a trad., with reference to certain future trials, or conflicts and factions, (فِتَن,) مَنْ تَشَرَّفَ لَهَا تَسْتَشْرِفْهُ↓ i. e. Whoso finds a place of refuge [for escaping, or avoiding them, let them invite him, or cause him, to seek, or take, refuge, virtually meaning] let him seek, or take, refuge therein. (O, TA.*)
تُشُرِّفَ القَوْمُ The people, or party, had their أَشْرَاف [or eminent, or noble, men, pl. of شَرِيف,] slain. (O, Ḳ.)
اشترف He, or it, stood up, or upright, or erect; (Ṣ, O, TA;) and (TA) so استشرف↓ [if this be not a mistranscription, which I incline to think it may be as the former verb (of which see the part. n. below) is not mentioned in the Ḳ]. (Ḳ, TA.)
استشرف الشَّىْءَ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and لِلشَّىْءِ, (Mṣb in art. طمح,) He raised his eyes (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) towards the thing, (O, Ḳ,) or to look at the thing, (Mṣb,) or looking at the thing, (Ṣ,) and expanded his hand over his eyebrow like as does he who shades [his eyes] from the sun. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) A poet says,
* تَطَالَلْتُ وَٱسْتَشْرَفْتُهُ فَرَأَيْتُهُ ** فَقُلْتُ لَهُ آأَنْتَ زَيْدُ الأَرَامِلِ *
[I stretched up myself, and raised my eyes towards him, expanding my hand over my eyebrow like him who is shading his eyes from the sun; and I said to him, Art thou Zeyd-el-Arámil?]. (O.)
Hence, (TA,) أُمِرْنَا أَنْ نَسْتَشْرِفَ العَيْنَ وَالأُذُنَ, (Mgh,* O, Ḳ, TA,) in a trad. (O, TA) relating to the sheep or goat to be slaughtered as a victim on the day of sacrifice, (TA,) means We have been commanded to pay much attention to the eye and the ear, and to examine them carefully, in order that there may not be any such defect as blindness of one eye or mutilation (Mgh,* O, Ḳ, TA) of an ear: (TA:) or, (Mgh, O,) as some say, (O,) [in the Ḳ “that is,”] to seek that they be of high estimation, by being perfect (Mgh,* O, Ḳ) and sound: (Mgh, O:) or, accord. to some, it is from الشُّرْفَةُ signifying “the choice ones,” or “best,” of cattle; and the meaning is, we have been commanded to select them. (TA.)
And يَسْتَشْرِفُ مَعَالِىَ الأُمُورِ ‡ He desires, or seeks, [or raises his eye to,] the means of attaining eminence. (Mṣb in art. شوف.)
استشرف إِبِلَهُمْ means He (a man) smote their camels with the [evil] eye; syn. تَعَيَّنَهَا: (Ṣ, TA:) or he looked at them (تعيّنها) to smite them with the [evil] eye. (TA.)
استشرفهُ حَقَّهُ He defrauded him of his right, or due. (O, Ḳ.)
Q. Q. 1. شَرْيَفْتُ
شَرْيَفْتُ الزَّرْعَ I cut off the شِرْيَاف [q. v.] of the seed-produce; (Ṣ, O;) and so شَرْنَفْتُهُ: (O and Ḳ * in art. شرنف:) of the dial. of El-Yemen: but Az doubts whether the word be with ن; and the ى and ن are both held by him to be augmentative. (O.)
شَرْفٌ: see the next paragraph, near the end.
شَرَفٌ Highness, elevation, exaltation, or eminence, [in rank, condition, or estimation, in respect of religion or of worldly things: (see the first sentence of this art.:)] (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ:) [generally meaning high birth:] glory, honour, dignity, or nobility; syn. مَجْدٌ: or not unless [transmitted] by ancestors: (Ḳ:) [for] accord. to ISk, شَرَفٌ and مَجْدٌ may not be unless [transmitted] by ancestors; but حَسَبٌ and كَرَمٌ may be in a man though he have not ancestors [endowed therewith]: (O:) or, (Ḳ,) accord. to IDrd, (O,) it signifies highness of حَسَب [which means grounds of pretension to respect or honour, consisting in any qualities (either of oneself or of one's ancestors) which are enumerated, or recounted, as causes of glorying]: (O, Ḳ:) andشُرْفَةٌ↓ signifies the same as شَرَفٌ; (TA;) or the same as فَضْلٌ and شَرَفٌ [meaning a favour and a glory or an honour]; as in the saying, أَعُدُّ إِتْيَانَكُمٌ شُرْفَةً [I reckon your coming a favour, and a glory or an honour]; (O, Ḳ;) and أَرَى ذٰلِكَ شُرْفَةً [I regard that as a favour, and a glory or an honour]: (O:) the pl. of شَرَفٌ is أَشْرَافٌ, like as that of سَبَبٌ is أَسْبَابٌ. (TA.) نُهْبَةٌ ذَاتُ شَرَفٍ means Spoil, or booty, of high value, at which men raise their eyes, and look, or which they smite with the [evil] eye: [see اِسْتَشْرَفَ إِبِلَهُمْ:] but the phrase is also related with س. (TA. See سَرَفٌ.)
See also شَرِيفٌ, with which, or with the pls. of which, it is said to be syn.
Also An elevated place; an eminence: (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Ḳ:) accord. to Sh, any piece of ground that overtops what is around it, whether extended or not, only about ten cubits, or five, in length, of little or much breadth in its upper surface: (TA:) pl. أَشْرَافٌ: (TA voce وَطْءٌ:) and مَشَارِفُ الأَرْضِ signifies the high, or elevated, places, or parts, of the earth or ground: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) sing. مَشْرَفٌ↓, with fet-ḥ to the م and ر. (Mṣb. [See also مُشْرَفٌ.]) A poet says,
* آتِى النَّدِىَّ فَلَا يُقَرَّبُ مَجْلِسِى ** وَأَقُودُ لِلشَّرَفِ الرَّفِيعِ حِمَارِى *
[I come to the assembly, and my sitting-place is not made near to the chief person or persons, and I lead to the high elevated place my ass]: he means, I have become unsound in my intellect in consequence of old age, so that no profit is gotten from my opinion, and I am not able to mount my ass from the ground, unless from a high place. (Ṣ.)
[Hence, ‡ The brink, verge, or point, of some event of great magnitude, or of any importance: not well expl. as meaning] the being on the brink, or verge, or at the point, of some event of great importance, good or evil: (O, Ḳ:) one says in the case of good, هُوَ عَلَى شَرَفٍ مِنْ قَضَآءِ حَاجَتِهِ ‡ [He is at the point of accomplishing the object of his want]: and in the case of evil, هُوَ عَلَى شَرَفٍ مِنَ الهَلَاكِ ‡ [He is on the brink, &c., of destruction]. (O, TA.)
And ‡ The hump of a camel. (O, Ḳ, TA.)
And app. sing. of أَشْرَافٌ in a sense expl. below: see the latter word. (TA.)
And A heat; a single run, or a run at once, to a goal, or limit: (O, Ḳ:) or, (Ḳ,) accord. to Fr, about a mile: (O, Ḳ:) or about two miles. (TA as from the Ḳ and on the authority of Fr.) One says, عَدَا شَرَفًا أَوْ شَرَفَيْنِ [He ran a heat, or two heats]: (O:) and [in like manner,] اِسْتَنَّتٌ شَرَفًا أَوْ شَرَفَيْنِ, (O, Ḳ,) occurring in a trad., said of a mare, or of horses. (O.)
Also, (O, TA,) accord. to IAạr, (O,) A red clay or earth: and i. q. مَغْرَةٌ [i. e. red ochre]; as alsoشَرْفٌ↓: accord. to Lth, a kind of trees, having a red dye: and said to be the same as [the Pers.] دار ۩رنيان [i. e. دَارْ ۩َرْنِيَان, meaning Brazil-wood, which is commonly called in Arabic بَقَّم]. (O, TA:* in the former of which, the Pers. word here mentioned is written without the points to the ۩; and in the latter, الدابرنيان.)
شُرْفَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph, first quarter.
Also The choice ones, or best, of مَال [meaning cattle]. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
The شُرْفَة of a [palace, or pavilion, or other building such as is called] قَصْر (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) [and of a mosque] is well-known; (Ḳ;) [An acroterial ornament, forming a single member of a cresting of a wall or of the crown of a cornice, generally of a fanciful form, and pointed, or small, at the top:] pl. شُرَفٌ, (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) a pl. of mult., and شُرُفَاتٌ and شُرَفَاتٌ and شُرْفَاتٌ, which are pls. of pauc., or, as some say, شرفات [i. e. شُرُفَاتٌ] is pl. ofشُرُفَةٌ↓, with two dammehs: EshShiháb says that شُرْفَات is expl. as meaning the highest portions of a قَصْر; but what are thus termed are only what are built on the top of a wall, distinct from one another, [side by side, like merlons of a parapet,] according to a well-known form: (TA:) the شُرْفَة is what is called by the [common] people شُرَّافَة↓: (Ḥam p. 824:) the شُرَّافَة of a mosque is a word used by the lawyers, and is one of their mistakes, as IB has notified: so says MF: its pl. is شَرَارِيفُ. (TA.)
The شُرُفَات (thus with two dammehs, Ḳ) of a horse are The neck and قَطَاة [i. e. croup, or rump, or part between the hips or haunches,] thereof. (O, Ḳ.)
شُرُفَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
شَرِيفٌ High, elevated, exalted, or eminent, (Ṣ, O,* Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) [in rank, condition, or estimation,] in respect of religion or of worldly things: (TA:) [generally meaning high-born, or noble:] possessing glory, honour, dignity, or nobility: or such, and having also [such] ancestry: (TA:) [using it as not implying highness, or nobility, of ancestry,] you say, هُوَ شَرِيفٌ اليَوْمَ [He is high, or noble, to-day], andشَارِفٌ↓ عَنْ قَلِيلٍ as meaning one who will be شَرِيف [after a little while]: (Fr, Ṣ, Ḳ:) thepl. [of pauc.] is أَشْرَافٌ and [of mult.] شُرَفَآءُ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) andشَرَفٌ↓, so in the Ḳ, app. denoting that this last is one of the pls. of شريف, and it is said in the O that شَرَفٌ is syn. with شُرَفَآءُ; but in the L it is said that it is syn. with شَرِيفٌ; and hence the saying هُوَ شَرَفُ قَوْمِهِ meaning He is the شَرِيف of his people, and كَرَمُهُمْ meaning the كَرِيم of them; and thus it has been expl. as used in a trad.: (TA:) [but both these assertions are probably correct; for it seems to be, agreeably with analogy, an inf. n. used as an epithet, and therefore applicable to a single person and to a pl. number, and also to two persons, and likewise to a female as well as to a male.]
[By the modern Arabs, and the Turks and Persians, it is also applied, as a title of honour, to Any descendant of the Prophet; like سَيِّد. And, with the article ال, particularly to the descendant of the Prophet who is The governor of Mekkeh; now always a vassal of the Turkish Sultán.]
شُرَافِىٌّ, applied to a [lizard of the kind called] ضَبّ, and to a jerboa, Large in the ears, and in the body: (TA:) and so شُرَافِيَّةٌ applied to a she-camel; (O, Ḳ, TA;) as alsoشَرْفَآءُ↓. (TA.) And أُذُنٌ شُرَافِيَّةٌ i. q. شُفَارِيَّةٌ [q. v.], (Ḳ, TA,) or An ear that is high, long, and having hair upon it. (IDrd, O, TA.) See also أُذُنٌ شَرْفَآءُ, voce أَشْرَفُ.
Also A kind of white garments or cloths: (O, Ḳ:*) or a garment, or piece of cloth, that is purchased from a country of the foreigners adjacent to the land of the Arabs. (Aṣ, O, Ḳ.*)
شُرَّافَةٌ; pl. شَرَارِيفُ: see شُرْفَةٌ.
شِرْيَافٌ (Ṣ, O, Ḳ) and شِرْنَافٌ (O and Ḳ in art. شرنف) [but see Q. Q. 1] The leaves of seedproduce that have become so long and abundant that one fears its becoming marred; wherefore they are cut off. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
شَارِفٌ: see شَرِيفٌ.
Applied to a she-camel, † High [app. meaning much advanced] in age: (A, TA:) or advanced in age; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) decrepit; (IAạr, Ḳ;) as also شَارِفَةٌ: (Ḳ:) [see دَلُوقٌ, in three places:] pl. شُرْفٌ, like بُزْلٌ and عُوذٌ pls. of بَازِلٌ and عَائِذٌ, (Ṣ, O,) or شُرُفٌ, like كُتُبٌ, (Ḳ,) or the latter is allowable in poetry, (O,) or the former is a contraction of the latter, (IAth, TA,) and شَوَارِفُ [also pl. of شَارِفَةٌ] (O, Ḳ) and شُرَّفٌ and شُرُوفٌ: (Ḳ:) it is said that شَارِفٌ is not applied to the he-camel; but it is so applied, as well as to the she-camel, accord. to the Towsheeh of El-Jelál. (TA.) Hence, as being likened to black decrepit she-camels, (Aboo-Bekr, TA,) الشُّرُفُ الجُونُ, with two dammehs, [which I think a mistake, unless it mean with a ḍammeh to each word,] (Ḳ,) or الشَّرْفُ الجُونُ, (O, IAth, TA,) occurring in a trad., meaning † [Trials, or conflicts and factions,] like portions of the dark night: (O,* Ḳ,* TA:) thus expl. by the Prophet: (O, TA:) but some relate it otherwise, with ق, (Ḳ,) saying الشُّرْقُ الجون, pl. of شَارِقٌ, (O,* TA,) meaning “[trials, &c.,] rising (O, Ḳ, TA) from the direction of the east.” (O, TA.)
Also applied to an arrow, as meaning Old: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) and applied to a garment or a piece of cloth [app. in the same sense]: (A and TA voce طَرِيدٌ:) or an arrow long since laid by [expl. by بَعِيدُ العَهْدِ بِالصِّيَابَةِ; but I think that the right reading is بعيد العهد لِالصِّيَانَةِ, and have assumed this to be the case in my rendering]: or of which the feathers and the sinews [wherewith they are bound] have become uncompact: or slender and long. (TA.)
دَنٌّ شَارِفٌ [A wine-jar] of which the wine is old. (TA.)
And شَارِفٌ [alone] A receptacle for wine, such as a خَابِيَة and the like thereof. (O, Ḳ.)
الشَّارُوفُ A kind of cord or rope; syn. حَبْلٌ: [so in the O, and in one of my copies of the Ṣ: in my other copy of the Ṣ, and in the Ḳ, جَبَلٌ, i. e. the name of a certain mountain:] a postclassical word. (Ṣ, O.)
And شَارُوفٌ also signifies A broom: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) a Pers. word, (Ṣ,) arabicized, from جَارُوبٌ, (O, Ḳ,) originally جَاىْ رُوبْ, which means “a place-sweeper.” (O.)
أَشْرَفُ [More, and most, high, elevated, exalted, or eminent, in rank, condition, or estimation; &c.; generally meaning more, and most, high-born or noble; (see شَرِيفٌ;)] surpassing in شَرَف. (Ṣ, O.)
مَنْكِبٌ أَشْرَفُ A high shoulder; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) such as has a goodly rising; which implies what is termed إِهْدَآء [inf. n. of أَهْدَأَهُ, and here app. meaning the “being curved in the back”]. (TA.) And أُذُنٌ شَرْفَآءُ A long ear; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) standing up; rising above what is next to it: and soاذن شُرَافِيَّةٌ↓. (TA.)
See also شُرَافِىٌّ [أَشْرَفُ also signifies Having a prominent, or an apparent, ear: opposed to أَسَكُّ, q. v.]
[Hence,] الأَشْرَفُ is an appellation of The bat; (O, Ḳ, TA;) because its ears are prominent and apparent: it is bare of downy and other feathers, and is viviparous, not oviparous: so in the saying of Bishr Ibn-El-Moatemir,
* وَطَائِرٌ أَشْرَفُ ذُو جُرْدَةٍ ** وَطَائِرٌ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَكْرُ *
[And a flying thing that has prominent and apparent ears and a denuded body, and a flying thing that has no nest]: (O, TA:) in the Ḳ is added, and another bird, that has no nest, &c.: but this is taken from an explanation of the latter hemistich of the verse cited above; which explanation is as follows: (TA:) the bird that has no nest is one of which the Bahránees [so in the TA, but accord. to the O “the sailors,”] tell that it does not alight save while it makes, of the dust, or earth, a place in which it lays its eggs, and which it covers over; then it flies into the air, and its eggs break open of themselves at the expiration of the term thereof; and when its young ones are able to fly, they do after the habit of their parents. (O, L, TA: and the same is said, less fully, in the Ḳ.)
مَدِينَةٌ شَرْفَآءُ A city having شُرَف, (Mgh, O, Ḳ,*) pl. of شُرْفَةٌ [q. v.]: (O:) the pl. of أَشْرَفُ and of شَرْفَآءُ, accord. to rule, is شُرْفٌ. (Mgh. [In the copies of the Ḳ, الشُّرُفُ is erroneously said to be pl. of الشَّرْفَآءُ.]) It is said in a trad. of Ibn-ʼAbbás, أُمِرْنَا أَنْ نَبْنِىَ المَدَائِنَ شُرْفًا وَالمَسَاجِدَ جُمًّا i. e. We have been commanded to build cities with شُرَف and mosques without شُرَف. (Mgh, O.*)
أَشْرَافٌ The ears and nose of a man: (O, Ḳ, TA:) its sing. in this sense is not mentioned: it is app. شَرَفٌ↓; like سَبَبٌ, sing. of أَسْبَابٌ. (TA.)
تَشْرِيفٌ inf. n. of 2 [q. v.]. (Ṣ &c.)
[And also a post-classical term applied to An honorary present, such as a garment &c.: and a letter, i. e. an epistle, considered as conferring honour: pl. تَشْرِيفَاتٌ.]
مَشْرَفٌ: see شَرَفٌ, in the middle of the paragraph: and see also what here next follows.
مُشْرَفٌ, (O, Ḳ,) like مُكْرَمٌ, (Ḳ,) orمَشْرَفٌ↓ [q. v. voce شَرَفٌ], (so in my two copies of the Ṣ,) A place from which one overlooks, i. e. looks upon, or views, [a thing] from above. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
Hence the saying in a trad., مَا جَآءَكَ مِنْ هٰذَا المَالِ وَأَنْتَ غَيْرُ مُشْرَفٍ وَلَا سَائِلٍ فَخْذْهُ (O, TA) i. e. [What comes to thee of this property] thou not coveting nor looking for it [nor asking it, take it]. (O.)
مُشْرِفٌ [part. n. of 4;] High; (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb;) [or overtopping; &c.;] applied to a mountain, (Ṣ,) or a place. (Mgh, Mṣb.)
سُيُوفٌ مَشْرَفِيَّةٌ Certain swords, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) so called in relation to مَشَارِفُ, (Ṣ,) or in relation to مَشَارِفُ الشَّامِ, (O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) i. e. certain towns, or villages, of the land of the Arabs, near to the رِيف [q. v.]: (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ:) so says AO: (Ṣ, O:) or, as some say, this is a mistake, and they are so called in relation to a place of El-Yemen: (Mṣb:) [or, accord. to some, in relation to المَشَارِفُ, certain towns, or villages, near Howrán: (see De Sacy's Chrest. Ar., sec. ed., iii. 53:)] and it is said that مَشْرَف was the name of a blacksmith who made swords: (TA:) one says سَيْفٌ مَشْرَفِىٌّ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,) not مَشَارِفِىٌّ, because a rel. n. is not formed from a pl. of the measure of مَشَارِفُ. (Ṣ, O.)
مُشَرَّفٌ [Elevated, or exalted, in rank, condition, or estimation; or ennobled]; (Ḳ, TA;) an epithet applied to a man; from الشَّرَفُ. (TA.)
Also A garment, or piece of cloth, dyed with the red clay or earth [&c.] called شَرَف. (IAạr, TA.)
مَشْرُوفٌ (Ṣ, TA) and مَشْرُوفٌ عَلَيْهِ (Z, TA) Overcome, or surpassed, in شَرَف [i. e. highness, elevation, or eminence, of rank, condition, or estimation; or nobility]. (Ṣ, Z, TA.)
مُشْتَرِفٌ A horse high in make. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)