دنق دنو ده
دَنَا, (T, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) first pers. دَنَوْتُ, (T, Ṣ,) aor. يَدْنُو, (T, Mṣb,) inf. n. دُنُوٌّ (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) and دَنَاوَةٌ, (M, Ḳ,) He, or it, was, or became, near; drew near, or approached; (T, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoادنى↓; (IAạr, T, Ḳ;) andدنّى↓, inf. n. تَدْنِيَةٌ; (IAạr, T;) andدانى↓, inf. n. مُدَانَاةٌ; (KL, but only the inf. n. is there mentioned;) andاِدَّنَى↓, inf. n. اِدِّنَآءٌ: (TA:) it is either in person, or substance, or in respect of predicament, and in place, and in time: (El-Harállee, TA:) you say, دَنَا مِنْهُ, (M, Mgh, Mṣb,) and دَنَوْتُ مِنْهُ, (T, Ṣ,) and إِلَيْهِ, (M, Mṣb,) and لَهُ, (TA,) and عَلَيْهِ occurs in a verse of Sá'ideh as meaning مِنْهُ, (M,) He, or it, and I, was, or became, near, &c., to him, or it: (T, M, Mgh, Mṣb:) [and in like manner you use the other verbs mentioned above, except دانى↓, which is immediately trans.: or دَنَا مِنْهُ with دَنَاوَةٌ for its inf. n. means, or means also, He was near to him in respect of kindred; was related to him: for] دَنَاوَةٌ is syn. with قَرَابَةٌ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and قُرْبَى: (M, Ḳ:) you say, بَيْنَهُمَا دَنَاوَةٌ meaning قَرَابَةٌ [i. e. Between them two is relationship]; (Ṣ;) and مَا تَزْدَادُ مِنَّا إِلَّا قُرْبًا وَدَنَاوَةٍ [Thou increasest not save in nearness and relationship to us]. (ISk, T, Ṣ.) A rájiz says,
* مَا لِى أَرَاهُ دَالِفًا قَدْدُنْىَ لَهُ *
meaning دُنِىَ لَهُ [i. e. What hath happened to me that I see him walking gently or with short steps, or rendered lowly by age, having been approached by death?]: it is from دَنَوْتُ, but the و is changed into ى because of the kesreh before it, and then the ن is made quiescent: and there are similar instances of contraction of verbs: but [ISd says,] I know not دُنْىَ except in this instance; and Aṣ used to say of the poem in which this occurs, This rejez is not ancient: it is app. of Khalaf El-Ahmar or some other of the Muwelleds. (M.) One says also, دَنَتِ الشَّمْسُ لِلْمَغُرُوبِ andأَدْنَت↓ [The sun was, or became, near to setting]. (M.)
دَنِىَ, (T, M, Ḳ, TA, [in the CK, ما كانَ دَنْيَا ولقد دَنا is erroneously put for مَا كَانَ دَنِيًا وَلَقَدْ دَنِىَ,]) like رَضِىَ, (TA,) aor. يَدْنَى, (T,) inf. n. دَنًا (T, M, Ḳ) and دَنَايَةٌ, (T, Ḳ, TA,) or دِنَايَةٌ; (M, accord. to the TT; and so in the CK; [app. a mistranscription occasioned by a misunderstanding of what here follows;]) the ى [in دَنِىَ] being substituted for و because of the nearness of the kesreh; all on the authority of Lḥ; (M;) and دَنُوَ, aor. يَدْنُو, without ء, inf. n. دَنَآءَةٌ, with ء, (ISk, T,) and دُنُوٌّ; (T;) or دَنَا, aor. يَدْنُو, inf. n. دَنَاوَةٌ; i. q. دَنَأَ and دَنُؤَ; (Mṣb;) [i. e.] He (a man, T, M) was, or became, such as is termed دَنِىٌّ↓; (T, M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) and دَنِىْءٌ; (Mṣb;) meaning weak; contemptible (خَسِيسٌ); not profitable to any one; who falls short in everything upon which he enters: (T: [like مُدَنٍّ:]) or low, ignoble, or mean; (سَاقِطٌ;) weak; (M, Ḳ;) such as, when night affords him covert, will not quit his place, by reason of weakness: (M:) or low, ignoble, or mean, (لَئِيمٌ,) in his actions, or conduct; bad, evil, or foul; accord. to the explanation of دَنَا by Es-Sarakustee: but some distinguish between دَنِىْءٌ and دَنِىٌّ; making the former to signify “low, ignoble, or mean;” (لَئِيمٌ;) and the latter, خَسِيسٌ [app. as meaning contemptible]. (Mṣb, and so the latter is explained in the Mgh.)
It is said in a trad., سَمُّوا وَسَمِّتُواوَ دَنُّوا, i.e. [Pronounce ye the name of God, (i. e. say, In the name of God,) and invoke a blessing upon him at whose abode or table ye eat, (see art. سمت,) and] make your words to be near together in praising God. (M.) And in another trad., إِذَا أَكَلْتُمْ فَسَمُّوا ٱللّٰهَ وَدَنُّوا, i. e. [When ye eat, pronounce the name of God, and] eat of that which is near you: (M:) or إِذَا أَكَلْتُمْ فَدَنُّوا, i. e. [When ye eat,] eat of that which is next you. (Ṣ.)
دَنَّى, (T, M,) inf. n. تَدْنِيَةٌ, (T,) also signifies He (a man) sought after mean, paltry, or contemptible, things. (Lḥ, T, M.) And دنّى فِى الأُمُورِ, (inf. n. as above, Ṣ, Ḳ,) He pursued small matters, and mean, paltry, or contemptible: (T, Ṣ, TA:) in the Ḳ, erroneously, and great. (TA.)
Also He was, or became, weak; syn. ضَعُفَ. (Ṣ and TA in art. دون.)
دانى, inf. n. مُدَانَاةٌ: see 1, in two places. You say also, دَانَيْتُ الأَمْرَ I was, or became, near to [doing, or experiencing,] the affair, or event. (M.)
دَانَيْتُ القَيْدَ لِلْبَعِيرِ I made the shackles, or hobbles, strait, or contracted, to the camel. (M, Ḳ.) And دَانَى القَيْدُ قَيْنَىِ البَعِيرِ (M, TA) The shackles, or hobbles, straitened, or contracted, [the two parts of the camel that were the places thereof.] (TA.) Dhu-r-Rummeh says,
* دَانَى لَهُ القَيْدُ فِى دَيْمُومَةٍ قَذَفٍ ** قَيْنَيْهِ وَٱنْحَسَرَتْ عَنْهُ الأَنَاعِيمُ *
[The shackles, or hobbles, straitened to him, in a far-extending, wide desert, the two parts of him that were the places thereof, and enjoyments became removed from him]. (M.) And you say also, دَانَيْتُ بَيْنَ الأَمْرَيْنِ I made the two affairs, or events, to be nearly uninterrupted; syn. قَارَبْتُ: (T, Ṣ, Mṣb:) or I made the two affairs, or events, to be connected; syn. جَمَعْتُ. (M.)
ادناهُ He made him, or it, to be, or become, near; to draw near, or to approach; he drew near, or brought near, him, or it; (Ṣ, M, Mgh, Ḳ;) as alsoدنّاهُ↓, (M, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَدْنِيَةٌ. (Ḳ.)
[Hence,] أَدْنَتْ ثَوْبَهَا عَلَيْهَا She (a woman) let down her garment upon her, and covered, or veiled, herself with it. (Mgh.) And أَدْنَيْتُ السِّتْرَ I let down the veil, or curtain, [for the purpose of concealment.] (Mṣb.) It is said in the Ḳur [xxxiii. 59], يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ [They shall let down upon them a portion of their outer wrapping-garments]; (Mgh;) meaning they shall let down a portion of their outer wrapping-garments over their faces, when they go forth for their needful purposes, except one eye. (Jel.)
ادنى is also intrans.: see 1, in two places.
[Hence,] أَدْنَتْ, said of a she-camel, (Ṣ, TA,) and of a woman, (TA,) She was, or became, near to bringing forth. (Ṣ, TA.) And أَدْنَتْ عَلَى رَأْسِ الوَلَدِ [a phrase similar to أَضْرَعَتْ عَلَى رَأْسِ الوَلَدِ, q. v.]. (Occurring in a verse cited in the TA in art. فكه.)
And ادنى He lived a strait life, (IAạr, T, Ḳ,) after easiness and plenty. (IAạr, T.)
تدنّى He (a man, Ṣ) drew near, or approached, by little and little. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
تَدَانَوْا They drew near, or approached, one to another. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
[Hence,] تدانى It (a thing) drew together, or contracted; or became drawn together or contracted. (M* and L in art. قلص.)
And تَدَانَتْ إِبِلُ الرَّجُلَ The camels of the man became few and weak. (M.)
اِدَّنَى, inf. n. اِدِّنَآءٌ: see 1.
استدناهُ He sought, desired, or demanded, of him, nearness, or approach; (M, Ḳ, TA;) he sought, or desired, to make him draw near, or approach: and he drew him near, or caused him to approach. (MA. [See also 4.])
دَنًا inf. n. of دَنِىَ, q. v. (T, M, Ḳ.)
أَدْنَى دَنًا: see ادنى.
هُوَ ٱبْنُ عَمّ دِنْىٍ and دِنْيًا and دِنْيَا andدُنْيَا↓ mean [He is a son of a paternal uncle] closely related; syn. لَحًّا [q. v.]: when you pronounce the د with damm, you do not make the word perfectly decl.: when you pronounce it with kesr, you make it either perfectly or imperfectly decl.: but when you prefix عَمّ to a determinate noun, دِنْى may not be in the gen. case: for instance, you say, هُوَ ٱبْنُ عَمِّهِ دِنْيًا, i. e. [He is the son of his paternal uncle] closely related; as alsoدِنْيَةٌ↓; because دِنْى, being indeterminate, cannot be an epithet applied to that which is determinate: (Ṣ:) and [in like manner] you say, هُوَ ٱبْنُ عَمِّى, or ابن خَالِى, or ابن عَمَّتِى, or ابن خَالَتِى, or ابن أَخِى, or ابن أُخْتِى, (M, Ḳ,) all mentioned by Lḥ, the last two as on the authority of Aboo-Safwán, but all except the first and second as unknown to Ks and to Aṣ, (M,) followed by دِنْيَةٌ↓ and دِنْيًا and دِنْيَا andدُنْيَا↓, (M, Ḳ, TA,) the last two without tenween, (TA; [and so written in the M; but in the CK and my MṢ. copy of the Ḳ, in the place of these two is put دُنْيًا, which is disallowed by J;]) meaning [He is the son of my paternal uncle, and the son of my maternal uncle, &c.,] closely related: (M, Ḳ:) andهُوَ عَمُّهُ دُنٌيَا↓ andدِنْيَةً↓ and دِنْيًا and دِنْيَا [He is his paternal uncle closely related]: (Ks, T:) Lḥ says that the و is changed into ى in دِنْيَةً↓ and دِنٌيًا because of the nearness of the kesreh and the weakness of the intervening letter, as is the case in فِتْيَةٌ and عِلْيَةٌ: but it seems that these words are originally دُنْيَا↓, i. e., by a relationship, or uterine relationship, nearer to me than others; and that the change of the letter is made only to show that the ى is that of the fem. of أَدْنَى. (M.) You say also,هُمْ رَهْطُهُ دِنْيَةً↓ They are his people, and his tribe, closely related. (Ṣ and TA in art. رهط.)
دِنْيَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph, in five places.
دُنْيَا fem. of أَدْنَى [q. v.].
دُنْيِىٌّ: see what next follows.
دُنْيَوِىٌّ: see what next follows.
دُنْيَاوِىٌّ [Of, or relating to, the present world, or state of existence; worldly:] a rel. n. from الدُّنْيَا; (T, Ṣ;) as alsoدُنٌيَوِىٌّ↓ andدُنْيِىٌّ↓. (Ṣ.)
دَنِىٌّ i. q. قَرِيبٌ [as meaning Near, in person, or substance, or in respect of predicament, and in place, and in time: (see 1, first sentence: and see also دَانٍ:) and a relation]: (T, Ṣ:) and a friend; or a sincere, or secret, or particular, friend; syn. خُلْصَانٌ. (T.) It has these significations (of قريب and خلصان) in the prov. كُلُّ دَنِىٍّ دُوَنهُ دَنِىٌّ [app. meaning There is a relation, or a friend, nearer than every other relation, or friend; like another prov., namely, دُونَ كُلِّ قُرَيْبَى قُرْبَى, for the meaning and application of which see art. قرب: Freytag renders it, “Quod attinet ad quemlibet propinquum (amicum), præter eum est propinquus:” (Arab. Prov. ii. 357:) and he adds, “Proverbii sensus esse videtur: Quilibet propinquus seu amicus unicus non est; sed præter eum est alius”]: (T, Meyd:) so says AZ. (Meyd.)
As an epithet applied to a man, signifying Weak; contemptible; &c.: see 1, near the end of the paragraph: [but J says that] as meaning دُونٌ, it is [دَنِىْءٌ,] with ء: (Ṣ:) the pl. is أَدْنِيَآءُ. (T, M.) [In the CK, by a mistranscription mentioned above (voce دَنِىَ), دَنْىٌ is made to signify the same.]
دَنِيَّهٌ A low, or base, quality, property, natural disposition, habit, practice, or action; syn. نَقِيصَةٌ; (Mgh;) or such as is blamed; originally دَنِيْئَةٌ: (TA:) pl. دَنَايَا. (Ḥar p. 327.) Hence the saying of Ibn-Háritheh, المَنِيَّةَ لَا الدَّنِيَّةَ, meaning I choose death rather than, or not, disgrace. (Ḥar ubi suprà.)
دَانٍ [Being, or becoming, near; drawing near, or approaching: and hence, near; like دَنِىٌّ:] act. part. n. of دَنَا مِنْهُ. (Mṣb.)
أَدْنَى Nearer, and nearest; opposed to أَقْصَى: (TA:) fem. دُنْيَا; (M, TA;) in which the [radical] و is changed into ى, as in عُلْيَا and قُصْيَا: (ISd, TA voce بُقْوَى:) [the pl. of the masc. is أَدَانٍ and أَدْنَوْنَ; the latter in the accus. and gen. أَدْنَيْنِ: and] the pl. of the fem., دُنًى, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) like كُبَرٌ pl. of كُبْرَى, and صُغَرٌ pl. of صُغْرَى; (Ṣ, TA;) said by some to be extr. and strange [in respect of usage]; and El-Mutanebbee has been blamed for using it; (MF, TA;) but in the case referred to he has used الدُّنَى for الدُّنْيَا, [not as a pl.,] suppressing the ى by poetic license. (TA.) [Hence,] غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ فِى أَدْنَى الأَرْضِ, in the Ḳur xxx. 1 and 2, The Greeks have been overcome in the nearer, or nearest, part of the land. (Bḍ, Jel.) And الجَمْرَةُ الدُّنْيَا [The nearest heap of pebbles;] the heap of pebbles nearest to Minè. (TA. [See art. جمر.]) And السَّمَآءُ الدُّنْيَا [The nearest heaven; i. e. the lowest;] the heaven that is the nearest to us: (T, TA:) also called سَمَآءُ الدُّنْيَا [which means the heaven of the present world; as will be seen from what follows]. (TA.) See also exs. of the fem. in the paragraph commencing with the words هُوَ ٱبْنُ عَمٍّ دِنْىٍ, in four places.
Also Former, and first; and fore, and foremost; opposed to آخِرٌ. (TA.) [Hence,]لَقِيتُهُ أَدْنَى دَنِىٍّ↓ (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA) andأَدْنَى دَنًا↓, (Ḳ, TA, [in the CK, erroneously, ادنى دَنّىٰ and ادنى دَنِىٍّ,]) i. e. I met him the first thing. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) [And أَدْنَى الفَمِ The fore, or foremost, part of the mouth.] And الدُّنْيَا [for الدَّارُ الدُّنْيَا, and الحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا, The former dwelling, or abode, and life; i. e. the present world, and life, or state of existence]; contr. of الآخِرَةُ: (M, Ḳ:) [or] it is so called because of its nearness: (T, Ṣ:) [and may be rendered the sublunary abode, &c.: and the inferior abode, &c. It also signifies The enjoyments, blessings, or good, of the present world, or life; worldly blessings or prosperity, &c.] And sometimes it is with tenween, (Ḳ, TA,) when used indeterminately: (TA:) [thus,] IAar mentions the saying مَا لَهُ دُنْيًا وَلَا آخِرَةٌ [as meaning He has none of the enjoyments, or blessings, of the present world, nor in prospect any enjoyments, or blessings, of the world to come]; with tenween. (M, TA.) And you say, بَاعَ دُنْيَاهُ بِآخِرَتِهِ [He purchased his enjoyments of the present world at the expense of his enjoyments of the world to come]. (Z, TA in art. بيع.) And اَبْنُ الدُّنْيَا means The rich man. (Mṣb in art. بنى.)
Also More, and most, apt, fit, or proper: thus in the Ḳur [xxxiii. 59], in the phrase ذٰلِكَ أَدْنَى أَنْ يُعَرَفْنَ [That will be more, or most, apt, fit, or proper, that they may be known]; (Ksh, Mgh;) i. e., that they may be known to be free women, as distinguished from female slaves, who did not cover their faces. (Jel.)
Also Less [in number or quantity &c.], and least [therein]; opposed to أَكْثَرُ. (TA.) وَلَا أَدْنَى مِنْ ذٰلِكَ وَلَاأَكْثَرَ, in the Ḳur [lviii. 8], means Nor less in number than that, nor more in number. (Bḍ.) And وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ ٱلْأَدْنَى دُونَ ٱلْعَذَابِ ٱلْأَكْبَرِ, in the Ḳur [xxxii. 21, lit. And we will assuredly make them to taste of the smaller punishment besides the greater punishment], means, accord. to Zj, whatever punishment is inflicted in the present world and the punishment of the world to come. (M.)
Also Worse, [or inferior in quality,] and worst; or more, and most, low, ignoble, base, vile, mean, or weak; opposed to خَيْرٌ. (TA.) It is said in the Ḳur [ii. 58], أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ ٱلَّذِى هُوَ أَدْنَى بِٱلَّذِى هُوَ خَيْرٌ [Will ye take in exchange that which is worse, or inferior, for that which is better? or], accord. to Zj, meaning that which is less in value [for that which is better]? ادنى being thus, without ء: Fr says that it is here from الدَّنَآءَةٌ: and Zuheyr El-Kurkubee [or (accord. to some) El-Furkubee] read أَدْنَأُ. (T.)
مُدْنٍ and مُدْنِيَةٌ, applied to a she-camel, (M, Ḳ,) and to a woman, (M,) Near to bringing forth. (M, Ḳ.)
مُدَنٍّ, applied to a man, Weak; (Ṣ, TA;) contemptible (خَسِيسٌ); not profitable to any one; who falls short in everything upon which he enters; [like دَنِىٌّ;] (TA;) or falling short of accomplishing that which it behooves him to do: (AHeyth, T:) also, for the sake of rhyme, [by poetic license,] written مُدَنْ. (T.)