خوض خوف خوق
1. ⇒ خوف ⇒ خاف
خَافَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally خَوِفَ, (Lth, L, &c.,) first pers. خِفْتُ, (TA,) aor. يَخَافُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.,) originally يَخْوَفُ, (L,) imperative خَفْ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. خَوْفٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) andخِيفٌ↓, [originally خِوْفٌ,] (Lḥ, TA,) erroneously written in the Ḳ with fet-ḥ [to the خ], but some say that this is a simple subst., not an inf. n., (TA,) andخِيفَةٌ↓, (Lḥ, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally خِوْفَةٌ, (Ḳ,) but some say that this also is a simple subst., not an inf. n., (TA,) and [therefore] its pl. is خِيفٌ, (Lḥ, JK, Ṣ, and so in the CK,) in [some of] the copies of the Ḳ erroneously written خِيَفٌ, (TA,) or this [as well as the next preceding] may be an inf. n., for some few inf. ns. have pls., (ISd, TA,) and مَخَافَةٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally مَخْوَفَةٌ, for which last, the first of these inf. ns. is used by a poet, and therefore made fem., (TA,) He feared; he was afraid or frightened or terrified; syn. فَزِعَ. (Ḳ.) It is also trans.: (Mṣb:) you say, خَافَهُ andتخوّفهُ↓ [He feared, or was afraid of, him, or it]; (Mṣb, TA;) both signifying the same: (TA:) [and so خَافَ مِنْهُ; or this may mean he feared what might happen to him from him, or it:] andتخوّف↓ عَلَيْهِ شَيْئًا, meaning خَافَهُ [i. e. خَافَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْئًا He feared for him a thing]: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) and خَاَفَهُ عَلَى مَالِهِ andتخوّفهُ↓ عَلَيْهِ [He feared him, or it, for his property]. (Mgh.)
[Hence,] it is also used in the sense of ظَنَّ [He thought, or opined]: and in this case, the Arabs sometimes use it in the same manner as a verb signifying an oath, and give it the same kind of complement; as in an ex. cited voce دَرِدَ [q. v.]. (Ṣ in art. درد.) And He knew. (Lḥ, Kr, Ḳ.) Hence, وَإِنِ ٱمْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنْ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا [And if a woman know that there is, on the part of her husband, injurious treatment, or unkindness, or estrangement], (Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [iv. 127]. (TA.) And hence also, فَمَنْ خَافَ مِنْ مُوصٍ جَنَفًا [And he who knoweth that there is, on the part of the testator, an inclining to a wrong course, or a declining from the right course,, &c.], (Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [ii. 178]; thus explained by Lḥ. (TA.)
خَافَهُ, (Ṣ,) first pers. خُفْتُهُ, (Ḳ,) aor. يَخُوفُهُ, (Ṣ,) He exceeded him in fear. (Ṣ, Ḳ.*) You say,خَاوَفَهُ↓ فَخَافَهُ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. of the former مُخَاوَفَهُ, (TA,) i. e. [He vied with him to see which of them would exceed the other in fear, and] he exceeded him in fear. (Ṣ.)
2. ⇒ خوّف
خوّفهُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَخْوِيفٌ, (TA,) i. q. أَخَافَهُ. (Mṣb, Ḳ.) See the latter, in two places. He put fear into him. (JK, TA.) خَوِّفْنَا [app. addressed to God] is mentioned by Lḥ as meaning Render the Ḳur-án and the Traditions beautiful to us in order that we may [give heed thereto and] fear. (TA.)
He made him to be in such a state, or condition, that men feared him; (JK, Ḳ;) he made him to be feared by men. (M.) Hence, in the Ḳur [iii. 169], إِنَّمَا ذٰلِكُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ, i. e. [Verily that is the devil:] he causeth his friends to be feared by you: [or that devil causeth, &c.:] or, as Th says, causeth you to fear by his friends. (TA.)
He diminished it, lessened it, or took from it; and so خوّف مِنْهُ. (TA.) [See also 5.]
خوّف غَنَبَهُ He sent away his sheep, or goats, flock by flock. (TA.)
3. ⇒ خاوف
see 1, last sentence.
4. ⇒ اخوف ⇒ اخاف
اخافهُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِخَافَةٌ (Ṣ) and إِخَافٌ, like كِتَابٌ, (Lḥ, TA,) [but the latter is irreg. and rare,] He, or it, (an affair, a case, or an event, Mṣb,) caused him, or made him, to fear, or be afraid; put him in fear; frightened, or terrified, him; (TA;) andخوّفهُ↓, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَخْوِيفٌ, (Ṣ, TA,) signifies the same. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) So in the phrase اخاف الثَّغْرُ [The enemies' frontier caused to fear,, &c.; was insecure:] or fear entered from it. (TA.) You say also, مَالَ الحَائِطُ فَأَخَافَ النَّاسَ [The wall leaned, and caused the people to fear]. (Mṣb.) And أَخَافَ اللُّصُوصُ الطَّرِيقَ [for أَخَافَ اللُّصُوصُ أَهْلَ الطَّرِيقِ The robbers caused the people of the road, or the passengers thereof, to fear,, &c.; or it may be rendered the robbers caused the road to be insecure]. (Mṣb.) And أَخَفْتُهُ الأَمْرَ فَخَافَهُ [I caused him to fear the thing, or affair,, &c., and he feared it; making the verb doubly trans.]; as alsoخَوَّفْتُهُ↓ إِيَّاهُ فَتَخَوَّفَهُ. (Mṣb.) It is said in a trad., أَخِيفُوا الهَوَامَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُخِيفَكُمْ Make ye the venomous reptiles and the like to fear before they make you to fear; (TA;) i. e. kill ye them before they kill you. (JM, TA.)
مَا أَخْوَفَنِى عَلَيْكَ [How greatly do I fear for thee!]. (TA.)
5. ⇒ تخوّف
تخوّفهُ: see 1, in three places.
Also He took by little and little (Ṣ, L, Ḳ) from it, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or from its sides; (L;) as also تحوّفهُ: (Ṣ and Ḳ * in arts. حوف and حيف:) or he took from its extremities; so in the A; in which it is said to be tropical: accord. to IF, it is originally [تخوّن,] with ن [in the place of the ف]. (TA.) Dhu-rRummeh says, (Ṣ,) or not he, but some other poet, for it is ascribed to several different authors, (L,)
* تَخَوَّفَ الرَّحْلُ مِنْهَا تَامِكًا قَرِدًا ** كَمَا تَخَوَّفَ ظَهْرَ النَّبْعَةِ السَّفَنُ *
[Her saddle abraded from a long and high, compact hump, like as when the piece of skin used for smoothing arrows has abraded from the back of a rod of the tree called نبعة]. (Ṣ. [See also 5 in art. حوف, where another reading of this verse is given. In the TA, in the present art., in the places of الرحل and ظهر, I find السَّيْرُ and عُود.]) Hence, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) accord. to Fr, (TA,) أَوْيَأَخَذِهِمْ عَلَى تَخَوُّفٍ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [xvi. 49], (Ṣ,) which Az explains as meaning [Or are they secure from his destroying them] by causing them to suffer loss [by little and little] in their bodies and their possessions, or cattle, and their fruits: or, accord. to Zj, it may mean, after causing them to fear, by destroying a town, so that the one next to it shall fear. (TA.) You say also, تخوّف مِنْ مَالِى He took by little and little from my property. (JK.) And تَخَوَّفَنَا السَّنَةُ [The year of drought, or sterility, took from us by little and little]. (JK.) And تَخَوّفَنِى حَقِّى [He diminished to me by little and little my right, or due]. (JK.) And تَخَوَّفَهُ حمْقُهُ ‡ i. q. اهْضَمَهُ [an evident mistranscription for اِهْتَضَمَهُ or هَضَمَهُ, meaning His stupidity deprived him of his right, or due]. (TA.)
خَافٌ A man very fearful or timorous; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) [and so, in the present day, خَوَّافٌ↓; the former originally] of the measure فَعِلٌ, like فَرِقٌ and فَزِعٌ; and similar to صَاتٌ, meaning a man “having a strong, or loud, voice:” (Ṣ:) or i. q.خَائِفٌ↓: (TA:) accord. to Kh, it may be [originally خَاوِفٌ,] of the measure فَاعِلٌ, having the medial radical rejected; or [خَوْفٌ,] of the measure فَعْلٌ; and in either case, the dim. is [خُوَيْفٌ↓,] with و: so says Sb. (TA.)
خَوْفٌ inf. n. of 1. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.)
Also Slaughter: whence, وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَىْءٍ مِنَ ٱلْخَوْفِ [And we will assuredly try you with somewhat of slaughter]; (Lḥ, Ḳ;) in the Ḳur [ii. 150]. (TA.) [See also 4.]
And Fighting: whence, فَإِذَا جَآءَ الخَوْفُ [But when fighting cometh; in the Ḳur xxxiii. 19]. (Ḳ.)
Also A red hide from which are cut strips like thongs, (Kr, Ḳ, TA,) and then upon these are put [ornaments of the kind termed] شَذْر; worn by a girl: (TA:) a dial. var. of حَوْفٌ [q. v.]: (Ḳ:) but this latter is preferable. (L, TA.)
خِيفٌ: see 1, first sentence.
خَافَةٌ A [coat of the kind called] جُبَّة, of hide, or leather, which the collector of honey wears; (Akh, JK, Ḳ;) and also worn by the water-carrier: (JK:) or a fur-garment, or hide with the fur or wool on it, worn by him who enters into the places occupied by bees, in order that they may not sting him: (TA:) or a [pouch of the kind termed] خَرِيطَة, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) of hide, or leather, (Ṣ,) narrow in the upper part and wide in the lower part, (TA,) in which honey is collected: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or a [round piece of leather with a running string by means of which it may be converted into a bag, such as is termed] سُفْرَة, like the خَرِيطَة, made, or sewed, small, [for مُصْعَدَةٌ or مُصَعَّدَةٌ, which I find in different copies of the Ḳ, and to which no appropriate meaning is assignable, I read مُصْغَرَةٌ or مُصَغَّرَةٌ, (see 2 in art. صغر, and particularly أَصْغَرَ القِرْبَةَ,)] having its head [or border] raised, for honey; (Ḳ;) so says Skr, in explaining the following verse: or, as IB says, accord. to Aboo-ʼAlee, it is from the phrase النَّاسُ أَخْيَافٌ, meaning “men,” or “the people,” “are different, one from another;” for it is a خَرِيطَة of hide, or leather, embellished with different kinds of embellishment; and if so it should be mentioned in art. خيف: (TA:) [but] the dim. isخُوَيْفَةٌ↓. (JK.) Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, [describing a collector of wild honey,]
* تَأَبَّطَ خَافَةً فِيهَا مِسَابٌ ** فَأَصْبَحَ يَقْتَرِى مَشَدًا بِشِيقِ *
(Ṣ,) [He put beneath his armpit a خافة in which was a receptacle for honey, and betook himself to making successive endeavours to reach the most difficult part of a mountain by means of a rope, or rope of palm-fibres; for] he means شِيقًا بِمَسَدٍ; the phrase being inverted: (Ṣ and TA in art. شيق:) or he means, [betook himself to] taking successive holds of a rope (يَتَتَبَّعُ حَبْلًا) tied to a شيق [here best rendered mountain-top] in his descent to the place of the honey; so that there is no inversion. (TA in that art.)
Also i. q. عَيْبَةٌ [A kind of basket, or receptacle, of hide, or leather]; (TA;) the thing in which fruits are gathered; also called مِخْرَفٌ. (Ḥar p. 374.)
خِيفَةٌ; pl. خِيفٌ: see 1, first sentence.
[Sometimes it may mean, agreeably with analogy, A kind of fear.]
خَوَافٌ Vociferation, clamour, or a confused noise, of a company of men. (JK, Ṣgh, Ḳ.)
خُوَيْفٌ: see خَافٌ.
خُوَيْفَةٌ: see خَافَةٌ.
خَوَّافٌ: see خَافٌ.
[Hence, perhaps,] A certain black bird: ISd says, I know not why it is thus called. (TA.)
خَائِفٌ Fearing; being afraid or frightened or terrified: (Ṣ,* TA:) pl. خُوَّفٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and خُيَّفٌ, (Ṣ,) or خِيَّفٌ, (Ḳ,) or, accord. to Ks, خُيَّفٌ and خِيفٌ and خُوفٌ, (L,) [but the second and third of these three should be خِيَّفٌ and خُوَّفٌ, for all are said to be of the measure فُعَّلٌ,] andخَوْفٌ↓; or this last is a quasi-pl. n.; (Ḳ;) whence, in the Ḳur [vii. 54], خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا, meaning Worship ye Him fearing his punishment and eagerly desiring his recompense. (TA.) See also خَافٌ.
طَرِيقٌ مُخَافٌ [for مُخَافٌ أَهْلُهُ, A road of which the people, or passengers, are caused to fear, by robbers]. (Mṣb.) [See also what next follows.]
طَرِيقُ مَخُوفٌ A road in which people fear: (Ṣ,* Mṣb, Ḳ:) or a road that is feared; (JK, TA;) as alsoمَخِيفٌ↓, andخَائِفٌ↓; which last is tropical, of the measure فَاعِلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ; (TA;) or, thus applied, this last [is a possessive epithet, and thus] means having fear: (JK: [see also مُخَافٌ:]) you should not sayطَرِيقٌ مُخِيفٌ↓, because the road does not cause fear, but only he who robs and slays therein. (Ṣ,* Ḳ,* TA.) One says alsoثَغْرٌ مَخِيفٌ↓ andمُتَخَوَّفٌ↓ An enemies' frontier [that is feared, or] from which one fears, or from the direction of which fear comes. (TA.) مَخُوفٌ signifies A thing [of any kind] that is feared; as a lion, and a serpent, and fire, and the like. (Ḥar p. 369.) [Hence,] حَائِطٌ مَخُوفٌ A wall of which the falling is feared. (Lḥ, Mṣb, TA. [See also مُخِيفٌ.]) And وَجَعٌ مَخُوفٌ [A pain that is feared]. (TA. [See, again, مُخِيفٌ.]) And أَمْرٌ مَخُوفٌ [An affair, or event, that is feared]. (Mgh, Mṣb. [See, again, مُخِيفٌ.]) And فَاسِقٌ مَخُوفٌ عَلَى مَالِهِ A transgressor who is feared for his property, that he will consume it, and expend it in that which is not right. (Mgh.)
حَائِطٌ مُخِيفٌ (Mṣb, Ḳ, in the CKمَخِيفٌ↓,) A wall that causes one to fear that it will fall. (Mṣb, Ḳ.* [See also مَخُوفٌ.]) And وَجَعٌ مُخِيفٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) A pain that causes him who sees it to fear. (Ṣ. [See, again, مَخُوفٌ.]) And أَمْرٌ مُخِيفٌ An affair, or event, that is formidable; that causes him who sees it to fear. (Mṣb. [See, again, مَخُوفٌ.]) And المُخِيفُ means The lion, (Ḳ, TA,) that frightens him who sees him. (TA.) See also مَخُوفٌ, first sentence.
أَخْوَفٌ [More, and most, formidable, fearful, or feared: anomalous, like its syn. أَخْشَى, being from the pass. verb. Hence,] أَخْوَفُ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ كَذَا [The most formidable, or fearful, of what I fear for you is such a thing]. (Mgh,* TA.)
مَخَافَةٌ an inf. n. of 1, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally مَخْوَفَةٌ. (TA.)
[Also A cause of fear: a word of the same category as مَجْبَنَةٌ and مَبْخَلَةٌ, &c.: pl. مَخَاوِفُ. Hence,] أَوَّلُ كُتُبِهِ المَخَاوِفُ [The first of his letters, or epistles, consisted of the causes of fear]. (TA.)
And مَخَاوِفُ also signifies Places of fear. (KL.)
مُتَخَوَّفٌ: see مَخُوفٌ.