خوض خوف خوق
1. (خوف ⇒ خاف)
خَافَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally خَوِفَ, (Lth, L, &c.,) first pers. خِفْتُ, (TA,) aor. يَخَافُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.,) originally يَخْوَفُ, (L,) imperative خَفْ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. خَوْفٌ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) andخِيفٌ↓, [originally خِوْفٌ,] (Lḥ, TA,) erroneously written in the Ḳ with fet-ḥ [to the خ], but some say that this is a simple subst., not an inf. n., (TA,) andخِيفَةٌ↓, (Lḥ, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally خِوْفَةٌ, (Ḳ,) but some say that this also is a simple subst., not an inf. n., (TA,) and [therefore] its pl. is خِيفٌ, (Lḥ, JK, Ṣ, and so in the CK,) in [some of] the copies of the Ḳ erroneously written خِيَفٌ, (TA,) or this [as well as the next preceding] may be an inf. n., for some few inf. ns. have pls., (ISd, TA,) and مَخَافَةٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally مَخْوَفَةٌ, for which last, the first of these inf. ns. is used by a poet, and therefore made fem., (TA,) He feared; he was afraid or frightened or terrified; syn. فَزِعَ. (Ḳ.) It is also trans.: (Mṣb:) you say, خَافَهُ andتخوّفهُ↓ [He feared, or was afraid of, him, or it]; (Mṣb, TA;) both signifying the same: (TA:) [and so خَافَ مِنْهُ; or this may mean he feared what might happen to him from him, or it:] andتخوّف↓ عَلَيْهِ شَيْئًا, meaning خَافَهُ [i. e. خَافَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْئًا He feared for him a thing]: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) and خَاَفَهُ عَلَى مَالِهِ andتخوّفهُ↓ عَلَيْهِ [He feared him, or it, for his property]. (Mgh.)
[Hence,] it is also used in the sense of ظَنَّ [He thought, or opined]: and in this case, the Arabs sometimes use it in the same manner as a verb signifying an oath, and give it the same kind of complement; as in an ex. cited voce دَرِدَ [q. v.]. (Ṣ in art. درد.) And He knew. (Lḥ, Kr, Ḳ.) Hence, وَإِنِ ٱمْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنْ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا [And if a woman know that there is, on the part of her husband, injurious treatment, or unkindness, or estrangement], (Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [iv. 127]. (TA.) And hence also, فَمَنْ خَافَ مِنْ مُوصٍ جَنَفًا [And he who knoweth that there is, on the part of the testator, an inclining to a wrong course, or a declining from the right course, &c.], (Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [ii. 178]; thus explained by Lḥ. (TA.)
خَافَهُ, (Ṣ,) first pers. خُفْتُهُ, (Ḳ,) aor. يَخُوفُهُ, (Ṣ,) He exceeded him in fear. (Ṣ, Ḳ.*) You say,خَاوَفَهُ↓ فَخَافَهُ, (Ṣ,) inf. n. of the former مُخَاوَفَهُ, (TA,) i. e. [He vied with him to see which of them would exceed the other in fear, and] he exceeded him in fear. (Ṣ.)
خوّفهُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَخْوِيفٌ, (TA,) i. q. أَخَافَهُ. (Mṣb, Ḳ.) See the latter, in two places. He put fear into him. (JK, TA.) خَوِّفْنَا [app. addressed to God] is mentioned by Lḥ as meaning Render the Ḳur-án and the Traditions beautiful to us in order that we may [give heed thereto and] fear. (TA.)
He made him to be in such a state, or condition, that men feared him; (JK, Ḳ;) he made him to be feared by men. (M.) Hence, in the Ḳur [iii. 169], إِنَّمَا ذٰلِكُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَآءَهُ, i. e. [Verily that is the devil:] he causeth his friends to be feared by you: [or that devil causeth &c.:] or, as Th says, causeth you to fear by his friends. (TA.)
He diminished it, lessened it, or took from it; and so خوّف مِنْهُ. (TA.) [See also 5.]
خوّف غَنَبَهُ He sent away his sheep, or goats, flock by flock. (TA.)
see 1, last sentence.
4. (اخوف ⇒ اخاف)
اخافهُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِخَافَةٌ (Ṣ) and إِخَافٌ, like كِتَابٌ, (Lḥ, TA,) [but the latter is irreg. and rare,] He, or it, (an affair, a case, or an event, Mṣb,) caused him, or made him, to fear, or be afraid; put him in fear; frightened, or terrified, him; (TA;) andخوّفهُ↓, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَخْوِيفٌ, (Ṣ, TA,) signifies the same. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) So in the phrase اخاف الثَّغْرُ [The enemies' frontier caused to fear, &c.; was insecure:] or fear entered from it. (TA.) You say also, مَالَ الحَائِطُ فَأَخَافَ النَّاسَ [The wall leaned, and caused the people to fear]. (Mṣb.) And أَخَافَ اللُّصُوصُ الطَّرِيقَ [for أَخَافَ اللُّصُوصُ أَهْلَ الطَّرِيقِ The robbers caused the people of the road, or the passengers thereof, to fear, &c.; or it may be rendered the robbers caused the road to be insecure]. (Mṣb.) And أَخَفْتُهُ الأَمْرَ فَخَافَهُ [I caused him to fear the thing, or affair, &c., and he feared it; making the verb doubly trans.]; as alsoخَوَّفْتُهُ↓ إِيَّاهُ فَتَخَوَّفَهُ. (Mṣb.) It is said in a trad., أَخِيفُوا الهَوَامَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُخِيفَكُمْ Make ye the venomous reptiles and the like to fear before they make you to fear; (TA;) i. e. kill ye them before they kill you. (JM, TA.)
مَا أَخْوَفَنِى عَلَيْكَ [How greatly do I fear for thee!]. (TA.)
تخوّفهُ: see 1, in three places.
Also He took by little and little (Ṣ, L, Ḳ) from it, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or from its sides; (L;) as also تحوّفهُ: (Ṣ and Ḳ * in arts. حوف and حيف:) or he took from its extremities; so in the A; in which it is said to be tropical: accord. to IF, it is originally [تخوّن,] with ن [in the place of the ف]. (TA.) Dhu-rRummeh says, (Ṣ,) or not he, but some other poet, for it is ascribed to several different authors, (L,)
* تَخَوَّفَ الرَّحْلُ مِنْهَا تَامِكًا قَرِدًا ** كَمَا تَخَوَّفَ ظَهْرَ النَّبْعَةِ السَّفَنُ *
[Her saddle abraded from a long and high, compact hump, like as when the piece of skin used for smoothing arrows has abraded from the back of a rod of the tree called نبعة]. (Ṣ. [See also 5 in art. حوف, where another reading of this verse is given. In the TA, in the present art., in the places of الرحل and ظهر, I find السَّيْرُ and عُود.]) Hence, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) accord. to Fr, (TA,) أَوْيَأَخَذِهِمْ عَلَى تَخَوُّفٍ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [xvi. 49], (Ṣ,) which Az explains as meaning [Or are they secure from his destroying them] by causing them to suffer loss [by little and little] in their bodies and their possessions, or cattle, and their fruits: or, accord. to Zj, it may mean, after causing them to fear, by destroying a town, so that the one next to it shall fear. (TA.) You say also, تخوّف مِنْ مَالِى He took by little and little from my property. (JK.) And تَخَوَّفَنَا السَّنَةُ [The year of drought, or sterility, took from us by little and little]. (JK.) And تَخَوّفَنِى حَقِّى [He diminished to me by little and little my right, or due]. (JK.) And تَخَوَّفَهُ حمْقُهُ ‡ i. q. اهْضَمَهُ [an evident mistranscription for اِهْتَضَمَهُ or هَضَمَهُ, meaning His stupidity deprived him of his right, or due]. (TA.)
خَافٌ A man very fearful or timorous; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) [and so, in the present day, خَوَّافٌ↓; the former originally] of the measure فَعِلٌ, like فَرِقٌ and فَزِعٌ; and similar to صَاتٌ, meaning a man “having a strong, or loud, voice:” (Ṣ:) or i. q.خَائِفٌ↓: (TA:) accord. to Kh, it may be [originally خَاوِفٌ,] of the measure فَاعِلٌ, having the medial radical rejected; or [خَوْفٌ,] of the measure فَعْلٌ; and in either case, the dim. is [خُوَيْفٌ↓,] with و: so says Sb. (TA.)
خَوْفٌ inf. n. of 1. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.)
Also Slaughter: whence, وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَىْءٍ مِنَ ٱلْخَوْفِ [And we will assuredly try you with somewhat of slaughter]; (Lḥ, Ḳ;) in the Ḳur [ii. 150]. (TA.) [See also 4.]
And Fighting: whence, فَإِذَا جَآءَ الخَوْفُ [But when fighting cometh; in the Ḳur xxxiii. 19]. (Ḳ.)
Also A red hide from which are cut strips like thongs, (Kr, Ḳ, TA,) and then upon these are put [ornaments of the kind termed] شَذْر; worn by a girl: (TA:) a dial. var. of حَوْفٌ [q. v.]: (Ḳ:) but this latter is preferable. (L, TA.)
خِيفٌ: see 1, first sentence.
خَافَةٌ A [coat of the kind called] جُبَّة, of hide, or leather, which the collector of honey wears; (Akh, JK, Ḳ;) and also worn by the water-carrier: (JK:) or a fur-garment, or hide with the fur or wool on it, worn by him who enters into the places occupied by bees, in order that they may not sting him: (TA:) or a [pouch of the kind termed] خَرِيطَة, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) of hide, or leather, (Ṣ,) narrow in the upper part and wide in the lower part, (TA,) in which honey is collected: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or a [round piece of leather with a running string by means of which it may be converted into a bag, such as is termed] سُفْرَة, like the خَرِيطَة, made, or sewed, small, [for مُصْعَدَةٌ or مُصَعَّدَةٌ, which I find in different copies of the Ḳ, and to which no appropriate meaning is assignable, I read مُصْغَرَةٌ or مُصَغَّرَةٌ, (see 2 in art. صغر, and particularly أَصْغَرَ القِرْبَةَ,)] having its head [or border] raised, for honey; (Ḳ;) so says Skr, in explaining the following verse: or, as IB says, accord. to Aboo-ʼAlee, it is from the phrase النَّاسُ أَخْيَافٌ, meaning “men,” or “the people,” “are different, one from another;” for it is a خَرِيطَة of hide, or leather, embellished with different kinds of embellishment; and if so it should be mentioned in art. خيف: (TA:) [but] the dim. isخُوَيْفَةٌ↓. (JK.) Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, [describing a collector of wild honey,]
* تَأَبَّطَ خَافَةً فِيهَا مِسَابٌ ** فَأَصْبَحَ يَقْتَرِى مَشَدًا بِشِيقِ *
(Ṣ,) [He put beneath his armpit a خافة in which was a receptacle for honey, and betook himself to making successive endeavours to reach the most difficult part of a mountain by means of a rope, or rope of palm-fibres; for] he means شِيقًا بِمَسَدٍ; the phrase being inverted: (Ṣ and TA in art. شيق:) or he means, [betook himself to] taking successive holds of a rope (يَتَتَبَّعُ حَبْلًا) tied to a شيق [here best rendered mountain-top] in his descent to the place of the honey; so that there is no inversion. (TA in that art.)
Also i. q. عَيْبَةٌ [A kind of basket, or receptacle, of hide, or leather]; (TA;) the thing in which fruits are gathered; also called مِخْرَفٌ. (Ḥar p. 374.)
خِيفَةٌ; pl. خِيفٌ: see 1, first sentence.
[Sometimes it may mean, agreeably with analogy, A kind of fear.]
خَوَافٌ Vociferation, clamour, or a confused noise, of a company of men. (JK, Ṣgh, Ḳ.)
خُوَيْفٌ: see خَافٌ.
خُوَيْفَةٌ: see خَافَةٌ.
خَوَّافٌ: see خَافٌ.
[Hence, perhaps,] A certain black bird: ISd says, I know not why it is thus called. (TA.)
خَائِفٌ Fearing; being afraid or frightened or terrified: (Ṣ,* TA:) pl. خُوَّفٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and خُيَّفٌ, (Ṣ,) or خِيَّفٌ, (Ḳ,) or, accord. to Ks, خُيَّفٌ and خِيفٌ and خُوفٌ, (L,) [but the second and third of these three should be خِيَّفٌ and خُوَّفٌ, for all are said to be of the measure فُعَّلٌ,] andخَوْفٌ↓; or this last is a quasi-pl. n.; (Ḳ;) whence, in the Ḳur [vii. 54], خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا, meaning Worship ye Him fearing his punishment and eagerly desiring his recompense. (TA.) See also خَافٌ.
طَرِيقٌ مُخَافٌ [for مُخَافٌ أَهْلُهُ, A road of which the people, or passengers, are caused to fear, by robbers]. (Mṣb.) [See also what next follows.]
طَرِيقُ مَخُوفٌ A road in which people fear: (Ṣ,* Mṣb, Ḳ:) or a road that is feared; (JK, TA;) as alsoمَخِيفٌ↓, andخَائِفٌ↓; which last is tropical, of the measure فَاعِلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ; (TA;) or, thus applied, this last [is a possessive epithet, and thus] means having fear: (JK: [see also مُخَافٌ:]) you should not sayطَرِيقٌ مُخِيفٌ↓, because the road does not cause fear, but only he who robs and slays therein. (Ṣ,* Ḳ,* TA.) One says alsoثَغْرٌ مَخِيفٌ↓ andمُتَخَوَّفٌ↓ An enemies' frontier [that is feared, or] from which one fears, or from the direction of which fear comes. (TA.) مَخُوفٌ signifies A thing [of any kind] that is feared; as a lion, and a serpent, and fire, and the like. (Ḥar p. 369.) [Hence,] حَائِطٌ مَخُوفٌ A wall of which the falling is feared. (Lḥ, Mṣb, TA. [See also مُخِيفٌ.]) And وَجَعٌ مَخُوفٌ [A pain that is feared]. (TA. [See, again, مُخِيفٌ.]) And أَمْرٌ مَخُوفٌ [An affair, or event, that is feared]. (Mgh, Mṣb. [See, again, مُخِيفٌ.]) And فَاسِقٌ مَخُوفٌ عَلَى مَالِهِ A transgressor who is feared for his property, that he will consume it, and expend it in that which is not right. (Mgh.)
حَائِطٌ مُخِيفٌ (Mṣb, Ḳ, in the CKمَخِيفٌ↓,) A wall that causes one to fear that it will fall. (Mṣb, Ḳ.* [See also مَخُوفٌ.]) And وَجَعٌ مُخِيفٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) A pain that causes him who sees it to fear. (Ṣ. [See, again, مَخُوفٌ.]) And أَمْرٌ مُخِيفٌ An affair, or event, that is formidable; that causes him who sees it to fear. (Mṣb. [See, again, مَخُوفٌ.]) And المُخِيفُ means The lion, (Ḳ, TA,) that frightens him who sees him. (TA.) See also مَخُوفٌ, first sentence.
أَخْوَفٌ [More, and most, formidable, fearful, or feared: anomalous, like its syn. أَخْشَى, being from the pass. verb. Hence,] أَخْوَفُ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ كَذَا [The most formidable, or fearful, of what I fear for you is such a thing]. (Mgh,* TA.)
مَخَافَةٌ an inf. n. of 1, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) originally مَخْوَفَةٌ. (TA.)
[Also A cause of fear: a word of the same category as مَجْبَنَةٌ and مَبْخَلَةٌ &c.: pl. مَخَاوِفُ. Hence,] أَوَّلُ كُتُبِهِ المَخَاوِفُ [The first of his letters, or epistles, consisted of the causes of fear]. (TA.)
And مَخَاوِفُ also signifies Places of fear. (KL.)
مُتَخَوَّفٌ: see مَخُوفٌ.