بدن بده بدو
بَدَهَهُ, (JK, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. بَدْءٌ, (JK, Ṣ, Mṣb,) He, or it, came upon him, or happened to him, suddenly, unexpectedly, or without his being aware of it; surprised him, or took him unawares; (JK, Ṣ Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoبادههُ↓, inf. n. مُبَادَهَةٌ: (JK, Mṣb:) the former verb has this signification said of an affair, or event. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And بَدَهَهُ بِأَمْرٍ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) aor. as above, (Ḳ,) and so the inf. n., (JK, TA,) signifies اِسْتَقْبَلَهُ بِهِ, (JK, T, Ṣ, Ḳ,) i. e. He met him, or encountered him, with a thing, or an affair, or an action, (TḲ,) suddenly, unexpectedly, or without his being aware of it: (T, TA:) or he began with him by it, or with it; syn. بَدَأَهُ بِهِ; (Ḳ;) the ه being a substitute for the ا (TA:) andبادههُ↓ بِهِ, (Ṣ,* Ḳ,) inf. n. مُبَادَهَةٌ and بِدَاهٌ, (Ḳ,) he came upon him suddenly, unexpectedly, or without his being aware of it; surprised him, or took him unawares; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) with it. (Ḳ.)
بدّه, inf. n. تَبْدِيهٌ, He answered, or replied, quickly: (IAạr, TA:) andبَدَهَ↓ he answered, or replied, or he spoke, extempore; without premeditation. (Ḥar p. 64.)
see 1, in two places.
هُمَ يَتَبَادَهَانِ بِا لشِّعْرِ (Ṣ, TA) They two dispute, or contend together [extemporaneously, or extemporizing, with verses or poetry]. (TA.)
ابتده الخُطْبَةَ (Ḳ, TA) He extemporized the discourse, or sermon, or oration; spoke it, or composed it, extemporaneously, impromptu, without premeditation. (TA.) Andهُمْ يَتَبَادَهُونَ↓ الخُطَبَ (Ḳ, TA) They extemporize discourses, &c.: here the measure تَفَاعُلٌ has not its proper quality [of denoting participation in the manner of contention, though it has in a phrase mentioned before]. (TA.)
بَدْهٌ / بُدْهٌ
بَدْهٌ and بُدْهٌ: see بُدَاهَةٌ.
بَدِيةٍ / بَدِيهًا
عَلَى بَدِيةٍ, and بَدِيهًا: see بَدِيهَةٌ
بَدَاهَةٌ: see بُدَاهَةٌ, in two places.
بُدَاهَةٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) andبَدَاهَةٌ↓ (Ṣgh, Ḳ) andبَدِيهَةٌ↓ (JK, Ṣ, Ḳ) andبَدْهٌ↓ andبُدْهٌ↓ (Ḳ) substs. from بَدَهَهُ بِأَمْرٍ, (JK, Ṣ,) meaning The first of anything; and an occurrence thereof by which one is taken unawares: (Ḳ:) or the first occurrence of a thing, that happens to one unexpectedly. (M, in explanation of the first word, in art. بدأ.)
Also the first (Ṣ, TA) and↓ second (JK) and↓ third (TA) The first part of the running of a horse; (JK, Ṣ, TA;) opposed to عُلَالَةٌ, signifying [the “remaining part of the running,” or “an afterrunning,” or] “a running after a running.” (TA.) You say,هُوَ ذُو بَدِيهَةٍ↓ وَعُلَالَةٍ, and بُدَاهَةٍ, [He has a first running and an after-running, differing, the one from the other]. (Az, TA.) And لَحِقَهُ فِى بُدَاهَةِ جَرْيِهِ [He overtook him in the first part of his running]. (Z, TA.) ISd thinks that in all these cases the ه is a substitute for ء. (TA.) [Hence,]غَمْرُ البَدِيْهَةِ↓ [properly Fleet in the first part of his running; meaning] ‡ a man who takes by surprise with large bounty. (TA, in art. غمر.)
See also the next paragraph. in three places.
بَدِيهَةٌ: see بُدَاهَةٌ, in four places. You say, لَكَ البَدِيهَةُ, (Ḳ,) in which ISd thinks the ه to be a substitute for ء, (TA,) It is for thee to begin; (Ḳ;) and soلك البُدَاهَةُ↓, with ه substituted for ء. (M, Mbr, TA art. بدأ.) And أَجَابَ عَلَى البَديهَةِ (Ḳ) He answered, or replied, on the first of his being taken unawares. (TA.) [عَلَى بَدِيهٍ↓ is mentioned by Freytag, but on what authority he does not say, as meaning Unpreparedly, suddenly, or unexpectedly; and soبَدِيهًا↓ by Golius, as on the authority of J, but I do not find it in the Ṣ in the present article.] And رَآهُ بَدِيهَةً, signifies He saw him suddenly, or unexpectedly. (TA.) And بَدِيهَةُ الرَّأْىِ, Suddenly formed, unpremeditated, judgment or opinion. (Mṣb.)
بَدِيهَةٌ andبُدَاهَةٌ↓ both signify The coming, of speech, without premeditation: and the coming suddenly, unexpectedly, or unawares. (KL.)
And↓ the latter, [and more commonly the former,] An intuitive knowledge, notion, or idea; such as that one is the half of two; being, with respect to knowledge, like بَدِيعٌ with respect to intellect: (Kull:) [or] the former signifies the faculty of judging rightly at the first of an unexpected occurrence: [intuition, or intuitive perception:] accord. to ʼAlee-Ibn-Dháfir El-Haddád, it signifies primarily اِرْتِجَالٌ فِى الكَلَامِ [i. e. the faculty of extemporizing: or speaking, or composing, extemporaneously, impromptu, without premeditation]: and predominantly, the poetizing, or versifying, impromptu, without premeditation or consideration: except that ارتجال is quicker than بديهة. (TA.) You say, هُوَ ذُو بَدِيهَةٍ (Ḳ) He has a faculty of judging rightly at the first of an unexpected occurrence. (TA.) And فُلَانٌ ذُو بَدِيهَةٍ حَسَنَةٍ Such a one has a good faculty of extemporizing; or of uttering, or relating, things by means of the promptness of his intelligence. (TA, in art. بدأ: see بَدِيَْةٌ.) And هٰذَا مَعْلُومٌ فِى بَدَائِهِ العُقُولِ [This is known among the intuitive notions of intellects; i. e., intuitively]. (Ḳ,* TA.) بَدَائِهُ seems to be pl. of بَدِيهَةٌ, as in the phrase, (TA,) لَهُ بَدَائِهُ, i. e. بَدَائِعُ [He has new, or admirable, things that he utters], (Ḳ, TA,) in speech, or language, and poetry, and in answering, or replying: but here it is not improbable that the ه may be a substitute for the ع. (TA.)
بَدِيهِىٌّ [Intuitive knowledge;] such that its origination does not rest upon speculation, and acquisition by study, whether it do, or do not, require some other thing, as conjecture or experience &c.; (KT, Kull;) so that it is [sometimes] syn. with ضَرُورِىٌّ [and opposed to نَظَرِىٌّ]: and sometimes it means such as does not require anything whatever after the intellect has directed itself; so that it is more particular than ضَرُورِىٌّ: (KT:) as the conception of heat and cold, and the assent of the mind to the position that negation and affirmation cannot be co-existent, nor be simultaneously non-existent, in the same instance. (KT, Kull.)
[And hence,] A mere simpleton or fool: but this is post-classical. (TA.)
رَجُلٌ مِبْدَهٌ (Ṣ) A man possessing in a large degree the faculty of extemporizing, or of judging rightly at the first of an unexpected occurrence; firm, or steady, in speech or discourse, or whose tongue makes no slip in contentions, when he is taken unawares. (Ḥar p. 64.)