فضخ فضل فضو
1. ⇒ فضل
فَضَلَ, aor. ـُ
[فَضَلَ is trans. as well as intrans.] One says, فَضَلَهُ and فَضَلَ عَلَيْهِ, [aor. ـُ
* وَجَدْنَا نَهْشَلًا فَضَلَتْ فُقَيْمَا *
[We found, or have found, that Nahshal (the tribe so called) overcame, &c., or have overcome, &c., Fukeym (another tribe)], pronouncing the ض [in فضلت] with kesr, errs; not distinguishing between the two meanings: so says Ibn-Es-Seed, in the book entitled “Kitáb el-Fark:” and Es-Seymuree says, in his book entitled “Kitáb et-Tebsireh,” فَضَلَ, aor. ـُ
2. ⇒ فضّل
فضّلهُ (Ḳ, TA) عَلَى غَيْرِهِ, (TA,) inf. n. تَفْضِيلٌ, i. q. مَزَّاهُ, (Ḳ, TA,) i. e. He attributed to him an excellence distinguishing him from [or above] another, or others: (TA:) or فَضَّلْتُهُ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ, inf. n. as above, I judged him (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,* TA) to be more excellent than another, or others: (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb, TA:*) or I made him (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,* TA) to be so. (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb, TA.) وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا, in the Ḳur [xvii. 72, i. e. And we have made them to excel many of those that we have created], has been expl. as meaning that the excellence of the son of Adam consists in his walking erect, whereas the beasts, the camels and the asses and the like, walk pronely; and the son of Adam takes food with his hands, whereas the other animals take it with the mouth. (TA.) And وَٱللّٰهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ, in the Ḳur [xvi. 73, i. e. And God hath made some of you to excel some others], means, in ability, and wealth, and rank or station, and power; which are excellences that may be acquired. (Er-Rághib, TA.) And you say, فضّلهُ بِهِ, meaning خَصَّهُ [i. e. He distinguished him particularly, peculiarly, or specially, by it, namely, a thing]. (A and Ḳ in art. خص.) And فضّل فِى العَطَآءِ He gave to some more than to others. (Ṣ in art. افق.)
[An explanation of فضّل given by Golius, as on the authority of the Ḳ, (“i. q. وسخ, Sordibus infecit, vel pro sordida habuit, quotidianam vestem,”) is a strange mistake; app. caused by his finding in a copy of the Ḳ التَّفْضِيلُ التَّوْسِيخُ instead of التَّفَضُّلُ التَّوَشُّحُ: see 5.]
[اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيلِ The noun of the attribution of excess or excellence is a term applied to the comparative and superlative noun or epithet; also called أَفْعَلُ التَّفْضِيلِ, because it is regularly of the measure أَفْعَلُ: see exs. voce خَيْرٌ.]
3. ⇒ فاضل
الفِضَالُ [and المُفَاضَلَةُ inf. ns. of فَاضَلَ] andالتَّفَاضُلُ↓ [inf. n. of 6 (of which see an ex. in art. سوى, conj. 6,)] signify التَّمَازِى فِى الفَضْلِ [i. e. The contending for superiority in excellence]; (Ḳ,* TA;) التَّمَازِى being of the measure تَفَاعُل from المَزِيَّةُ. (TA.) And you say,فَاضَلْتُهُ فَفَضَلْتُهُ↓, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,* in the last فَاضَلَنِى,) aor. of the latter ـُ, (TA,) inf. n. فَضْلٌ, (O, TA,) I contended with him for superiority, or vied with him, in excel-lence, (O, TA,) and I surpassed him, or outvied him, therein. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA.)
And فاضل بَيْنَ الشَّيْئَيْنِ [app. He made the relation between the two things to be unequal in respect of excellence; i. e. he made the two things to be unequal, or unlike each other, in excellence; contr. of سَاوَى بَيْنَهُمَا: see also 6]. (TA.)
4. ⇒ افضل
افضل فِى تِجَارَتِهِ He gained; or made gain, or profit; in his traffic; syn. رَبِحَ. (Az and Mṣb in art. ربح.)
عَنْهُ [andفَضَلَ↓ عَنْهُ, aor. ـُ
* كَقَوْسٍ طِلَاعِ الكَفِّ لَا دُونَ مِلْئِهَا ** وَلَا عَجْسُهَا عَنْ مَوْضِعِ الكَفِّ أَفْضَلَا *
[Like a bow of which the part that is grasped is sufficient in size for the filling of the hand, not less than suffices to fill it, nor does the part that is grasped thereof extend beyond the place of the hand: the pret. being here used for the aor. to suit the metre]. (TA. [But my original has كَقَوْمٍ, an evident mistranscription.])
افضل عَلَيْهِ: see 5, in two places.
أَفْضَلْتُ مِنْهُ الشَّىْءَ andاِسْتَفْضَلْتُ↓ signify the same, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA,) i. e. I left of it the thing remaining, or redundant. (O, TA.)
5. ⇒ تفضّل
[تفضّل عَلَيْهِ in the CK (erroneously) فَضَّلَ] i. q. تَمَزَّى, (Ḳ, TA,) both of which signify He thought himself to be superior to him in excellence; (TA in art. مزو;) whence the saying in the Ḳur [xxiii. 24], يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتَفَضَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ, meaning He desireth that he may have superiority over you in rank and station: (TA in the present art.) or i. q.افضل↓ عليه, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. إِفْضَالٌ, (Mṣb, TA,) i. e. he bestowed, or conferred, a benefit, or benefits, upon him, syn. أَحْسَنَ, (Ṣ, TA,) or تَطَوَّلَ, (Ḳ, TA,) and gave him of his bounty: (TA:) [and each, followed by بِشَىْءٍ, he presented him, or favoured him, with a thing:] or تفضّل signifies, (Ḳ,) or signifies also, (Ṣ,) he laid claim to superiority of excellence over his equals, or fellows; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) whence [accord. to some] the saying in the Ḳur quoted above: (Ṣ:) and [you say]افضل↓ عَلَيْهِ فِى الحَسَبِ, (Ḳ, TA,) meaning he became possessed of eminence. [or superiority, over him, in the grounds of pretension to respect or honour,] as in a verse of Dhu-l-Isba' cited voce عَنْ, [q. v., p. 2164,] ending with فَتَخْزُوْنِى for فَتَخْزُوَنِى, [which latter reading I have there given,] because the rhyme of the whole ode requires the former. (TA.)
التَّفَضُّلُ also signifies التَّوَشُّحُ [generally meaning The throwing a portion of one's garment over his left shoulder, and drawing its extremity under his right arm, and tying the two extremities together in a knot upon his bosom]: and the putting, or disposing, the extremities of his two garments, or pieces of cloth, contrariwise, or in contrary directions, upon his عَاتِق [or part between the shoulder and the neck]. (Ḳ, TA: but in the former, عَلَى عَاتِقَيْهِ is erroneously put for على عَاتِقِهِ. TA.)
And تَفَضَّلَتْ said of a woman in her tent or chamber or house, She was in a single garment; (Ṣ, O, TA;) [she wore a single garment;] such as is termed مِفْضَلٌ [q. v.]: (Ṣ, TA:) or she (a woman) wore the garments of her service. (TA.)
6. ⇒ تفاضل
10. ⇒ استفضل
استفضل أَلْفًا He took a thousand [dirhems] in excess of his right, or due. (TA.)
فَضْلٌ [an inf. n.: (see 1, throughout:) and also a simple subst., signifying] An exceeding, a redundant, or a superfluous, quantum [of anything, good or evil]; an excess, a redundance, or a superfluity; syn. زِيَادَةٌ; (Mgh, Mṣb;) contr. of نَقْصٌ: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) [and often meaning superabundance, or exuberance; and surpassingness, superiority, or excellence. عَلَى غَيْرِهِ over another, or others, than him, or it: and preponderance:] the pl. is فُضُولٌ (Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ:) and this is sometimes used as a sing.; (Er-Rághib, Mṣb;) and [thus used] relates to a thing [or quality] in which is no good; (Er-Rághib, Mgh, Mṣb;) by a predominant application; whence the saying فُضُولٌ بِلَا فَضْلٍ [excess without excellence]; (Mgh;) and hence the rel. n. فُضُولِىٌّ↓ is formed from it: (Er-Rághib, Mṣb, TA;) [see this last word, one of the explanations of which shows that a particular meaning of فُضُولٌ is the quality of busying oneself with that which does not concern him:] accord. to Er-Rághib, فَضْلٌ signifies an excess [in respect of a property or quality, or of an acquisition,] above moderateness; and this is of two sorts; such as is commended, as the فضل of knowledge, or science; and such as is discommended, as the فصل of anger at that whereat it is not necessary: but فَضَلٌ is more used in relation to that which is commended; and [the pl.] فُضُولٌ, in relation to that which is discommended. when the former is used of an excess [in respect of some attribute] of our of two things above the other, it is of three sorts; فضل of kind, as of the animal kind above the vegetable kind; and of species, as of man above other animals; and of the individual, as of one man above another; the first and second of which three are essential attributes, such that he who is deficient in [either of] them cannot do away with his deficiency and acquire فضل, as, for instance, the horse, and the ass, which cannot acquire the excellence (فَضِيلَة) of the human being; but the third may be accidental, such that the way may be found to acquire it, and of this sort are ability, wealth, rank or station, and power: and it signifies also any gift whereof the giving to the recipient thereof is not obligatory: [i. e. a free gift, or gratuity; and an act of bounty or grace; a favour; a benefit; and bounty as an abstract term;] as in the saying [in the Ḳur iv. 36], وَٱسْأَلُوا ٱللّٰهَ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ [And ask ye God of his free gift, or of his bounty, or (as expl. in the Ksh and by Bḍ) of his exhaustless treasures]; and in the saying in the Ḳur [v. 59 and lvii. 21 and lxii. 4], ذٰلِكَ فَضْلُ ٱللّٰهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَآءُ [That is the free gift of God; He giveth it to whom He willeth]; which comprises the three sorts of excellences (فَضَائِل) [mentioned above]: thus says Er-Rághib: El-Muná- wee says, [explaining one of its meanings,] in the “Towkeef,” that it is the commencing, or originating, of an act of beneficence without an efficient cause [i. e., app., not by reason of any obligation]. (TA.)
Also A portion remaining, (Ḳ, TA,) of a thing, such as food, &c., and of water in the leathern water-bag, and of wine or beverage in the vessel; (TA;) andفَضْلَةٌ↓ andفُضَالَةٌ↓ signify the same, (Ḳ, TA,) or a redundant portion (Ṣ and O and Mṣb in explanation of these two words) of a thing: (Ṣ, O:) whence the saying of the vulgar,الفَضْلَةُ↓ لِلْفَضِيلِ↓ i. e. The remaining portion of the wine or beverage [is for the excel-lent]. (TA.) It is said in a trad., لَا يُمْنَعُ فَضْلُ المَآءِ لِيُمْنَعَ بِهِ الكَلَأُ [The redundance of water shall not be denied that the herbage be thereby denied]: (TA, in the present art.:) meaning that when there is a well in the desert, with herbage near it, and a person prevents others from drawing water, he thereby prevents the latter from availing themselves of the herbage; for when a man comes with his camels, and pastures them upon that herbage, and does not then water them, thirst kills them. (TA in art كلأ,) And it is said in another trad., فَضْلُ الإِزَارِ فِى النَّارِ [The redundant portion of the waist-wrapper is in the fire of Hell]; meaning what one drags [thereof] upon the around, by reason of pride. (TA;) And one says, فِى يَدِهِ فَضْلُ الزِّمَامِ, meaning [In his hand is] the end of the زمام [or nose-rein of the camel]. (TA.) ذَاتُ الفُضُولِ andالفضُولِ↓, with damm and with fet-ḥ, [The thing having redundant portions] is the name of the coat of mail of the Prophet, which was thus called because having redundance and ampleness. (TA.) فُضُولُ الغَنَائِمِ means The remains of the spoils when they are divided (TA;) such as a single horse, or a single camel (KL.) And by the فُضُول of women are meant The remains of the menstrual discharge (Ḥam p. 107: see, there, explanations of a verse in which this occurs.) حِلْفُ الفُضُولِ [The confederacy, or covenant, of the فضول, a word which is here of uncertain meaning,] is thus explained: Háshim and Zuhrah and Teym [accord. to the CK Teymà] went in to ʼAbd-Allah Ibn-Jud'án, and united in a confederacy to repel wrongdoing, and to exact the due from the wrongdoer; and it was thus called because they bound themselves by their confederacy not to leave in the possession of any one aught remaining [of property] whereof he aught despond any one, without their taking it for him [i. e. the latter] from him [i. e. the former] (O, Ḳ, TA: [in the CK, يَظْلِمُهُ أَحَدٌ is a mistake for يظلمه أَحَدًا:]) or it was thus called as being likened to a confederacy, or covenant, which was made of old, at Mekkeh, in the days of Jurhum, to act with mutual equity, and to take for the weak from the strong, and for the stranger from the resident, and in which three men, every one of whom was named El-Fadl, joined: and it was also called that of the مَطَيَّبُون. (TA. [See art. طيب.])
The saying لَا يَمْلِكُ دِرْهَمًا فَضْلًا عَنْ دِينَارٍ, and the like may be said of other sayings similar to it, means He does not possess a dirhem nor a deenár [or rather much less a deenár]: it is as though one said, he does not possess a dirhem: how then should he possess a deenár? for the negation of that which is much is a necessary consequence of the negation of that which is little: فَضْلًا is here in the accus case as an inf. n.; the implied meaning being فَقَدَ مِلْكَ دِرْهَمٍ فَقْدًا يَفْضُلُ عَنْ فَقْدِ مِلْكِ دينَارٍ [or rather يَفْقِدُ, &c., i. e. he lacks the possession of a dirhem with a lacking exceeding the lacking of the possession of a deenár]: (Mṣb:) Kutb-ed-Deen Esh-Sheerázee says, (Mṣb, TA,) in the Expos. of the “Miftáh,” (TA,) فَضْلًا is used in a case in which the inferior [of two things] is deemed a thing of which the existence is improbable, and the impossibility of the existence of a thing that is above it is meant thereby; wherefore it occurs between two phrases differing in meaning; and it is mostly used after a particle of negation: (Mṣb, TA:) AḤei says that he had not found any authority for it in the [classical] language of the Arabs. (Mṣb. [See also بَلْهَ, which is used in a somewhat similar manner.])
فُضُلٌ Wearing a single garment, such as is termed مِفْضَلٌ; an epithet applied to a woman; (Ṣ, Mgh,* O, Ḳ;) and also to a man; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ;) likeمُتَفَضِّلٌ↓: (O, Ḳ:) it is of the dial. of Nejd; like فُرُجٌ in the dial. of El-Yemen. (L in art. فرج.)
And A woman proud, or self-conceited, or so in her gait; who makes a portion of her skirt to be redundant [so that it drags upon the ground when she walks]. (TA.)
See also مِفْضَلٌ, in three places.
فَضْلَةٌ: see فَضْلٌ, former half, in two places.
[Hence, as used by grammarians,] A dispensable member of a proposition; such as the objective complement of a verb, when the suppression thereof is not detrimental [to the meaning]; contr. of عُمْدَةٌ. (I’Aḳ, p. 143) [The pl. is فَضَلَاتٌ.]
And The clothes that are used for sleeping [therein]: (Ḳ, TA:) [so called] because they are an addition over and above the clothes that are used on various [other] occasions. (TA.)
And Wine; and soفِضَالٌ↓ [which see also in what here follows]: (O, Ḳ:) الفَضْلَةُ is mentioned by AʼObeyd as a name for wine: (O:) or it signifies, accord. to AḤn, the wine that alters [or has become altered] in colour after oldness; and ISd says that it is so called because the choice, or best, or most excellent, part thereof [for لأنّ حميمها in my original (an obvious mistranscription) I read لِأَنَّ صَمِيمَهَا] is what remains: (TA:) the pl. is فَضَلَاتٌ and فِضَالٌ [the latter word mentioned above as a syn. of فَضْلَةٌ]. (Ḳ.)
فِضْلَةٌ is a n. of the same kind as جِلْسَةٌ and رِكْبَةٌ: (AZ, Ṣ, O, TA:) one says, إِنَّهُ لَحَسَنُ الفِضْلَةِ, meaning [Verily he is comely in respect of] the manner of wearing a single garment. (Ṣ,* O,* Ḳ,* TA.)
فِضَالٌ: see فَضْلَةٌ:
فَضُولٌ: see فَضْلٌ, latter half.
فَضِيلٌ / فُضَلَآءُ
فُضَالَةٌ: see فَضْلٌ, former half.
فَضِيلَةٌ An excellence, or excellent quality; contr. of نَقِيصَةٌ; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb;) and contr. of رَذِيلَةٌ: (M and Ḳ in art. رذل:) or a high degree in [or of] excellence: (Ḳ:) [differing from فَاضِلَةٌ, q. v.:] pl. فَضَائِلُ. (MA.)
فُضَالَى [a pl. of which the sing. is not mentioned] i. q.مُتَفَضِّلُونَ↓, (O, Ḳ, TA,) i. e. [Men] who bestow, or confer, benefits. (TA.)
فُضُولِىٌّ a rel. n. formed from فُضُولٌ as pl. of فَضْلٌ but used as a sing.: (Er-Rághib, Mṣb, TA:) see فَضْلٌ, near the beginning: One who busies himself with that which does not concern him. (Er-Rághib, Mgh, O, Mṣb, TA.) In the conventional language of the lawyers, One who is not a commissioned agent, (Mgh, O, KT, TA,) nor a guardian (وَلِىّ), (KT, TA,) nor a proprietor, (TA,) nor a person of firm judgment (أَصِيلٌ), in a contract. (KT.) The pronunciation with fet-ḥ to the ف is a mistake. (Mgh, O.)
Also A tailor. (IAạr, O, Ḳ.)
فَضَّالٌ: see مِفْضَالٌ.
فَاضِلٌ [act. part. n. of فَضَلَ: as such signifying Exceeding;, &c.]. One says, مَالُ فُلَانٍ فَاضِلٌ i. e. [The wealth, or property, of such a one is superfluous; or] abundant, or much in quantity, such as has exceeded the supply of food sufficient to sustain life (فَضَلَ عَنِ القُوتِ). (TA.)
And [Excelling; or excellent, as alsoفَضِيلٌ↓, of which the pl. is فُضَلَآءُ, but which is probably post-classical: or it is] applied to a man as [a possessive epithet] meaning possessing فَضْل [i. e. excel-lence]. (TA.) [And conventionally, Erudite; or excellent in learning.]
فَاضِلَةٌ is a subst. from فَضِيلَةٌ [app. as a concrete term, signifying An excellent thing, or an excel-lent action; each as distinguished from an excel-lent quality]; (Ḳ, TA;) pl. فَوَاضِلُ: (TA:) [but generally] it signifies a gift, or thing that is given: (Ḥam p. 431, and Ḥar p. 184:) or a benefit, or benefaction: or such as is continual, or uninterrupted: (MA:) pl. as above: (Ḥam and Ḥar, ubi suprà; and MA:) [or] فَوَاضِلُ signifies benefits, or benefactions, that are goodly, or pleasing, (IDrd, O, Ḳ,) or such as are great, or large. (Ḳ.) And فَوَاضِلُ المَالِ signifies What accrues to one of the proceeds and profits of property, (O, Ḳ, TA,) of the increase of lands and palm-trees and the like, and the gains of commercial transactions, and the milk and wool of cattle and sheep. (TA.) The Arabs say, إِذَا عَزَبَ المَالُ قَلَّتْ فَوَاضِلُهُ (O, Ḳ,) meaning When the estate is distant, the profits of its owner, accruing therefrom, are small in quantity. (O.)
أَفْضَلُ [More, and most excellent,, &c.]; fem. فُضْلَى: (TA:) pl. masc. أَفَاضِلُ; and pl. fem. فُضَلٌ and فُضْلَيَاتٌ. (Mṣb in art. اخر.)
مِفْضَلٌ: see مِفْضَالٌ.
Also A single garment that is worn [without any other] by a woman (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, KL) in her tent or house or chamber, such as is called خَيْعَلٌ [a garment variously described], or the like of this, (Ṣ,) and by a man; (KL;) also called مِفْضَلَةٌ↓, (Ḳ,) andفُضُلٌ↓; (Fr, O, Ḳ;) orثَوْبٌ فُضُلٌ↓ signifies a single garment, a مِلْحَفَة [q. v.], or the like thereof, with which a woman wraps herself (تَتَوَشَّحُ بِهِ); (Mgh;) and accord. to Lth, فِضَالٌ↓ signifies a single garment that is worn by a man in his tent or house or chamber: (TA:) and مِفْضَلٌ signifies [also] an every-daygarment: (MA:) فِى ثِيَابٍ فُضُلٍ↓ occurring in a trad. of ʼÁïsheh requires consideration [as being questionable]. (Mgh.)
مِفْضَلَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
مُفَضَّلٌ: see what next follows.
رَجُلٌ مِفْضَالٌ andمِفْضَلٌ↓ andمُفَضَّلٌ↓ andفَضَّالٌ↓ A man possessing much excellence, or superiority, (Ḳ, TA,) and beneficence, and goodness, and liberality, or bounty. (TA.) And (Ḳ) رَجُلٌ مِفْضَالٌ (Ṣ, O, Ḳ) عَلَى قَوْمِهِ, (Ḳ,) and اِمْرَأَةٌ مِفْضَالَةٌ عَلَى قَوْمِهَا, A man, and a woman, possessing excellence, or superiority, [or much thereof, agreeably with the former explanation, over his, and her, people,] and liberal or bountiful [or very liberal or bountiful]. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
مَفْضُولٌ [pass. part. n. of فَضَلَ: as such signifying Exceeded;, &c.: and excelled: and overcome, or surpassed, in highness, elevation, or eminence, of rank,, &c.: and simply] overcome, or surpassed: whence the saying,قَدْ يُوجَدُ فِى المَفْضُولِ مَا لَا يُوجَدُفِى الفَاضِلِ↓ [Sometimes, or often, what is not found in the overcomer is found in the overcome]. (TA.)
مُتَفَضِّلٌ One who lays claim to superiority of excellence over his equals, or fellows. (Ṣ.) [See also its verb: and] see فُضَالَى.