قر قرأ قرب
قَرَأَ الشَّىْءَ, [aor. ـَ,] inf. n. قُرْآنٌ, He collected together the thing; put it, or drew it, together; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA;) part to part, or portion to portion. (Ṣ, O, TA.) [This seems to be generally regarded as the primary signification.]
Hence the saying of the Arabs, مَا قَرَأَتْ هٰذِهِ النَّاقَةُ سَلًى قَطُّ and مَا قَرَأَتْ جِنِينًا, meaning This she-camel has not contracted her womb upon a young one: (Ṣ, O, TA:) but most say that the meaning is, her womb has not comprised, or enclosed, a fœtus: or the former saying means she has not borne a fœtus: accord. to AHeyth, this same saying and مَا قَرَأَتْ مَلْقُوحًا are both said to mean, by some, she has not borne in her womb a young one, ever: and by some, she has not let fall a young one, ever; i. e. she has not been pregnant: and accord. to ISh, one says, ضَرَبَ الفَحْلُ النَّاقَةَ عَلَى غَيْرِ قَرْءٍ↓ [which seems to mean The stallion covered the she-camel without her bringing forth, or becoming pregnant; for he adds that قرء الناقة means ضعتها; app. ضَعَتُهَا or ضِعَتُهَا; but I have not found ضَعَةٌ nor ضِعَةٌ among the inf. ns. of وَضَعَتْ meaning “she brought forth;” and I rather think that the right reading is ضَغَنُهَا or ضِغْنُهَا, and that the meaning therefore is, without her inclining, or being desirous: see 10, third sentence; and see قَرْءُ الفَرَسِ]: and there is another saying; that لَمْ تَقْرَأْ جَنِينًا means She has not, or did not, cast forth a fœtus, or a young one. (TA.) One says also, of the she-camel, (Ḳ, TA,) and of the ewe, or she-goat, (TA,) قَرَأَتْ, alone, meaning She became pregnant: (Ḳ, TA:) and likewise, of the pregnant [in general], or of the she-camel, accord. to different copies of the Ḳ, (TA,) meaning she brought forth: (Ḳ, TA:) ISh says that قَرَأَتْ is used in relation to a she-camel; andأَقْرَأَتْ↓, in relation to a woman: [each, app., in the former sense and in the latter:] and that one says نَاقَةٌ قَارِئٌ↓; pl. نُوقٌ قَوَارِئُ. (TA.)
قَرَأَ الكِتَابِ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,* Ḳ,*) and بِهِ, (Mṣb,* Ḳ,) the verb being trans. by itself and by means of ب, or this particle is redundant, (Mṣb,) and sometimes the ء is suppressed, so that one says [قَرَى and] قَرَيْتُ &c., (TA,) aor. ـَ and ـُ, (Ḳ,) the latter aor. on the authority of Ez-Zejjájee, as is said in the L, but generally ignored, (TA,) inf. n. قِرَآءَةٌ and قُرْآنٌ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) and قَرْءٌ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) this last mentioned by Az; (Mṣb;) andاقترأهُ↓; (Ḳ;) He read [the book, or Scripture], or recited [it]: (Ḳ, TA:) or قَرَأْتُ القُرْآنَ means [properly, or etymologically, accord. to some,] I uttered [the words of] the Ḳur-án in a state of combination [or uninterruptedly]; (O, TA;) as Ḳṭr is related to have said: (O:) [or قَرَأَ as used in a case of this kind app. signifies properly he read, or recited, the Scripture chanting; like as أَنْشَدَ properly signifies “he recited” poetry “chanting with a high voice:” (for Scripture and poetry are usually chanted:) then, he read, or recited, anything in any manner, without, or from, or in, a book.] It is said in a trad., مَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَقْرَأَ القُرْآنَ غَضًّا كَمَا أُنْزِلَ فَلْيَقْرَأْهُ قِرَآءَةَ أُمِّ عَبْدٍ [He who desires to read, or recite, the Ḳur-án freshly, like as it was revealed, let him read, or recite, it in the manner of Ibn-Umm-ʼAbd]; meaning فَلْيُرَنِّلْ كَتَرْتِيلِهِ [properly, let him read, or recite, in a leisurely manner, with distinct utterance, and with moderation; but conventionally, let him chant, in a peculiar, distinct, and leisurely, manner; like as he did]: or يُحَزِّنْ كَتَحْزِينِهِ [let him read, or recite, with a slender and plaintive voice, like as he did]: or يَحْدُرْهُ كَحَدْرِهِ [let him read it, or recite it, quickly, like as he did]. (O.) And in a trad. of I’Ab, it is said, كَانَ لَا يَقْرَأُ فِى الظُّهْرِ وَالعَصْرِ, meaning He used not to recite [the Kur- án] aloud in the [prayers of the] noon and the [period of the afternoon called the] عْصر: or he used not to make himself to hear his reciting: as though he heard persons reciting and making themselves and those near them to hear. (TA.) The saying, in the Ḳur [lxxv. 17 and 18], إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْآنَهُ فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَٱتَّبِع قُرْآنَهُ means Verily on us is the collecting thereof [i. e. of the Ḳur-án] and the reciting thereof; and when we recite it, then follow thou the reciting thereof: or, accord. to I’Ab, and when we explain it to thee, then do thou according to that which we have explained to thee: (Ṣ, O, TA:) or the meaning [signified and implied] is, verily on us is the collecting thereof in thy mind, and the fixing the recitation thereof on thy tongue; and when we recite it to thee by the tongue of Gabriel, then follow thou the reciting thereof, and often recur therein so that it may become firmly rooted in thy understanding: (Bḍ:) [therefore قُرْآنَهُ in the former instance means the teaching thee to recite it; and thus we may explain the assertion that] قَرَأَ andأَقْرَأَ↓ are syn. in like manner as are عَلَا قِرْنَهُ and استعلاهُ. (Sb, TA.) See 4. قَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ means He read, or recited, to him the Ḳur-án, &c., [as a teacher, or an informant; (as is shown by phrases in the Ḳur xxvi. 199 and lxxxiv. 21;) like تَلَا عَلَيْهِ: and also, as a conventional and post-classical phrase,] as a pupil, or learner, to his sheykh, or preceptor. (L.) قَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامَ andأَقْرَأَهُ↓ السَّلَامَ are syn., (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) signifying He conveyed, or delivered, to him the salutation: or the latter phrase is not used unless the salutation is written: (Ḳ, TA:) or belongs to a particular dial.; and is used when the salutation is written, meaning he made him to read the salutation: (AḤát, TA:) the aor. of the verb in the former phrase is ـَ, and the inf. n. is قِرَآءَةٌ: Aṣ says that the making that verb trans. by itself is a mistake; therefore one should not say اِقْرَأْهُ السَّلَامَ [meaning Convey thou, or deliver thou, to him, salutation]. (Mṣb.)
And see 4, first quarter.
قرّأت جَارِيَةً She kept at her abode a girl, or young woman, until she should menstruate, in order to find if she were free from pregnancy. (Aboo-ʼAmr Ibn-El-ʼAlà, Ṣ, O.) And قِرّئَتْ She was kept in confinement [for the purpose above mentioned, or] in order that the termination of her menstruations might be waited for, or awaited, (Ḳ,) or until the termination of her عِدَّة [q. v.]. (TA.)
قارأهُ, (O, Ḳ.) inf. n. مُقَارَأَةٌ and قِرَآءٌ, (Ḳ,) He read, or studied, with him, each of them teaching the other. (O, Ḳ.)
It is said of the [ch. of the Ḳur-án entitled] سُورَةُ الأَحْزَاب, as Ibn-Háshim related that trad., إِنْ كَانَتْ لَتُقَارِئُ سُورَةَ البَقَرَةِ هِىَ أَطْوَلُ i. e. [Verily (إِنْ being here a contraction of إِنَّ as in the Ḳur xvii. 75 and 78 &c.)] it was equal as to the time required to read it, or to recite it, to [that which is entitled] the سورة of the بقرة [or it was longer]: but most related it as commencing with the words ان كانت لَتُوَازِى. (TA.)
اقرأت, said of a woman: see 1, former half. Said of a she-camel, (Ḳ, TA,) and of a ewe, or she-goat, (TA,) She retained the seed of the male in her womb: (Ḳ, TA:) and when this is the case, one says that she is فى قِرْوَتِهَا, which is anomalous, forفى قِرْأَتِهَا↓; (TA in the present art.;) meaning in the first period of her pregnancy, before its becoming apparent, or manifest. (TA in art. قرو.) [And accord. to Freytag, (app. in the phrase أَقْرَأَتْ سَمًّا,) the verb is expl. in the Kitáb el-Addád as said of a serpent, meaning It retained poison for the space of a month.]
Also, said of a woman, She menstruated: and she became pure from the menstrual discharge: (Ṣ, O,* Mṣb, Ḳ, TA:) and soقَرَأَتْ↓, in both of these senses, (Mṣb, TA,) aor. ـَ, inf. n. قَرْءٌ; (Mṣb;) or in the former sense; (Akh, Ṣ, Ḳ;) and [accordingly] one says, قَرَأَتْ حَيْضَةً أَوْ حَيْضَتَيْنِ [so in copies of the Ṣ, agreeably with what immediately precedes, but in one of my copies of the Ṣ and in the O and TA, أَقْرَأَت, meaning, she menstruated once or twice]; (Ṣ, O,* TA;*) and قَرَأَتْ signifies she saw the blood [of the menses app. for the first time]: (TA:) and أَقْرَأَتْ signifies she became one who had the menstrual discharge. (Akh, Ṣ, O, TA.) [Accord. to Zj, as I gather from the TA, the second of the significations in the sentence immediately preceding is from the collection of the blood in the womb: in the opinion of IAth, it and the first signification are from relation to time: but I rather incline to think that the converse of this is the case, and that hence are deduced several other meanings here following.]
اقرأت الرِّيَاحُ (Ṣ, Ḳ) The winds blew, (Ḳ,) or began [to blow], (Ṣ,) in their time, or season. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
اقرأ (said of a man, O, TA) He reverted, or turned back, (O, Ḳ, TA,) from his journey. (O, TA.) And He returned (Ḳ, TA) from his journey. (TA.)
And He, or it, approached, or drew near. (Ḳ.) You say, أَقْرَأْتُ مِنْ أَهْلِى I approached, or drew near to, my family. (O.) And أَقْرَأَتْ حَاجَتُكَ They object of want approached, or drew near; or has approached, &c. (Ṣ, O.)
And It set, (Ḳ, TA,) said of a star: or the time of its setting came, or drew near. (TA.) أَقْرَأَتِ النُّجُومُ signifies The stars set: (O:)
and also (O) The stars delayed [to bring] their rain. (Ṣ, O.)
And اقرأ is also syn. with أَخَّرَ, (Ḳ, TA,) in the phrase اقرأ حَاجَتَهُ [He postponed, or delayed, the object of his want:] (TA:) and, (Ḳ, TA,) as some say, (TA,) syn. with اِسْتَأْخَرَ [He, or it, was, or became, behind, backward, late, &c.:] (Ḳ, TA:) [but it should be observed that أَخَّرَ is often intrans., and syn. with اِسْتَأْخَرَ; therefore one signification may possibly in this instance be meant by both: such, however, is not the case accord. to SM, as has been shown above, and as is further shown by his saying,] perhaps the saying of the author of the Ḳ, that it is syn. with أَخَّرَ, may have been taken from the phrase أَعَتَّمْتَ قِرَاكَ أَمْ أَقْرَأْتَهُ i. e. Hast thou withheld thy entertainment for the guest, or guests, or hast thou postponed it? but his explanation is obviously loose and defective. (TA.)
أَقْرَأْتُ فِى الشِّعْرِ is from الأَقْرَآءُ [pl. of القَرْءُ or القُرْءُ: hence it seems to mean I rhymed, or versified: compare أَرْجَزَ from الرَّجَزُ, and أَرْمَلَ from الرَّمَلُ, &c.]. (O. [See also 8.])
أَقْرَأهُ, (L, Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. إِقْرَآءٌ, (TA,) He (a sheykh, or preceptor, L, TA) made him, or taught him, to read, or recite; (L, Ḳ, TA;) [and soقَرَأَهُ↓, inf. n. قُرْآنٌ, as shown before:] see 1, last quarter. One says, أَقْرَأَهُ القُرْآنَ (Ṣ, O, L, TA) and الحَدِيثَ (L, TA) He made him, or taught him, to read, or recite, the Ḳur-án and the tradition. (L, TA.) Hence أَقْرَأَهُ السَّلَامَ: (AḤát, TA:) see 1, near the end.
تقرّأ He devoted himself to religious exercises [and particularly to the reading, or reciting, of the Ḳur-án]; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as alsoقَرَأَ↓; (O, TA;) andاقرأ↓: (Ḳ, TA:) and i. q. تَفَقَّهَ [i. e. he learned knowledge, or science;] or particularly الفِقْه, meaning the science of the law. (Ḳ.)
see 1, former half. [After the mention of اقترأهُ as syn. with قَرَأَهُ, it is added in the TA, يقال اقترأت فى الشعر, in which اقترأت is evidently a mistranscription; and not attributable to the copyist, but to the author, of the TA, for the whole sentence is misplaced.]
استقرأ الأَشْيَآءَ, (Mṣb,) or استقرى الاشياءَ, (TA in art. قرو,) [both probably correct, as dial. vars.,] He investigated the أَقْرَآء [or modes, or manners of being, (pl. ofقَرْءٌ↓ or قُرْءٌ, and of قَرْوٌ,)] of the things, for acquiring a knowledge of their conditions and properties. (Mṣb in this art., and TA in art. قرو.) [And one says also, استقرأ الكتَابَ, meaning He investigated the book to find some particular thing.]
And استقرأ الجَمَلُ النَّاقَةَ The he-camel left the she-camel (تَارَكَهَا [in the CK and in my MṢ. copy of the Ḳ باركها]) in order that he might see whether she had conceived or not: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) [or whether she were in her state of desire: for SM adds, after stating that this is from AO,] as long as the وديق [i. e. وَدِيق, an epithet which seems to be properly applied to a female solid-hoofed animal, but here app. applied to a she-camel,] is in her وديق [a mistranscription for وِدَاق or a noun cognate there with], one says of her, هِىَ فِى قُرْئِهَا↓ and أَقْرَائِهَا. (TA. [See also 1, first quarter; and see قَرْءُ الفَرَسِ.])
And استقرأهُ signifies He desired, or demanded, of him that he should read, or recite. (MA, TA.)
قَرْءٌ (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) andقُرْءٌ↓, (Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) or the latter is a simple subst. and the former is an inf. n., (Mṣb,) A menstruation: and a state of purity from the menstrual discharge: (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.:) thus having two contr. meanings: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) said by IAth to have the latter meaning accord. to Esh-Sháfiʼee and the people of El-Ḥijáz, and the former meaning accord. to Aboo-Ḥaneefeh and the people of El-'Irák: (TA:) and a time; (AA, Ṣ, Mgh, O, Ḳ;) and soقَارِئٌ↓; (Ṣ, Mgh, O;) as in the sayings, هَبَّتِ الرِّيحُ لِقَرْئِهَا andلِقَارِئِهَا↓ The wind blew at its time; (Ḳṭ, Mgh;) and this is the primary signification (IAth, Mgh, O) accord. to AA [and some others]; (Mgh;) whence [accord. to them] the first and second of the meanings mentioned above: (Ḳṭ, Ṣ, IAth, Mgh, O:) and قَرْءٌ signifies also the termination of a menstruation: and some say, the period between two menstruations: (Ṣ:) accord. to Zj, it means the collecting of the blood in the womb; which is only in the case of becoming pure from menstruation: (TA:) the pl. is أَقْرَآءٌ and قُرُوْءٌ and أَقْرُؤٌ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the last of which [as also properly the first] is a pl. of pauc.; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb;) or when قَرْءٌ orقُرْءٌ↓ has the first of the meanings assigned to it above the pl. is أَقْرَآءٌ, and when it has the second thereof the pl. is قُرُوْءٌ: (Ḳ:) respecting the phrase ثَلٰثَةَ قُرُوْءٍ in the Ḳur [ii. 228], Aṣ says, it should by rule be ثَلٰثَةَ أَقْرُؤٍ: (Mṣb, TA:) the grammarians say that it is for ثَلٰثَةً مِنَ القُرُوْءِ; thus in the L: (TA:) or they say that it is for ثَلٰثَةَ أَقْرُؤٍ مِنَ القُرُوْءِ: but some of them say that it is allowable to use a pl. of mult. in relation to three and more as far as ten [inclusively] without [the necessity of] rendering the phrase otherwise in grammatical analysis. (Mṣb.)
[Hence,] A rhyme: (Z, Ḳ, TA:) أَقْرَآءٌ (Z, O, TA) and قُرُوْءٌ (O) signifying the rhymes of verses; (Z, O, TA;) which terminate like as do the اقرآء of the states of purity from menstruation; (Z, TA;) [i. e., they are thus called] because they terminate, and limit, the verses: (O:) and أَقْرَآءُ الشِّعْرِ signifies also the several modes, or manners. or species, (IAth, O, Ḳ, TA,) and metres, (IAth, TA,) and scopes, (Ḳ,* TA,) of verse, or poetry: (IAth, O, Ḳ, TA:) the sing. is قَرْءٌ (O, TA) andقُرْءٌ↓, and some sayقِرْءٌ↓ also, andقَرِىْ↓ and قَرِىٌّ, and some say that it is قَرْوٌ [q. v.] with و: and the pl. of قَرِىٌّ is [also] أَقْرِيَةٌ [a pl. of pauc.]. (TA.) One says, هٰذَا الشِّعْرُ عَلَى قَرْءِ هٰذَا الشِّعْرِ i. e. This poetry is according to the mode, or manner, &c., of this poetry. (O.) See also 10, first sentence.
Also A periodical festival; syn. عِيدٌ. (TA.)
And A fever [app. an intermittent, or a periodically-recurrent, fever]. (TA.)
And i. q. غَائِبٌ [app. meaning A thing becoming absent, or unapparent, or setting, like a star: see 4]. (TA.)
قُرْءٌ: see the next preceding paragraph, in two places.
قِرْءٌ: see قَرْءٌ, last quarter:
and see also the paragraph here following.
قِرْأَةٌ The وَبَآء [by which is here meant the common, or general, disease] (Aṣ, Ṣ, O, Ḳ) of a country; (Ṣ, O;) of which it is said that when a person has come to that country and remained in it fifteen nights [or days, accord. to one of my copies of the Ṣ,] the قرأة thereof quits him; or, as the people of El-Ḥijáz say, its قِرَة; meaning that if he be affected with a malady after that, it will not be from the وبآء [or قرأة] of the country: (Aṣ, Ṣ, O;) and it is also termed قِرْءٌ↓. (TA. [But I think it not improbable that this last word may have originated in a mistranscription of قِرَةٌ.])
See also 4, second sentence.
القُرْآنُ is said by some of the erudite to be originally an inf. n. of قَرَأْتُ الشَّىْءَ meaning “I collected together the thing,” or of قَرَأْتُ الكِتَابَ meaning “I read, or recited, the book, or Scripture;” and then conventionally applied to signify The Book of God that was revealed to Moḥammad: (Kull:) it is [also expl. as signifying] the revelation, (Ḳ, TA,) meaning that which is termed العَزِيز [the mighty, or inimitable, &c.], which is read, or recited, and written in books, or volumes: (TA:) used as a subst., and unrestrictedly, it is applied in the language of the law to the substance itself [whereof the Ḳur-án consists], and lexically to the alphabetical letters [in which it is written] for these are what are read; as when one says, كَتَبْتُ القُرْآنَ [I wrote the Ḳur-án], and مَسِسْتُهُ [I touched it]: (Mṣb:) [and without the article ال, it is applied to any portion of the Ḳur-án:] accord. to AO, (Ṣ,) and Zj, (TA,) it is thus called because it collects and comprises the سُوَر [or chapters]: (Ṣ, O, TA:) and IAth says that the original meaning of the word is the collection; and that the قُرْآن is so called because it has collected the histories [of the prophets &c.], and commands and prohibitions, and promises and threats, [and the like is said in the O,] and the آيَات [i. e. verses, or signs], and the سُوَر [or chapters]: but Ismá'eel Ibn-Kustan- teen, to whom, as a disciple to his preceptor, EshSháfi'ee read, or recited, the Ḳur-án, is related on the latter's authority to have said that القُرَانُ is a subst., and with hemz, and not taken from قَرَأْتُ, but is a name for the Book of God, like التَّوْرَاةُ [the Book of the Law revealed to Moses] and الإِنْجِيلُ [the Gospel]: and it is related that Aboo-ʼAmr Ibn-El-ʼAlà used to pronounce القران without hemz [like many others, but it is, and always has been, pronounced by most with hemz]. (TA.)
It is also applied to The divinely appointed act of prayer (الصَّلَاةُ) because it comprises recitation [of words of the Ḳur-án]. (IAth, TA.)
قَرِىْءٌ: see قَرْءٌ, last quarter.
قَرَّاءٌ A good reader or reciter [of the Ḳur-án]: pl. قَرَّاؤُونَ: it has no broken pl. (Ḳ, TA.)
قُرَّآءٌ, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) an epithet applied to a man and to a woman, (Fr, TA,) andقَارِئٌ↓ andمُتَقَرِّئٌ↓, (Ḳ,) A devotee; or one who devotes himself [and in the case of the first of these epithets herself] to religious exercises [and particularly to the reading, or reciting, of the Ḳur-án]: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) pl. قُرَّاؤُونَ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and قَرَارِىْءُ, (Ḳ, TA,) [in the CK قَرارِئُ and] in a MṢ copy of the Ḳ قَوَارِئُ, which might be a pl. of قَارِئٌ; and in the L قَرَائِئُ. (TA.) And قُرَّآءُ is sometimes a pl. of قَارِئٌ. (Ṣ.)
قَارِئٌ as an epithet applied to a she-camel; pl. قَوَارِئُ: see 1, former half.
Also Reading, or reciting, the Ḳur-án [&c.]; or a reader, or reciter, thereof: (Ḳ, TA:) and sometimes the ء is suppressed, so that one says قَارٍ: (TA:) pl. قَرَأَةٌ and قُرَّآءٌ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) and قَارِئُونَ. (Mṣb, Ḳ.)
And syn. with قُرَّآءٌ, q. v. (Ḳ.)
See also قَرْءٌ, first quarter, in two places.
هٰذَا وَقْتُ قَارِئِ الرِّيحِ means This is the time of the blowing of the wind. (TA.)
It is also said to signify The top, or upper part, of a قَصْر [or pavilion, &c.]. (O.)
أَقْرَؤُكُمْ, occurring in a trad., may mean He, of you, who reads, or recites, [the Ḳur-án] most: or it may mean, who is most sound in his knowledge of the Ḳur-án, and who retains it most in his memory. (Ibn-Ketheer, TA.)
مُقْرِئٌ [thus withot ة] Menstruating: (Ṣ, Mṣb:) and also being pure from the menstrual discharge. (Mṣb.)
And One who makes, or teaches, another or others to read, or recite, (Ṣ, TA,) the Ḳur-án [&c.]. (Ṣ.)
مُقَرَّأَةٌ One whose termination of her menstruations is waited for, or awaited (Ḳ.) [See the verb.]
صَحِيفَةٌ مَقْرُوْءَةٌ, (Ḳ, TA,) the only form of the latter word allowed by Ks and Fr, (TA,) and مَقْرُوَّةٌ and مَقْرِيَّةٌ, (Ḳ, TA,) which are extr., except in the dial. of those who say قَرَيْتُ [for قَرَأْتُ], (TA,) [A writing read.]
مُتَقَرِئٌ: see قُرَّآءٌ.