ضع ضعف ضعو
ضَعُفَ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and ضَعَفَ, (O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the latter on the authority of Yoo, (O,) or of Lḥ, (L,) aor. of each ـُ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. ضُعْفٌ and ضَعْفٌ (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb, Ḳ) [and app. ضَعَفٌ (q. v. infrà) or this is a simple subst.] and ضَعَافَةٌ and ضَعَافِيَةٌ, (Ḳ,) all of which are inf. ns. of the former verb, (TA,) or the first, which is of the dial. of Kureysh, is of the former verb, and the second, which is of the dial. of Temeem, is of the latter verb, (Mṣb,) He, or it, was, or became, weak, feeble, faint, frail, infirm, or unsound; ضُعْفٌ and ضَعْفٌ being the contr. of قُوَّةٌ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and of صِحَّةٌ; (Mṣb;) and both of them may be used alike, in every relation; or, accord. to the people of El-Basrah, both are so used; so says Az; (TA;) but some say that the former is used in relation to the body, and the latter in relation to the judgment or opinion. (O, Mṣb, Ḳ: but this is omitted in my copy of the TA.)
ضَعُفَ عَنِ الشَّىْءِ means He lacked strength, or power, or ability, to do or accomplish, or to bear, the thing; [he was weak so as to be disabled, or incapacitated, from doing, or accomplishing, or from bearing, the thing;] syn. عَجَزَ عَنْهُ, (Mṣb in art. عجز,) or عَجَزَ عَنِ ٱحْتِمَالِهِ. (Mṣb in the present art.)
[See also ضَعْفٌ below.]
ضَعُفَ also signifies It (a thing) exceeded; syn. زَادَ. (L, TA.)
And you say, ضَعَفْتُ القَوْمَ (Lth, O, Ḳ,*) aor. ـُ, (O,) or ـَ, (Ḳ, TA,) inf. n. ضَعْفٌ; (O;) [and app. ضَعُفْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ, like as you say زِدْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ;] I exceeded the people, or party, in number, so that I and my companions had double, or several-fold, the number that they had. (Lth, O, Ḳ.*)
Also He reckoned, or esteemed, him ضَعِيف [i. e. weak, &c.]; (O, Ḳ;) and soاستضعفهُ↓, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andتضعّفهُ↓: (O, Ḳ:) orاستضعفهُ↓ signifies he found him to be so; (TA;) or he asserted him to be (جَعَلَهُ) so; (Mṣb;) or, as alsoتضعّفهُ↓, he [esteemed him to be so, and therefore] behaved proudly, haughtily, or insolently, towards him, in respect of worldly things, because of [his] poverty, and meanness of condition. (IAth, TA.) غَلَبَنِى أَهْلُ الكُوفَةِ أَسْتَعْمِلُ عَلَيْهِمُ المُؤْمِنَ فَيُضَعَّفُ وَأَسْتَعْمِلُ عَلَيْهِمُ القَوِىَّ فَيُفَجَّرُ, [The people of El-Koofeh have overcome me: I employ as governor over them the believer, and he is esteemed weak; and I employ as governor over them the strong, and he is charged with unrighteousness:] is a saying mentioned in a trad. of ʼOmar. (TA.)
And He attributed, or ascribed, (O, Ḳ,) to him, i. e. a man, (O,) or ‡ to it, i. e. a tradition, [&c.,] ضَعْف [meaning weakness, app., in the case of a man, of judgment, and in the case of a tradition &c., of authority]. (O, Ḳ, TA.)
And He doubled it, or made it double, covering one part of it with another part. (TA.)
See also the next paragraph, in two places.
ضاعفهُ, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) inf. n. مُضَاعَفَةٌ; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) andضعّفهُ↓, (Ṣ Ḳ,) inf. n. تَضْعِيفٌ; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb;) andاضعفهُ↓, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِضْعَافٌ; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) all signify the same; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) i. e. He doubled it, or made it double, or two-fold; (O, Ḳ;) [and trebled it, or made it treble, or three-fold; and redoubled it, or made it several-fold, or manyfold; i. e. multiplied it; for] Kh says, التَّضْعِيفُ signifies the adding to a thing so as to make it double, or two-fold; or more [i. e. treble, or threefold; and several-fold, or many-fold]; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb;) and so الإِضْعَافُ, and المُضَاعَفَةُ; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) andضَعَفَهُ↓, without teshdeed, signifies the same as ضاعفهُ. (Ḥam p. 257.) The saying, in the Ḳur [xxxiii. 30], يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا العَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ, (Mgh, O, Ḳ,) in which AA read يُضَعَّفْ↓, (TA,) accord. to AO, (Mgh, O,) means, The punishment shall be made to her three punishments; (Mgh, O, Ḳ;) for, he says, she is to be punished once; and when the punishment is doubled twofold, [or is repeated twice,] the one becomes three: (TA:) he adds, (O,) and the tropical meaning of يُضَاعَفْ (مَجَازُ يُضَاعَفْ [for which مَجازٌ يُضَاعَفُ is erroneously put in the CK]) is two things' being added to a thing so that it becomes three: (O, Ḳ:) but Az disapproves this, saying that it is peculiar to the tropical and the common conventional speech, whereas the skilled grammarians state the meaning to be, she shall be punished with twice the like of the punishment of another; (Mgh;) [so that it may be rendered the punishment shall be doubled to her, made two-fold; and in like manner] Ibn-ʼArafeh explains it as meaning she shall have two shares of punishment. (O.) فَيُضَاعِفُهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً [And He will multiply it to him many-fold, or, as some read, فَيُضَاعِفَهُ that He may multiply it,] is another phrase occurring in the Ḳur [ii. 246]. (O, TA.) And one says,أَضْعَفْتُ↓ الثَّوَابَ لِلْقَوْمِ [I doubled, or multiplied, the recompense to the people, or party]. (Mṣb.) Andأُضْعِفَ↓ القَوْمُ The people, or party, had a doubling, or multiplying, [of their recompense, &c.,] made to them; (Mṣb;) [and so, app., أَضْعَفُوا; (see مُضْعِفٌ;)] i. q. ضُوعِفَ لَهُمْ. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
اضعفهُ He, (God, Mṣb, or another, Ṣ,) or it, (disease, TA,) rendered him ضَعِيف [i. e. weak, &c.]; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoضعّفهُ↓. (L, TA.)
And أَضْعَفَ, said of a man, He became one whose beast was weak. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
See also 3, first sentence, and last two sentences.
see 2, in two places.
[تضعّف app. signifies also He manifested weakness: see تضوّر.]
تضاعف signifies صَارَ ضِعْفَ مَا كَانَ [i. e. It became double, or two-fold; and treble, or threefold; and several-fold, or many-fold]. (O, Ḳ.)
see 2, in two places.
ضَعْفٌ an inf. n. of 1, like ضُعْفٌ↓, (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb, Ḳ,) [both, when used as simple substs., signifying Weakness, feebleness, &c.,] but some say that the former is in the judgment or opinion, and the latter in the body; (O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) andضَعَفٌ↓ signifies the same, (IAạr, Ḳ, TA,) and is in the body and also in the judgment or opinion and the intellect. (TA.)
ضَعْفُ التَّأْلِيفِ [Weakness of construction, in language,] is such a construction of the members of a sentence as is contrary to the [generally approved] rules of syntax; as when a pronoun is introduced before its noun with respect to the actual order of the words and the order of the sense [in a case in which the pronoun is affixed to the agent in a verbal proposition]; for instance, in the phrase, ضَرَبَ غُلَامُهُ زَيْدًا [“His,” i. e. Zeyd's, “young man beat Zeyd”]. (KT.) When the pronoun is affixed to the objective complement, as in خَافَ رَبَّهُ عُمَرُ [“ʼOmar feared his Lord”] such introduction of it is common: (I’Aḳ p. 128:) and it is [universally] allowable when the pronoun is of the kind called ضَمِيرُ الشَّأْنِ, as in إِنَّهُ زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ; or ضَمِيرُ رُبَّ, as in رُبَّهُ رَجُلًا لَقِيتُهُ; or ضَمِيرُ نِعْمَ, as in نِعْمَهُ رَجُلًا زَيْدٌ. (Kull p. 56.)
[In the CK, a signification belonging to ضُعْف is assigned to ضَعْف.]
ضُعْفٌ: see ضَعْفٌ.
مِنْ ضُعْفٍ in the Ḳur xxx. 53 means Of sperm. (O, Ḳ, TA.) AA, reciting before the Prophet, said مِنْ ضَعْفٍ; and was told by the latter to say من ضُعْفٍ, [i. e.] with damm. (TA.)
ضِعْفُ الشَّىْءِ signifies The like of the thing, (AO, Zj, Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) that doubles it (يُضْعِفُهُ); (Zj, TA;) and ضِعْفَاهُ, twice the like of it; (AO, Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) and أَضْعَافُهُ, the likes of it: (Ṣ, Mṣb:) الضِّعْفُ in the [proper] language of the Arabs means the like: this is the original signification: (Az, Mṣb:) and (Ḳ, TA, but in CK “or,”) then, by a later [and conventional] usage, (Az, Mṣb,) the like and more, the addition being unlimited: (Az, Mṣb, Ḳ:) one says, هٰذَا ضِعْفُ هٰذَا i. e. This is the like of this: and هٰذَانِ ضِعْفَاهُ i. e. These two are twice the like of it: and it is allowable in the language of the Arabs to say, هٰذَا ضِعْفُهُ meaning This is twice the like [i. e. the double] of it, and thrice the like [i. e. the treble] of it, [and more,] because the ضِعْف is an unlimited addition: (Az, Mṣb: [and the like is said in the O, on the authority of Az:]) and one says, لَكَ ضِعْفُهُ meaning Thou shalt have twice the like of it, (Zj, O, Ḳ,) using the sing. form, though the dual form is better, (Zj, O,) and meaning also thrice the like of it, and more without limit: (Ḳ:) and الاِثْنَانِ ضِعْفُ الوَاحِدِ [i. e. الاثنان is the double of الواحد]: (M and Ḳ in art. ثنى:) and if one say in his will, أَعْطُوهُ ضِعْفَ نَصِيبِ وَلَدِى, twice the like of the share of his child is given to him; and if he say ضِعْفَيْهِ, thrice the like thereof is given to him; so that if the share of the son be a hundred, he [the legatee] is given two hundred in the former case, and three hundred in the latter case; for the will is made to accord with the common conventional language, not with the niceties of the [proper] language: (Az, Mṣb: [and the like is said, but less fully, in the Mgh:]) the pl. is أَضْعَافٌ only. (TA.) إِذًا لَأَذَقْنَاكَ ضِعْفَ الحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ المَمَاتِ, in the Ḳur [xvii. 77], means ضِعْفَ العَذَابِ حَيًّا وَمَيِّتًا, (Ṣ,) or ضِعْفَ عَذَابِ الحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ عَذَابِ المُمَاتِ, (O, Jel,) i. e. [In that case we would assuredly have made thee to taste] the like [or, as some explain it, the double] of the punishment of others in the present world and [the like or the double thereof] in the world to come: (Jel:) [Ṣgh adds, app. on the authority of Ibn-ʼArafeh,] the meaning is, the punishment of others should be made two-fold, or more, (يُضَاعَف,) to thee, because thou art a prophet. (O.) In the saying, فَأُولَائِكَ لَهُمْ جَزَآءُ ٱلضِّعْفِ بِمَا عَمِلُوا, in the Ḳur [xxxiv. 36], by الضِّعْفِ is meant الأضْعَافِ [i. e. For these shall be the recompense of the likes for what they have done]; and it is most properly held to denote ten of the likes thereof, because of the saying in the Ḳur [vi. 161], “Whoso doth that which is good, for him shall be ten of the likes thereof.” (O.) In the saying, فَآتِهِمْ عَذَابًا ضِعْفًا, in the Ḳur [vii. 36], by ضِعْفًا is meant مُضَاعَفًا [i. e. Therefore do Thou recompense them with a doubled, or a double, punishment]: عَذَابٌ ضِعْفٌ meaning a punishment as though doubled, one part of it upon another. (TA.)
أَضْعَافُ الكِتَابِ means ‡ The interspaces of the lines, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA,) or of the margin, (Ṣ, O,) or and of the margins, (Ḳ, TA,) of the writing, or book: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA:) so in the saying, وَقَّعَ فُلَانٌ فِى أَضْعَافِ كِتَابِهِ ‡ [Such a one made an entry of a note or postil or the like, or entries of notes &c., in the interspaces of the lines, &c., of his writing, or book]: (Ṣ, O, TA:) andتَضَاعِيفُ↓ الكِتَابِ signifies the same as أَضْعَافُهُ. (TA.)
And أَضْعَافُ الجَسَدِ † The limbs, members, or organs, (أَعْضَآء,) of the body: (O, Ḳ:) or the bones thereof: (AA, Ḳ:) or the bones thereof having flesh upon them: (TA:) sing. ضِعْفٌ. (Ḳ.) Hence the saying of Ru-beh,
* وَٱللّٰهُ بَيْنَ القَلْبِ وَالأَضْعَافِ *
† [And God is between the heart and the limbs, &c.]. (TA.) And it is said of Yoonus, [the prophet Jonah,] كَانَ فِى أَضْعَافِ الحُوتِ ‡ [He was amid the members of the fish]. (TA.)
ضَعَفٌ: see ضَعْفٌ.
Also Garments, or pieces of cloth, made double (مُضَعًّفَةٌ↓). (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ.)
ضَعْفَةٌ Weakness of heart, and littleness of intel-ligence. (TA.)
ضَعَفَةٌ A party, or company, or small company, (شِرْذِمَةٌ,) of the Arabs. (TA.)
Also a pl. of ضَعِيفٌ [q. v.]. (Ṣ &c.)
ضَعْفَانُ: see ضَعِيفٌ.
ضَعُوفٌ: see the next paragraph, in two places.
ضَعِيفٌ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) and [in an intensive sense] ضَعُوفٌ↓ (Ibn-Buzurj, O, Ḳ) andضَعْفَانُ↓ (Ḳ) Weak, feeble, faint, frail, infirm, or unsound: (Ṣ,* O,* Mṣb, Ḳ:*) pl. (of the first, Ṣ, O, Mṣb) ضِعَافٌ and ضُعَفَآءُ and ضَعَفَةٌ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) which last is [said to be] the only instance of its kind except خَبَثَةٌ pl. of خَبِيثٌ [q. v.], (TA,) and ضَعْفَى, like جَرْحَى pl. of جَرِيحٌ: (Mṣb:) fem. ضَعُوفٌ↓ (Ibn-Burzurj, O, Ḳ) and ضَعِيفَةٌ; pl., applied to women, ضَعِيفَاتٌ (Ḳ) and ضَعَائِفُ and ضِعَافٌ. (TA.) وَخُلِقَ ٱلْإِنْسَانُ ضَعِيفًا (in the Ḳur [iv. 32], O) means [For man was created weak, or] subject to be inclined by his desire. (O, L, Ḳ.) And الضَّعِيفَانِ [The two weak ones] means the woman and the slave: hence the trad., اِتَّقُوا ٱللّٰهَ فِى الضَّعِيفَيْنِ [Fear ye God in respect of the woman and the slave]. (TA.)
In the dial. of Himyer, Blind: and [it is said that] thus it signifies in the phrase لَنَرَاكَ فِينَا ضَعِيفًا [Verily we see thee to be, among us, blind], (O, Ḳ,) in the Ḳur [xi. 93]: (O:) but Esh-Shiháb rejects this, in the 'Inayeh. (TA.)
[As a conventional term] in lexicology, applied to a word, [Of weak authority;] inferior to what is termed فَصِيحٌ, but superior to what is termed مُنْكَرٌ. (Mz, 10th نوع.)
Applied to verse, or poetry, [Weak;] unsound, or infirm; syn. عَلِيلٌ: thus used by Kh. (TA.)
The saying of a man who had found a thing dropped on the ground (وَجَدَ لُقَطَةً), فَعَرَّفْتُهَا ضَعِيفًا, means And I made it known in a suppressed, or low, [or weak,] voice. (Mgh in art. نفر.)
ضَاعِفٌ A cow having a young one in her belly; (IDrd, O;) as though she were made double thereby: (TA:) but IDrd says that this is not of high authority. (O.)
تَضْعِيفٌ inf. n. of 2. (Ṣ &c.)
تَضَاعِيفُ الشَّىْءِ means The doubles, or trebles, or multiples, of the thing; (مَا ضُعِّفَ مِنْهُ;) in this sense, تضاعيف has no sing., like تَبَاشِيرُ &c. (TA.)
تَضَاعِيفُ الكِتَابِ: see ضِعْف, near the end.
As expl. by Lth, (O,) التَّضْعِيفُ signifies حُمْلَانُ الكِيمِيَآءِ [i. e. What is used as an alloy in chemistry or alchymy]. (O, Ḳ.)
مُضْعِفٌ A man whose beast, (Ṣ, Ḳ, and Mgh in art. كفأ,) or whose camel, (O,) is weak, (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Ḳ,) or untractable. (O.) Hence the saying of ʼOmar, المُضْعِفُ أَمِيرٌ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ [He whose beast is weak, or untractable, is ruler over his companions]; (O, Ḳ;) i. e. in journeying; (O;) because they go his pace. (O, Ḳ.) And the saying, in a trad., يَرُدُّ مُشِدُّهُمْ عَلَى مُضْعِفِهِمْ [expl. in art. شد]. (Mgh in art. كفأ.)
فَأُولَائِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُضْعِفُونَ, in the Ḳur [xxx. 38], means These are they who shall have their recompense doubled, or multiplied: (Az, Bḍ, TA:) or those who double, or multiply, their recompense (Bḍ, Jel) and their possessions, (Bḍ,) by the blessing of their almsgiving: (Bḍ, Jel:*) but some read المُضْعَفُونَ. (Bḍ.)
المُضْعِفُ also signifies مَنْ فَشَتْ ضَيْعَتُهُ وَكَثُرَتْ [He whose property has become wide-spread and abundant]. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, L, Ḳ.)
أَرْضٌ مُضَعَّفَةٌ Land upon which a weak rain has fallen: (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ:) and [in like manner] مَضْعُوفٌ↓ signifies a place upon which has fallen only a little, or weak, rain. (O in art. رك.)
المُضَعَّفُ One of the arrows used in the game of المُيْسِر, that has no share, or portion, allotted to it; as though it were disabled from having a share (كَأَنَّهُ ضُعِّفَ↓ عَنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ): (TA:) the second of the arrows termed الغُفْلُ, that have no notches, and to which is assigned [no portion and] no fine: these being added only to give additional weight to the collection of arrows from fear of occasioning suspicion [of foul play]. (Lḥ, M.) [See السَّفِيحُ.]
مُضَعِّفٌ A man having manifold good deeds. (TA.)
مَضْعُوفٌ, applied to a thing, (Ṣ,) or to a man, (O,) Rendered ضَعِيف [i. e. weak, &c.]: (AA, Ṣ, O, Ḳ:) by rule it should be مُضْعَفٌ. (O, Ḳ.) A man weak in intellect: (IAạr, TA:) or weakhearted and having little intellect. (TA.)
See also أَرْضٌ مُضَعَّفَةٌ, above.
دِرْعٌ مُضَاعَفَةٌ A coat of mail composed of double rings. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
مُضَاعَفٌ as a conventional term used by those who treat of inflection, Having a [radical] letter doubled. (TA.)
أَهْلُ الجَنَّةِ كُلُّ ضَعِيفٍ مُتَضَعَّفٍ [The meet for Paradise is every weak person who is esteemed weak]. (Ḳ,* TA. [In the CK, erroneously, مُتَضَعِّفٌ: and in the Ḳ, اهل الجنّة is omitted.])