صح صحب صحر
صَحِبَهُ, aor. ـَ, inf. n. صُحْبَةٌ (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.) and صَحَابَةٌ (Ṣ, A, Ḳ) and صِحَابَةٌ, (Ḳ,) He associated, kept company, or consorted, with him; (A, Ḳ;) [he accompanied him;] he was, or became, his companion, associate, comrade, fellow, friend, or fellow-traveller: (MA:) andصاحبهُ↓ signifies the same. (TA. [See this latter verb below.])
[Hence] one says, صَحِبَكَ ٱللّٰهُ andصَاحَبَكَ↓, (A, TA,) [inf. n. of the former (in the TA inadvertently said to be of the latter) صِحَابَةٌ, (said in the TA to be with kesr,) or صَحَابَةٌ, and, as will be shown by what follows, صُحْبَةٌ also,] ‡ May God guard, keep, protect, or defend, thee; may God be thy guardian, keeper, &c.: (TA in explanation of the former:) and أَحْسَنَ ٱللّٰهُ صَحَابَتَكَ (A, and Ḥam p. 443) or صِحَابَتَكَ (TA) ‡ [May God make the guarding, &c., of thee to be good]. And (TA) [in like manner,]اصحب↓ فُلَانًا signifies † He guarded, kept, or protected, such a one; as alsoاصطحبهُ↓: and he defended such a one; syn. مَنَعَهُ: (Ḳ, TA:) one says,اَللّٰهُمَّ أَصْحِبْنَا↓ بِصُحْبَةٍ وَأَقْلِبْنَا بِذِمَّةٍ † O God, guard us with thy guarding in our journey, and make us to return with thy safeguard to our country, or land, &c.; occurring in a trad.: (TA:) andوَلَا هُمْ مِنَّا يُصْحَبُونَ↓, (A, TA,) in the Ḳur [xxi. 44], (TA,) means ‡ Nor shall they (i. e. the unbelievers, TA) be defended from us, (A, TA,) as expl. by Zj; (TA;) and preserved in safety: (A:) or, accord. to Ḳatádeh, nor shall they be attended by good from us: or, as some say, it is from the phrase صَحِبَكَ ٱللّٰهُ meaning as expl. above. (TA.)
See also 4, last sentence but one.
صَحَبَ, aor. ـَ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. صَحْبٌ, (TḲ,) He skinned a slaughtered animal. (Ḳ.)
صاحبهُ, (MA,) inf. n. دُصَاحَبَةٌ, (KL,) i. q. صَحِبَهُ; (TA;) He associated, kept company, or consorted, with him. (MA, KL.) See 1, first and second sentences.
And see the next paragraph, last sentence but one.
أَصْحَبْتُهُ قُلَانًا [I made such a one to be a companion, or an associate, to him]. (A.) And أَصْحَبْتُهُ الشَّىْءَ ‡ I made the thing to be [as it were] a companion to him; (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) and soاستصحبتهُ↓; as in the saying, استصحبته الكِتَابَ وَغَيْرَهُ ‡ I made the book, or writing, &c., to be [as it were] his companion. (Ṣ,* TA.)
And اصحبهُ ‡ He did to him that which caused him to be a companion, or an associate, to him. (A, TA.)
And ‡ He left upon it, namely, a skin, its hair, (Ṣ, A,) or its wool; not subjecting it to the process termed عَطْنٌ. (Ṣ.)
See also 1, in three places.
اصحب, intrans., He (a man) became one having a companion, or an associate: (Ḳ, TA: [in the latter said to be tropical; but, I think, without reason:]) and he was, or became, one having companions, or associates. (TA.)
And [hence,] ‡ He (a man) had a son who had attained to manhood (Ṣ, A, TA) and so become like him: (TA;) i. e. he was alone, and became one having a companion; (A;) or as though his son became his companion. (TA.)
And ‡ He (a camel, and a horse or similar beast, Ṣ, TA, or an animal, and a man to a man, A, TA *) became tractable, submissive, or obsequious, after being refractory, or incompliant; (Ṣ, A, TA;) [and soصَاحَبَ↓, as is implied by an explanation of its part. n. مُصَاحِبٌ; andاستصحب↓, for] hence, (A,) one says also, اِسْتَصْعَبَ تُمَّ ٱسْتَصْحَبَ ‡ [He was refractory, or incompliant: then he became tractable, submissive, or obsequious]: (A, TA:) and accord. to AʼObeyd, one says, صَحِبْتُ↓ الرَّجُلَ, from الصُّحْبَةُ, and أَصْحَبْتُ [app. اصحبت لَهُ], meaning † I became tractable, submissive, or obsequious, to the man. (TA.)
And, said of water, ‡ It became overspread with [the green substance termed] طُحْلُب. (Ṣ, A.*)
يَتَصَحَّبُ مِنَّا † He is ashamed, or bashful, with respect to us; or shy of us; (Ḳ, TA;) i. e. he is ashamed to sit with us, or shy of sitting with us. (Ibn-Buzurj, TA.) And فُلَانٌ مَا يَتَصَحَّبُ مِنْ شَىْءٍ ‡ Such a one does not guard himself against anything, and is not ashamed to do it, or shy of doing it, does not shun it, or avoid it. (A.)
see the next paragraph, in two places.
8. (اصتحب ⇒ اصطحب ⇒ اصّحب)
اصطحبوا, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,) originally اصتحبوا, (Ṣ,) They associated, kept company, or consorted, one with another; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) as alsoتصاحبوا↓: (A:) and in like manner اصطحبا andتصاحبا↓ said of two men. (TA.)
اصطحبهُ: see 1.
استصحبهُ He desired him, or demanded him, as a companion, an associate, a comrade, or a friend: (MA:) or he invited him to associate, keep company, or consort, with him: and he clave to him: (A, Ḳ:) [he chose him, or took him, as a companion, &c.: and] he had him with him. (MA.)
[Hence,] one says, اِسْتَصْحَبْتُ كِتَابًا لِى ‡ [I made a book a companion to me; or I made a book belonging to me my companion]. (A, L, TA.) And اِسْتَصْحَبْتُ الكِتَابَ وَغَيْرَهُ † I carried the book &c. with me. (Mṣb.) And one says of anything, استصحبهُ as meaning † It clave, adhered, or held-fast, to it; namely, another thing; (IF, Ṣ, Mṣb, TA;) or coalesced, or united, with it. (Ṣ, TA.) [See an ex. in a verse cited voce رَامِكٌ.]
See also 4, second sentence:
and see the last sentence but one of the same paragraph.
صَحْبٌ: see صَاحِبٌ.
صُحْبَةٌ an inf. n. of صَحِبَهُ [q. v.]. (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.)
[As a simple subst., Companionship. Hence, لَهُ صُحْبَةٌ, often occurring in biographies as meaning He had companionship with the Prophet; i. e. he was one of the Companions of the Prophet. And خَرَجْتُ صُحْبَةَ الرَّسُولِ, frequently occurring in trads., meaning I went forth in the companionship of the Apostle, or in company with the Apostle. Hence also] one says, حَمَلْتُ الكِتَابَ صُحْبَتِى † [I carried the book with me]. (Mṣb.) صُحْبَةُ السَّفِينَةِ [The companionship of the ship] is a post-classical phrase, denoting, by way of comparison, that which has no permanence. (Ḥar p. 258.)
See also صَاحِبٌ, of which it is a quasipl. n.
صَحَابَةٌ an inf. n. of صَحِبَهُ [q. v.]. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.)
See also صَاحِبٌ, of which it is a quasi-pl. n. [الصَّحَابَةُ is commonly applied to The Companions of the Prophet:] صَحَابِىٌّ↓ [is the n. un., meaning a Companion of the Prophet; and] is conventionally applied to one who saw Moḥammad, and whose companionship with him was long, even if he have not related anything from him; or, as some say, even if his companionship with him was not long. (KT.)
صَحَابِىٌّ: see the next preceding paragraph.
صَاحِبٌ A companion, an associate, a comrade, a fellow, or a friend; (A, MA, KL, TA;) a fellow-traveller: (MA:) [an accomplice: † an accompanier, or attendant, as applied to a thing:] and ‡ a lord, or master; a possessor, an owner, an occupant, a haver, or a proprietor; of anything: (A, TA:) it is not trans. like the verb, therefore you may not say, زَيْدٌ صَاحِبٌ عَمْرًا; (TA;) [i. e.] it is not used as an act. part. n., but as a subst., like وَالِدٌ; (Ḥam p. 32:) the pl., (Ṣ, Mṣb,) or term applied to a pl. number, (A, Ḳ, TA,) is صَحْبٌ↓, (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) a pl. like رَكْبٌ of رَاكِبٌ, (Ṣ,) or [rather] a quasi-pl. n., (TA,) and أَصْحَابٌ, [the most common of all,] (A, Mṣb,) a pl. like أَشْهَادٌ of شَاهِدٌ, (TA,) or pl. of صَحْبٌ, like أَفْرَاخٌ of فَرْخٌ, (Ṣ,) and أَصَاحِيبُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) pl. of أَصْحَابٌ, (Ṣ,) and صُحْبَانٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) a pl. like شُبَّانٌ of شَابٌّ, (Ṣ,) and صِحَابٌ, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,) a pl. like جِيَاعٌ of جَائِعٌ, (Ṣ,) and صِحَابَةٌ, (A, Ḳ,) in which the ة may be regarded, agreeably with analogy, as an affix to the pl. صِحَابٌ characteristic of the fem. gender, (TA,) andصَحَابَةٌ↓, (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) which is more common than صِحَابَةٌ, (TA,) but the only instance of فَعَالَةٌ as the pl. measure of a word of the measure فَاعِلٌ, (L, TA,) or originally an inf. n., (Ṣ,) or not so, but a quasi-pl. n., though written like the inf. n. [that is said to be its original], (from a marginal note in a copy of the Ṣ,) andصُحْبَةٌ↓, (Ṣ, A,) a pl. like فُرْهَةٌ of فَارِهٌ, (Ṣ, TA,) or [rather] a quasi-pl. n.: (TA:) the fem. is صَاحِبَةٌ, and its pl. is صَوَاحِبُ and صَوَاحِبَاتٌ, (Mgh, Mṣb,) the latter mentioned by AAF on the authority of Abu-l- Ḥasan: (TA:) hence, in a trad. of ʼÁïsheh, أَنْتُنَّ صَوَاحِبُ يُوسُفَ [Ye are the female companions, or the mistresses, of Joseph; meaning, enticers to lewdness]; or, as some relate it, صَوَاحِبَاتُ يُوسُفَ: (Mgh:) the dim. of صَاحِبٌ is صُوَيْحِبٌ↓ (A) [and that of صَاحِبَهٌ is صُوَيْحِبَةٌ↓]. يَاصَاحِ for يَاصَاحِبِى [O my companion, &c.,] is the only allowable instance of such curtailing of a prefixed noun, related as heard from the Arabs. (Ṣ, TA.) One says, فُلَانٌ صَاحِبُ صِدْقٍ [Such a one is a good companion, &c.]. (A,* TA.) [And صَاحِبُ جَيْشِ The commander of an army. And صَاحِبُ البَرِيدِ and صَاحِبُ الشُّرْطَةِ &c.: see arts. برد and شرط &c. And الصَّاحِبُ, alone, in post-classical times applied to The Wezeer, when an officer of the pen: see De Sacy's Chrest. Ar., sec. ed., ii. 59.] And صَاحِبُ اليَمِينِ [The companion of the right hand] and صَاحِبُ الشِّمَالِ [The companion of the left hand]; appellations of each man's recording angels, who write down his good and evil actions. (A trad. thus commencing in the Jámiʼ eṣ-Ṣagheer.) And صَاحِبُ الصُّورِ † The angel who is the possessor of the horn. (Idem.) [And صَاحِبُ بَيْتٍ † The owner, or master, of a house or tent.] And أَصْحَابُ الجَنَّةِ † [The inmates, or occupants, of Paradise]: (Ḳur ii. 76, &c.:) and أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ † [The inmates, &c., of the fire of Hell]. (Ḳur ii. 37, &c.) And صَاحِبُ سِجْنٍ † An inmate of a prison. (Bḍ and Jel in xii. 39.) And صَاحِبُ الصَّفِّ وَالجُمْعَةِ † He who keeps to praying in the first rank and to the prayer of Friday. (El-Munáwee on a trad. thus commencing in the Jámiʼ eṣ-Ṣagheer.) And أَصْجَابُ الشَّافِعِىِّ ‡ The followers of the persuasion of EshSháfi'ee: and in like manner one says of the followers of other persuasions. (Mṣb.) [And صَاحِبُ كِتَابٍ † The author of a book.] And صَاحِبُ عِلْمٍ وَمَالٍ ‡ A possessor of science and of wealth. (A, TA.) And صَاحِبُ وِتْرٍ † [One who has a claim for blood-revenge: see an ex. in a verse cited voce دَرَّاكٌ]. (Keys Ibn-Rifá'ah, TA in art. درك.) [And صَاحِبُ أَمْرٍ وَنَهْىٍ † One who possesses authority to command and to forbid. And صَاحِبُ أَمْرٍ also signifies † The author of an affair or event or action; the doer of a thing; the manager, or disposer, thereof: and one who keeps, or adheres, to a thing. And صَاحِبُ دَيْنٍ † A debtor.] And one says, خَرَجَ وَصَاحِبَاهُ السَّيْفُ وَالرُّمْحُ ‡ [He went forth, the sword and the spear being his companions]. (A, TA.)
صُوَيْحِبٌ and سُوَيْحِبَةٌ dims. of صَاحِبٌ and صَاحِبَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
أَصْحَبُ i. q. أَصْحَرُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) Of a colour inclining to redness: applied to an ass [app. to a wild ass]. (Ṣ, TA.)
مُصْحَبٌ [properly Made to have a companion.]
[And hence,] † A man possessed by a jinnee or demon; a demoniac; or insane. (Ḳ,* TA.)
And ‡ A skin, or hide, (A, Ḳ,) or a [skin such as is termed] زِقّ, (Ṣ,) having its hair remaining upon it, (Ṣ, A, Ḳ,) or its wool, or its fur; (Ḳ;) andمَصْحُوبٌ↓ signifies the same. (A.) Hence, قِرْبَةٌ مُصْحَبَةٌ (Ḳ, TA) ‡ A water-skin that has somewhat of its wool [or hair] remaining upon it, and that has not been subjected to the process termed عَطْنٌ. (TA.)
And ‡ A branch, or stick, that has not been stripped of its bark, or peel. (TA.)
مُصْحِبٌ [properly Having a companion.]
[And hence,] A man having a son that has attained to manhood, and become like him. (Ḳ,* TA.)
And ‡ One who talks to himself; and so, sometimes, مُصْحَبٌ↓. (Ḳ, TA.)
And ‡ Tractable, submissive, or obsequious, after being refractory, or incompliant; (Ḳ;) as alsoمُصَاحِبٌ↓, (A, Ḳ,) andمُسْتَصْحِبٌ↓. (TA. [See also the next paragraph.])
And † Going straight on, or right on, without delay. (Ḳ.)
هُوَ مِصْحَابٌ لَنَا بِمَا نُحِبُّ † He is [very] submissive, or compliant, to us in that which we like. (Ḳ.) [See also مُصْحِبٌ.]
مَصْحُوبٌ [Associated with, or accompanied].
[Hence,] one says [to a person departing], اِمْضِ مَصْحُوبًا ‡ Go thou, kept in safety, preserved from harm; and [so] مُصَاحَبًا↓: (A, TA:) and [in like manner,] in bidding farewell,مُعَافًا مُصَاحَبًا↓ ‡ [Be thou kept in safety or health, preserved from harm]: and a poet says,
*وَصَاحِبِى مِنْ دَوَاعِى السُّوْءِ مُصْطَحَبُ↓ *
† [And my companion is preserved, or defended, from the causes of evil]. (TA.)
مُصَاحَبٌ: see مَصْحُوبٌ, in two places.
مُصَاحِبٌ: see مُصْحِبٌ.
مُصْطَحَبٌ: see مَصْحُوبٌ.
مُسْتَصْحِبٌ: see مُصْحِبٌ.