سلغ سلف سلق
سَلَفَ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـُ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb,) or, accord. to some, ـِ, and accord. to IḲṭṭ, سَلَفٌ and ـِ, (MF,) inf. n. سَفٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or سُلُوفٌ, (Mṣb,) [both app. correct,] It (a thing, Ḳ) [and also he (a man)] passed; passed away; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ;) came to an end, or to nought; or became cut off: (Mṣb:) and, (Ḳ,) inf. n. سَلْفٌ, (M, MF, and so in copies of the Ḳ,) or سَفٌ, (so in the CK,) and سُلُوفٌ, (M, Ḳ,) he (a man, Ḳ) [and also it (a thing)] went before, or preceded; (M, Ḳ;) and soسالف↓, said of a camel. (Ḳ.) In a verse cited voce سَلْفَ رَدَادٌ is used by poetic license for سَلَفَ: but this kind of contraction is allowed by the Basrees only in verbs of which the medial radical letter is with kesr or damm, as in عَلْمَ for عَلِمَ, and كَرْمَ for كَرُمَ. (M. [See سَرُعَ.])
You say also, سَلَفَ لَهُ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ, meaning A good, or righteous, deed of his preceded [so as to prepare for him a future reward]. (TA.)
And سَلَفَتِ النَّاقَةُ, inf. n. سُلُوفٌ, The she-camel was, or became, among the foremost of the camels in arriving at the water. (TA.)
[Golius and Freytag mention also سَلَفَ as a trans. verb; the former explaining it as signifying “Præteriit, præcessit, rem;” and the latter adding “tempore,” and assigning to it the inf. ns. سَلْفٌ and سُلُوفٌ; as on the authority of the Ḳ; in which I find no indication of such a usage of this verb.]
سَلَفَ الأَرْضَ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) aor. ـُ, inf. n. سَلْفٌ; (Ṣ, M;) andاسلفها↓; (M, Ḳ;) He turned over the land for sowing: (M, Ḳ:) or (so in the Ḳ, but in the M “and”) he made it even with the مِسْلَفَة [q. v.]. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ.)
سَلَفَ المَزَادَةَ, inf. n. سَلْفٌ, [in some copies of the Ḳ سَلَف,] He oiled, or greased, the مزادة [or leathern water-bag]. (Ḳ.)
تَسْلِيفٌ signifies The making [a thing] to go before, or precede. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
And I. q. إِسْلَافٌ. (Ḳ.) See 4, in six places.
And The giving to another the portion of food termed سُلفَة [q. v.]. (Ṣ.) You say, سلّف الرَّجُلَ, (Ṣ,) or القَوْمَ, (M,) inf. n. as above, (Ṣ,) He gave to the man, (Ṣ,) or to the people or party, (M,) the portion of food so called; (Ṣ, M;) as also [سلّف لَهُ, or] سلّف لَهُمْ. (M.)
And The eating of the [portion of food termed] سُلْفَة. (Ḳ.) [See also 5.]
سالف: see 1, first sentence.
سالفهُ فِى الأَرْضِ, (Ibn-ʼAbbád, Ḳ,) inf. n. مُسَالَفَةٌ, (Ibn-ʼAbbád, TA,) i. q. سَايَرَهُ [i. e. He went, or kept pace, or ran, with him, or he vied, contended, or competed, with him in going or running, in the land; as though striving to be before him]. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, Ḳ.)
And سالفهُ He equalled him in an affair. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, Ḳ.)
اسلفهُ He did it previously, or beforehand. (O and TA in art. زلف.)
[Hence,] اسلف فِى كَذَا, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, TA,) inf. n. إِسْلَافٌ; (TA;) andسلّف↓ فِيهِ, (Mgh, Mṣb, TA,) inf. n. تَسْلِيفٌ; (Mṣb, TA;) He paid in advance, or beforehand, for such a thing, (Ṣ, Mgh, TA,) i. e. a commodity described to him, (Ṣ,) or wheat or the like, for which the seller became responsible, [with something additional to the equivalent of the current price at the time of the payment, (see سَلَفٌ,)] (TA,) to be delivered at a certain period: (Ṣ:) and أَسْلَمَ signifies the same. (TA.) You say, أَسْلَفْتُ إِلَيْهِ فِى كَذَا andسَلَّفْتُ↓ إِلَيْهِ [I paid in advance to him for such a thing, &c.]. (Mṣb.) Hence the saying in a trad.,مَنْ سَلَّفَ↓ فَيُسَلِّفْ فِى كَيْلٍ مَعْلُومٍ وَوَزْنٍ مَعْلُومٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مَعْلُومٍ i. e. He who pays in advance for a commodity for which the seller is responsible, let him pay in advance for a certain measure, and a certain weight, to be delivered at a certain period. (TA.)
And اسلفهُ مَالًا, (Ṣ, M, Mgh, TA,) andسلّفهُ↓, (M, Mgh, TA,) He lent him property [to be repaid, or returned, without any profit]. (M, Mgh, TA. [See, again, سَلَفٌ.]) [Whence one says, اسلفهُ إِحْسَانًا and سلّفهُ, andسلّفهُ↓, meaning † He did to him, to be requited it, a good action and an evil action; as is shown by the words مَا أَسْلَفْتَ مِنْ إِسَآءَةٍ أَوْ إِحْسَانٍ وَمَا تُعْطِيهِ لِتُقْضَاهُ in art. قرض in the Ḳ, and by the corresponding words مَا سَلَّفْتَ مِنْ إِحْسَانٍ وَمِنْ إِسَآءَةٍ in the same art. in the Ṣ: see also Bḍ in xxxvi. 11: and see زَلَّفَهُ. And hence,] a poet says,
*تُسَلِّفُ↓ الجَارَ شِرْبًا وَهْىَ حَائِمَةٌ ** وَالمَآءُ لَزْنٌ بَكِىْءُ العَيْنِ مُقْتَسَمُ *
† [They (referring to camels) yield promptly to the neighbour a draught of milk, while they are thirsty, and going round about the water, when the water is crowded upon, scanty in the source, divided by lot]. (TA. [See also some verses of El-Akra' Ibn-Mo'ádh, in which the former hemistich occurs with a different latter hemistich, in the Ḥam p. 753.])
See also 1, last sentence but one.
تسلّف He received payment in advance: andاستسلف↓ [perhaps a mistranscription forاستلف↓] signifies [the same; or] he took, or received, what is termed سَلَف. (Mṣb.)
[And hence,] تسلّف مِنْهُ He received from him a loan; syn. اِقْتَرَضَ; as alsoاستلف↓. (A in art. قرض.) And تسلّف مِنْهُ كَذَا He received as a loan from him such a thing. (TA.)
And تسلّف He ate the [portion of food termed] سُلْفَة. (MA.) [See also 2.]
تسالفا They two took as their wives two sisters. (M, Ḳ.)
see 5, in two places.
اِسْتَسْلَفْتُ مِنْهُ دَرَاهِمَ I sought, or demanded, of him money as a loan; as alsoتَسَلَّفْتُ↓. (Ṣ,* TA.) Hence, استسلف مِنْ أَعْرَابِىٍّ بَكْرًا He sought, or demanded, as a loan, from an Arab of the desert, a [youthful he-camel such as is termed] بَكْر. (TA.)
And استسلف ثَمَنَهُ He sought, or demanded, its price in advance; syn. اِسْتَقْرَضَهُ. (Ḥar p. 530.)
[And استسلف He took as his wife the wife of his deceased brother: so in a version of the Bible, in Deut. xxv. 5: mentioned by Golius.]
سَلْفٌ A [bag for travelling-provisions &c., such as is termed] جِرَاب, (M, Ḳ,) of any sort: (M:) or a large جِرَاب: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) [and the contr., i. e. a small one: (Freytag, from the Kitáb el-Addád:)] or a hide not well, or not thoroughly, tanned: (M, Ḳ, TA:)pl. [of pauc.] أَسْلُفٌ and [of mult.] سُلُوفٌ. (M, Ḳ.)
سُلْفٌ [perhaps a mistranscription for سُلَفٌ, q. v.,] A certain species of bird, not particularized. (TA.)
سِلْفٌ; and its fem., with ة; and their duals: see سَلِفٌ, in five places:
and see سَلَفٌ, last sentence.
سَلَفٌ Such as have gone before, or preceded; (M, Mṣb;*) [i. e. the preceding generations;] as alsoسَلِيفٌ↓ andسُلْفَةٌ↓ andسَلُوفٌ↓; all quasipl. ns.; (M;) of which the sing. is سَالِفٌ↓: (M, Mṣb:*) or such as have gone before, or preceded, of a man's ancestors (Ṣ, Ḳ) and of his relations, (Ḳ,) that are above him in age and in excellence; [but this addition is not always agreeable with usage;] one of whom is termed سَالِفٌ↓: (TA:) the pl. of سَلَفٌ is أَسْلَافٌ and سُلَّافٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) [the former a pl. of pauc. and the latter of mult.,] or the latter is pl. ofسَالِفٌ↓, and so is سَلَفٌ [said to be, though this is more properly termed, as it is in the M, a quasi-pl. n.]: (IB, Mṣb, TA:) and, accord. to Zj, سُلُفٌ is pl. ofسَلِيفٌ↓, and سُلَفٌ is pl. ofسُلْفَةٌ↓, which means a company (عُصْبَةٌ) that has passed away: (M:) orسَالِفٌ↓ andسَلِيفٌ↓ signify the same; going before; preceding; syn. مُتَقَدِّمٌ. (Ṣ.) [Accord. to Abu-lMahásin, السَّلَفُ is particularly applied to ʼÁïsheh the wife of Moḥammad, the three Khaleefehs Aboo-Bekr and ʼOmar and ʼOthmán, Talhah and Ez-Zubeyr, the Khaleefeh Mo'áwiyeh, and ʼAmr Ibn-El-Ás. (De Sacy's Chrest. Ar., sec. ed., i. 156.)] And السَّلَفُ الصَّالِحُ is applied to the first chief persons of the Tábi'ees. (TA.) And السَّلَفُ المُقَدَّمُ is an appellation of the prophet Moḥammad. (Ḥam p. 780.) [Hence, مَذَاهِبُ السَّلَفِ The tenets of the early Muslims.]
Also A people, or party, going before, or preceding, in journeying. (TA.)
And [simply] A company of men; as in the saying, جَآءَنِى سَلَفٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ [A company of men came to me]. (M.)
And Any good, or righteous, deed, that one has done beforehand [by way of preparing a future reward]: or any فَرَط [i. e. cause of reward, or recompense, in the world to come, such as a child dying in infancy], that [as it were] goes before one. (AʼObeyd, O, Ḳ.)
And i. q. سَلَمٌ; (T, Hr, Mgh, O, Ḳ, TA;) i. e. Any money, or property, paid in advance, or beforehand, as the price of a commodity for which the seller has become responsible and which one has bought on description: (T, TA:) or payment for a commodity to be delivered at a certain [future] period with something additional to [the equivalent of] the current price at the time of such payment; this [transaction] being a cause of profit to him who makes such payment; and سَلَمٌ also has this meaning: (TA:) or a sort of sale in which the price is paid in advance, and the commodity is withheld, on the condition of description, to a certain [future] period: (Ṣ, O:) it is a subst. from الإِسْلَافُ. (Mṣb,* Ḳ, TA.)
And A loan (قَرْضٌ) in which is no profit (Hr, O, Mgh, Ḳ, TA) to the lender (Hr, O, Ḳ, TA) except recompense [in the world to come] and thanks, (TA,) and which it is incumbent on the recipient thereof to return as he received it: (Hr, O, Ḳ, TA:) thus the Arabs term it: (Hr, O, TA:) and in this sense also the word is a subst. from الإِسْلَافُ. (TA.)
Also A stallion-camel. (IAạr, M, TA.)
Also, (M,) orسُلْفَةٌ↓, (O, TA,) The prepuce of a boy; (M, O, TA;) so says Lth; (O, TA;) andسَلِفٌ↓ andسِلْفٌ↓ signify the same; for this is meant by الجِلْدُ as an explanation of السَّلِفُ and السِّلْفُ in the Ḳ, in some copies of which الخُلْدُ is erroneously put for الجِلْدُ. (TA.)
سَلِفٌ andسِلْفٌ↓ The husband of the sister of the wife of a man: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) and [the duals] سَلِفَانِ (M, TA) andسِلْفَانِ↓ (M, Ḳ) signify the two husbands of two sisters: (M, Ḳ:) accord. to IAạr, the epithet سَلِفَةٌ [orسِلْفَةٌ↓] is not applied to a woman; (M;) one only uses the term سَلِفَانِ applied to two men: (M:) or, (M, Ḳ,) accord. to Kr, سَلِفَتَانِ, (M,) orسِلْفَتَانِ↓, (Ḳ,) is applied to the two wives of two brothers: (M, Ḳ:) [in the present day, سِلْفَةٌ↓ is used as meaning a woman's husband's sister, and her brother's wife:] the pl. applied to men is أَسْلَافٌ, (M, Ḳ, TA,) and that applied to women is سَلَفٌ. (TA.)
See also سَلَائِفُ, last sentence.
سَلَفٌ The young one of the حَجَل [or partridge]: (Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) or, accord. to Kr, of the قَطَاة [n. un. of قَطًا, q. v.]: (M:) AA says that he had not heard سُلَفَةٌ, applied to the female; but if one said سُلَفَةٌ, like as one says سُلَكَةٌ as meaning a single female of what are termed سِلْكَانِ, it would be approvable: (Ṣ:) the pl. is سِلْفَانِ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and سُلْفَانٌ: (M, Ḳ:) some say that سِلْفَانٌ signifies a species of bird, not particularized. (M.) [See also سُلَحٌ and سُلَكٌ.]
سُلْفَةٌ: see سَلَفٌ, first sentence, in two places. [Hence,] one says, جَاؤُوا سُلْفَةً سُلْفَةً, meaning They came [one before another; or, which is virtually the same,] one after, or near after, or at the heels of, another. (AZ, Ḳ.)
Also A portion of food (Ṣ, M, TA) which a man takes betimes, (Ṣ,) or with which one contents, or satisfies, himself [so as to allay the craving of his stomach], (M,) before the [morning-meal called] غَدَآء; (Ṣ, M, TA;) i. q. لُمْجَةٌ (Ḳ, TA) and لُهْنَةٌ: (TA:) or a لُهْنَة that is supplied betimes for a guest, before the غَدَآء. (TA.)
And السُّلْفَة also signifies That which a woman reposits, or prepares, or provides, [app. of food,] to present to her visiter. (M.)
Also A piece, or portion, of land of seed-produce made even [with the مِسْلَفَة, q. v.]: pl. سُلَفٌ. (Az, O, Ḳ.)
And Thin skin (M, O, Ḳ) which is put as a lining to boots, (O, Ḳ,) sometimes red, and [sometimes] yellow. (O.)
See also سَلَفٌ, last sentence.
سِلْفَةٌ; and its dual: see سَلِفٌ, in three places.
أَرْضٌ سَلِفَةٌ Land in which are few trees. (AA, Ḳ.)
سُلَافٌ (T, Ṣ, M, Mgh) andسُلَافَةٌ↓ (T, M, Mgh) The portion that flows before its being expressed, (Ṣ, Mgh,) of the juice of the grape; (Ṣ;) and this is the most excellent of wine: (Mgh:) or the first that is expressed, of wine: or the portion that flows without its being expressed: or the first that descends, thereof: (M:) or the clearest, or purest, and most excellent, of wine, such as flow from the grapes without their being pressed, and without steeping, or maceration; (T, TA;) and in like manner, such as flows from dates, (T, TA,) and from raisins, before water has been added to it (T, M,* TA) after the exuding of the first thereof; (T, TA:) or the latter signifies the first that is expressed, of anything: (M:) or it has this meaning also: and the former is a name for wine [absolutely]: (Ṣ:) or each has this meaning: (Ḳ:) or each signifies the clear, or pure, of wine, and of anything. (M.)
سُلَافُ العَسْكَرِ: see سَالِفٌ.
سَلُوفٌ: see سَلَفٌ, first sentence.
Also, applied to a she-camel, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) That is among the foremost of the camels when they come to the water: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or that precedes the [other] camels to the watering-trough or tank: (M:) or that precedes, or leads, the other camels; opposed to عَنُودٌ. (El-Keysee, TA in art. عند.)
And A swift, or fleet, horse: (M, Ḳ:) pl. سُلْفٌ. (Ḳ.)
And An arrow having a long head: (M:) or a long arrow-head. (Ḳ.)
سَلِيفٌ: see سَلَفٌ, first sentence, in three places.
Also A road, or way. (TA.)
سُلَافَةٌ: see سُلَافٌ.
سَالِفٌ Passing; passing away; coming to an end, or to nought; becoming cut off: (Mṣb:) and going before; preceding: (Ṣ:) pl. سُلَّافٌ and [quasi-pl. n.] سَلَفٌ: (IB, Mṣb, TA:) see سَلَفٌ, first sentence, in four places. [Hence,] الأُمَمُ السَّالِفَةُ The peoples going before, or preceding, [or that have gone, or passed away, before,] those remaining, or continuing: (Ḳ,* TA:) pl. سَوَالِفُ. (TA.) One says, كَانَ ذٰلِكَ فِى الأُمَمِ السَّالِفَةِ وَالقُرُونِ السَّوَالِفِ [That was in the time of the preceding peoples, and the preceding generations]: the pl. in this instance being used because every portion of the قرون is termed سَالِفَةٌ. (TA.) [Hence also,] سُلَّافٌ العَسْكَرِ, in the Ḳ, by implication,سُلَافُ↓ العسكر, the former word like غُرَاب, whereas it is correctly like رُمَّان, The van of the army, as expl. in the Ḳ. (TA.)
سَالِفَةٌ [fem. of سَالِفٌ, q. v.]
[And hence, as a subst.,] The side of the fore part of the neck, from the place of suspension of the ear-ring to the hollow (قَلْت [in the CK erroneously قَلْب]) of the collar-bone: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or the upper, or uppermost, part of the neck: (M:) or the side of the neck, (M, Mgh, TA,) from the place of suspension of the ear-ring to the حَاقِنَة [here meaning the pit of the collar-bone]: pl. سَوَالِفُ. (M.) In the saying إِنَّهَا لَوَضَّاحَةُ السَّوَالِفِ [Verily she is fair in respect of the سَالِفَة], mentioned by Lḥ, the term سالفة is made applicable to every part thereof, and then the pl. is used accordingly. (M.) It is said in a trad. respecting [the covenant at] El-Hodeybiyeh, لَأُقَاتِلَنَّهُمْ حَتَّى تَنْفَرِدَ سَالِفَتِى i. e. [I will assuredly fight with them, or combat them,] until the side of my neck shall become separate from what is next to it: an allusion to death. (TA.)
And [hence, i. e.] by the application of the name of the place to that which occupies the place, † The locks of hair that are made to hang down upon the cheek [or rather upon the side of the fore part of the neck]: said by MF to be metonymical, or tropical. (TA.)
Also The fore part of the neck of a horse (Ḳ, TA) &c.: so in the O and L. (TA.)
بَيْنَهُمَا أُسْلُوفَةٌ Between them two is صِهْرٌ [i. e. affinity, app. by their having married to sisters: see سَلِفٌ]. (O, Ḳ.)
مُسْلِفٌ, (Ṣ, M, O, L,) thus in some copies of the Ḳ, as in the Ṣ &c., but in other copies of the Ḳ, erroneously, سُلْفٌ↓, (TA,) A woman that has attained the age of five and forty years, (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ,) and the like: (Ṣ, M, O:) or i. q. نَصَفٌ [i. e. middle-aged, or forty-five years old, or fifty years old]: (M:) an epithet specially applied to a female. (Ṣ, O.) A poet says,
* فِيهِ ثَلَاثٌ كَالدُّمَى ** وَكَاعِبٌ وَمُسْلِفُ *
[Among them three females like the images of ivory, or of marble, &c., and one with swelling breasts, and one of middle age, &c.]. (Ṣ, M: in the O with إِلَى in the place of فِيهَا.)
مِسْلَفَةٌ An instrument with which land is made even, (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ, TA,) of stone: AʼObeyd says, I think it is a stone made round [or cylindrical, i. e. a stone roller,] which is rolled upon the land to make it even. (TA.) [In the present day, applied to A harrow.]
أَرْضٌ الجَنَّةِ مَسْلُوفَةٌ, occurring in a trad., The ground of Paradise is made even: (Aṣ, T, Ṣ, O, TA:) said by Aṣ to be of the dial. of El-Yemen and Et-Táïf: accord. to IAth, smooth and soft. (TA.)