Strength, might, force, or power; (TA;) as also
↓سَلْطَنَةٌ: (Bḍ in iii. 144:) predominance; the possession, or exercise, of superior power or force, or of dominion, or authority, and power, or of absolute dominion or authority and power; (Mgh;) as also
↓سُلْطَةٌ; (Ṣ;) the former being syn. with تَسَلُّطٌ [used as a subst.]; (Mgh;) and the latter being the subst. from تَسَلَّطَ: (Ṣ:) power of dominion; sovereign, or ruling, power; (M;) [in this sense, as well as in the first,] i. q.
↓سَلْطَنَةٌ; (Mṣb;) power of a king; (Lth, Mgh, Ḳ;) and of a governor; (Mgh, Mṣb;) [i. e.] delegated power, or power given to one who is not a king; (TA;) also written سُلْطَانٌ; (M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) which is the only instance of this form: (Mṣb:) it is masc. and fem.; (M, TA;) generally masc., in the opinion of the skilful; but sometimes fem.; so say IAmb and Zj and others: (Mṣb:) but ISk says that it is fem. (TA.) One says, (ISk,) or some say, (Mṣb,) قَضَتْ بِهِ السُّلْطَانُ (ISk, Mṣb) The sovereign, or ruling, power (
↓السَّلْطَنَةُ) decreed it. (Mṣb.) And Aboo-Zuheyr says, I heard one, in whose chasteness of speech I have confidence, say, أَتَتْنَا سُلْطَانٌ جَائِرَةٌ [A tyrannical sovereign, or ruling, power, came to us]. (Mṣb.) It is said in a trad., إِلَّا أَنْ تَسْأَلَ ذَا سُلْطَان Ḳ, meaning Unless thou ask the ruler, or governor, or the king, for thy due from the public treasury. (Mgh.) And you say, قَدْ جَعَلْتُ لَكَ سُلْطَانًا عَلَى أَخْذِ حَقِّى مِنْ فُلَان Ḳ I have given thee power, or authority, to take, or receive, my due from such a one. (TA.) And لَا يَؤُمُّ الرَّجُلُ الرَّجُلَ فِى سُلْطَانِهِ [A man shall not take precedence of a man in his authority]; meaning, in his house, and where he has predominance, or superior power, or authority; nor shall he sit upon his cushion; for in doing so he would show him contempt. (Mgh.)
Strength, or hardness, of anything: (M, Ḳ:) sharpness of anything: force, or violence, of anything. (TA.) The vehemence of winter. (TḲ.) An excited and predominant state of the blood; or inflammation thereof. (IDrd, M, Ḳ.) The flaming, or blazing, of fire. (IDrd.)
A proof; an evidence; an argument; a plea; an allegation; syn. حُجَّةٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and بُرْهَانٌ: (Ṣ, Mṣb:) a حُجَّة being thus called because of the force with which truth attacks the mind: (B:) or, accord. to Moḥammad Ibn-Yezeed, from سَلِيطٌ, (M, TA,) signifying “ oil of olives, ” because it enlightens: (TA:) and in these senses it has no pl., because it is used in the place of an inf. n. (Ṣ, TA.) Accord. to I'Ab, it signifies حُجَّة wherever it occurs in the Ḳur. (TA.) But in the words of the Ḳur [xvii. 35], فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِّيِهِ سُلْطَانًا, the meaning may be either [We have given to his executor, or heir,] authority, and power, or absolute authority and power, or the like; or a plea, or the like. (Mgh.) And again, in the Ḳur [lxix. 29], هَلَكَ عَنِّى سُلْطَانِيَهْ, the meaning may be My dominion, and my authority and power over men, has perished from me; or my plea. (Bḍ, B.) And sometimes it means A miracle; as in the words of the Ḳur [li. 38], إِذْ أَرْسَلْنَاهُ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ بِسُلْطَان Ḳ مُبِين Ḳ [When we sent him to Pharaoh with a manifest miracle]. (TA.) Az says that it is sometimes masc. because it has a masc. form; and thus it is in the last of the instances above. (TA.)
Also A ruler, or governor, or the like; a king; a sovereign; (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) a khaleefeh: (TA:) these are its most common applications [in the writings of post-classical times]: (TA:) thus applied because the person so called is made to predominate; to have, or exercise, superior power or force; to have dominion, or the like: or because he is one of the evidences of God: (Aboo-Bekr, TA:) or because he possesses proof or evidence [of his right]: or because by him pleas and rights are established: (TA:) or because he enlightens the earth, (Mṣb, * B,) and is of great usefulness; (B;) the word being derived from سَلِيطٌ [signifying “ olive-oil ”]: (Mṣb:) it is of the measure فُعْلَانٌ: (Ṣ:) and when [thus] applied to a person, it is masc.: (Mṣb:) or it is masc. and fem.: (Ṣ, TA:) accord. to Moḥammad Ibn-Yezeed, (TA,) fem. because it is [originally] pl. of سَلِيطٌ applied to “ oil; ” as though the kingdom shone by him; or because it has the signification of حُجَّةٌ: and sometimes masc., because regarded as meaning a man; (Ḳ, TA;) or because regarded as a sing.: so says Moḥammad Ibn-Yezeed; but Az observes that none beside him says this: Fr says that he who makes it masc. regards it as meaning رَجُلٌ; and he who makes it fem. regards it as meaning حُجَّةٌ: (TA:) the pl. is سَلَاطِينُ. (Ṣ, Mṣb.) It is also, itself, sometimes used as a pl.; as in the phrase سَيِّدُ السُّلْطَانِ, used by a poet, meaning سَيِّدُ السَّلَاطِينَ [The lord of kings]; i. e. the khaleefeh: [but this may be rendered the lord of sovereign power, &c.:] or, as some say, the latter word is here pl. of سَلِيطٌ, like as رُغْفَانٌ is pl. of رَغِيفٌ. (Mṣb.)