حفش حفظ حفل
حَفِظَهُ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. ـَ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. حِفْظُ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb,) He kept it, preserved it, guarded it, protected it, or took care of it; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) namely, a thing; (Ṣ;) he prevented it from perishing, or becoming lost; (Mgh, Mṣb;) namely, a thing, (Mgh,) or property &c.; (Mṣb;) and hence the saying, (Mgh,) حِفْظٌ is the contr. of نِسْيَانٌ; (M, Mgh;) i. e., it signifies the taking care, being careful; (M;) being mindful, regardful, attentive, or considerate: (M, Ḳ:) [see also 5:] andاحتفظ↓ بِهِ signifies the same as حَفِظَهُ. (Ṣ, Mṣb.) [Hence,] you say, حَفِظَ المَالَ He kept and tended, or pastured and defended, the camels or the like. (Ḳ.) [And حَفِظَ حُرْمَةَ صَاحِبِهِ He was regardful of everything entitled to reverence, respect, honour, or defence, in the character and appertenances of his companion, or friend.] And حَفِظَ السِّرَّ He kept the secret. (TA.) [And حَفِظَ يَمِينَهُ He kept his oath: but this has also another meaning, as will be seen below.] And حَفِظَ القُرْآنَ He kept, or retained, the Ḳur-án in his mind, or memory; got it, knew it, or learned it, by heart. (Ṣ,* Mṣb, Ḳ.) [See also 5.] And حَفِظَ عِنْ فُلَانٍ [He learned by heart from such a one: and, followed by an accus. case, the same; or he retained in his memory, as learned, or heard, from such a one; or he remembered to have heard from such a one]. (TA &c. passim.) And one says of God, قَدْ حَفِظَ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَعِبَادِهِ مَا يَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ خَيْرٍ أَوْ شَرٍّ [He hath preserved from oblivion, for, or against, his creatures and his servants, what they do of good or evil]. (TA.)
Also He kept it from being used, or employed, on, or for, ordinary, mean, or vile, occasions, or purposes. (Mgh, Mṣb.) You say, فُلَانٌ يَحْفَظُ نَفْسَهُ وَلِسَانَهُ Such a one keeps himself and his tongue from ordinary, mean, or vile, employment, in that which does not concern him. (Mgh.) And hence the saying in the Ḳur [v. 91], وَٱحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ, accord. to one of the modes of interpreting it; i. e. And keep ye your oaths from being used, or uttered, on, or for, ordinary, mean, or vile, occasions, or purposes; agreeably with what is said in ii. 224 of the Ḳur, where ordinary and frequent swearing by God is forbidden. (Mgh.) [Another meaning of which this phrase is susceptible has been shown above.]
حَفَّظْتُهُ الكِتَابَ I incited him, or urged him, [or made him,] to commit to memory, or learn by heart, the book: (Ṣ:) and [in like manner,]أَحْفَظْتُهُ↓ الحَدِيثَ I made him to retain the narration, or tradition, in his mind, or memory; or to know it, or learn it, by heart. (TA in art. زكت.)
مُحَافَظَةٌ The defending of those persons, or things, that are sacred, or inviolable, or that one is bound to respect or honour, and to defend, (Ḳ, TA,) on the occasions of wars; (TA;) as also حِفَاظٌ. (Ḳ, TA.) You say, حافظ حَرِيمَهُ He defended his wife, or wives, or the like. (TḲ.) [And hence,] you say, إِنَّهُ لَذُو حِفَاظٍ, and ذُو مُحَافَظَةٍ, meaning Verily he is disdainful, or scornful. (Ṣ, TA.)
The being mindful, watchful, observant, or regardful: (Ṣ, and TA in art. رعى:) [see also 5:] or the keeping, attending, or applying oneself, constantly, perseveringly, or assiduously, (Ḳ, TA,) to a thing, or an affair. (TA.) You say, حافظ عَلَى الأَمْرِ, (TA,) or على الشَّىْءَ, inf. n. محافظة, (Mṣb,) He kept, attended, or applied himself, constantly, &c., to the thing, or affair. (TA.) And hence the saying in the Ḳur [ii. 239], حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ Perform ye the prayers in their proper times: or, accord. to Az, keep ye, attend ye, or apply yourselves, constantly, or perseveringly, to the performance of the prayers in their proper times. (TA.)
حِفَاظٌ, is also explained as signifying The being mindful, or observant, of a covenant, and the keeping, or fulfilling, of a promise, with forgiveness, and holding fast to love or affection. (TA.)
احفظهُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) and احفظهُ حِفْظَةً, inf. n. إِحْفَاظٌ, [He made him to conceive what is termed حِفْظَة, or حَفِيظَة;] he angered him; made him angry: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) and in the same sense it is said of a speech, or word: (TA:) or only he angered him by evil, or foul, speech, (Ḳ, TA,) and making him to hear what he disliked, or hated. (TA.)
تحفّظ He guarded himself; syn. اِحْتَرَزَ (Ḳ, TA,) or تَحَرَّزَ, (Mṣb,) and تَحَرَّسَ, and اِحْتَرَسَ, (Ṣ and Mṣb and Ḳ in art. حرس,) مِنْهُ from him, or it, (Ṣ in art. حرس, &c.,) or عَنهُ. (TA.) He was, or became, careful, mindful, attentive, or considerate; (TA;) watchful, vigilant, or heedful; (Ṣ, O, L, TA;) in affairs, and speech, and to avoid a slip, or fault; as though he were cautious, or careful, or fearful, of falling. (L, TA.) [See also 1, and 3.]
[In the last of the senses explained above, it is also trans.: you say, تحفَظ أَمْرَهُ He was careful, mindful, &c., of his affair, or case: see Bḍ in xxxiii. 52.]
تَحَفَّظْتُ الكِتَابَ I learned the book by heart, one part, or thing, after another. (Ṣ, TA.) [See also حَفِظَ القُرْآنَ, in the first paragraph.]
احتفظ بِهِ: see 1.
احتفظهُ لِنَفْسِهِ, (Ḳ,) and احتفظ بِهِ لنفسه, (TA,) He appropriated it, took it, or chose it, to, or for, himself. (Ḳ, TA.)
احتفظ [He conceived, or became affected with, what is termed حِفْظَة, or حَفِيظَة;] he became angered, or angry: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or he became angered by evil, or foul, speech. (Ḳ.)
استحفظهُ, (Ṣ, Ḳz, Ṣgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) followed by إِيَّاهُ, (Ḳ,) or الشَّىْءَ, (Ḳz, Mṣb,) or مَالًا, or سِرًّا, (Ṣgh,) [but in the Ṣ, nothing follows it,] He asked him to keep, preserve, guard, or take care of, or to preserve from perishing or becoming lost, or to be careful of, or mindful of, or attentive to, (Ṣ, Ṣgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) it, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or the thing, (Mṣb,) or property, or a secret: (Ṣgh:) or he placed the thing with him for him to keep it, preserve it, guard it, or take care of it, &c.: (Ḳz:) or he intrusted him with the thing; intrusted it to him; or gave it to him in trust, or as a deposite. (Mṣb.) It is said in the Ḳur [v. 48], بِمَا ٱسْتُحْفِظُوا مِنْ كِتَابِ ٱللّٰهِ, meaning By that which they have been required to keep, &c., of the Book of God: (Mṣb:) or by that with which they have been intrusted, of the Book of God. (Mṣb, TA.)
حِفْظٌ inf. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb.)
See also حَافِظٌ, last sentence but one.
حِفْظَةٌ: see حَفِيظَةٌ.
رَجُلٌ حُفَظَةٌ A man of much حِفْظ [app. meaning retention in the mind, or memory: see 1]. (Ṣgh.)
حَفِيظٌ: see حَافِظٌ, in seven places:
حَفِيظَةٌ The defence of those persons, or things, that are sacred, or inviolable, or that one is bound to respect or honour, and to defend; a subst. from 3, in the first of the senses mentioned above: (Ḳ, TA:) pl. حَفَائِظُ. (TA.) Hence the saying, الحَفَائِظُ تُذْهِبُ الأَحْقَادَ, (TA,) or تَنْقُضُ الأَحْقَادَ, (Ṣ,) [The acts of defending those whom one is bound to respect or honour, and to defend, put away, or annul, rancorous feelings;] i. e., when thou seest thy relation, or kinsman, wronged, thou defendest him, though rancour be in thy heart. (Ṣ, TA.)
Also, andحِفْظَةٌ↓, Indignation, and anger, (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) by reason of violence, or injury, done to something which one is bound to honour or respect, and to defend, or of wrong done to a relation, or kinsman, in one's neighbourhood, or of the breach of a covenant. (TA.) It is said in a prov., المَقْدِرَةُ تُذْهِبُ الحَفِيظَةَ [Power to revenge dispels anger, or indignation, &c.]; meaning that it is incumbent to forgive when one has power [to revenge]. (A, TA.)
An amulet, or a charm, bearing an inscription, which is hung upon a child, to charm against the evil eye &c. (TA.)
حَافِظٌ andحَفِيظٌ↓ Keeping, preserving, guarding, or taking care of, a thing; or a keeper, preserver, &c.: keeping and tending, or pasturing and defending, camels or the like; or a keeper and tender thereof: (Ḳ:) keeping a secret [and an oath]: (TA:) keeping, or retaining, the Ḳur-án [&c.] in the mind, or memory; knowing it, or learning it, by heart: (Ḳ:) intrusted with a thing, (Ḳ, TA,) to keep it, preserve it, guard it, or take care of it: (TA:) [careful, mindful, attentive, or considerate: (see 1:)] and the latter, a keeper, or person mindful, of the ordinances prescribed by God: (Bḍ and Jel in l. 31:) pl. of the former حَفَظَةٌ and حُفَّاظٌ: (Mṣb, Ḳ:) the latter pl. particularly applied to persons endowed with a faculty of retaining in the mind what they have heard, and seldom forgetting what they learn by heart. (TA.) You say,فُلَانٌ حَفِيظُنَا↓ عَلَيْكُمْ i. e. حَافِظُنَا [Such a one is our keeper over you]. (TA.) It is said in the Ṣ that حَفِيظٌ↓ is syn. with مُحَافِظٌ↓; [but this seems to be a mistranscription for حَافِظٌ;] and hence (it is there added) the saying in the Ḳur [vi. 104, and xi. 88], وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُمْ بِحَفِيظٍ↓ [And I am not a defender, or a watcher, or, as I rather think, a keeper, over you]. (TA.) You say also, رَجُلٌ حَافِظٌ لِدِينِهِ وَأَمَانَتِهِ وَيَمِينِهِ [A man who is a keeper, &c., of his religion and his deposite and his oath]; andحَفِيظٌ↓ likewise: (Mṣb:) but حَافِظٌ لِيَمِينِهِ signifies also who keeps his oath from being used, or uttered, on, or for, ordinary, mean, or vile, occasions, or purposes. (Mgh.) And رَجُلٌ حَافِظُ العَيْنِ A man whom sleep does not overcome: (Lḥ, Ḳ:) because the eye guards the person when sleep does not overcome it. (TA.) الحَفِيظُ↓ is also a name of God; meaning [The Preserver of all things;] He from whose preservation nothing is excluded, (Ḳ,* TA,) not even a thing of the weight of a ذَرَّة [q. v.], (TA,) in the heavens, nor on the earth; (Ḳ, TA;) who preserves from oblivion, for, or against, his creatures and his servants, what they do of good or evil; who preserves the heavens and the earth by his power, and whom the preservation of both does not burden. (TA.) And الحَفَظَةُ is an appellation of The recording angels, who write down the actions of the sons of Adam, or mankind; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) as also الحَافِظُونَ. (Ḳ.) حَفِيظٌ↓ is sometimes trans.; as in the saying, هُوَ حَفِيظٌ عِلْمَكَ وَعِلْمَ غَيْرِكَ [He knows by heart thy science, and the science of others beside thee]. (TA.) [القُوَّةُ الحَافِظَةُ, and simply الحَافِظَةُ, signify The retentive faculty of the mind; retentiveness of mind; or memory; as alsoالحَفْظُ↓, for حِفْظُ القَلْبِ.]
حَافِظٌ also signifies ‡ A distinct and direct road; (En-Naḍr, Ḳ, TA;) not one that is apparent at one time and then ceases to be traceable. (En-Naḍr, TA.)
مُحْفِظَاتٌ Things that anger a man, when he has his kinsman, or neighbour, slain. (TA.)
And مُحْفِظَاتُ رَجُلٍ A man's women and others whom he protects, and for whose defence he fights [when required to do so: because they occasion his being angered when they are injured]. (TA.)
مَحْفُوظٌ Kept, preserved, guarded, or taken care of, because of the high estimation in which it is held; as alsoحَفِيظٌ↓. (TA.) It is said in the Ḳur [lxxxv. 21 and 22], بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَجِيدٌ فِى لَوْحٍ مَحْفُوظٍ (TA) [Nay, it is a glorious Ḳur-án, written upon a tablet preserved] from the devils and from the alteration of anything thereof: (Jel:) or, accord. to one reading, مَحْفُوظٌ, this epithet being thus made to relate to the Ḳur-án. (TA.)
[Hence, as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates, and then as a subst.,] A young child; in the dial. of Mekkeh; as a term of good omen: pl. مَحَافِيظُ. (TA.)
[Also Kept, or retained, in the mind, or memory; known, or learned, by heart. Hence the phrase,] عَرَضَ مَحْفُوظَاتِهِ عَلَى فُلَانٍ He showed the things which he kept, or retained, in his mind, or memory, or which he knew, or had learned, by heart, to such a one. (TA.)
مُحَافِظٌ: see حَافِظٌ.