بش بشر بشع
بَشَرَ, aor. ـُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) inf. n. بَشْرٌ; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ;) andابشر↓, (A,) inf. n. إِبْشَارٌ; (Ḳ;) He pared (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ) a hide, (Ṣ, A, Mṣb,) removing its بَشَرَة, (Ṣ,) or face, or surface, (A, Mṣb,) or the skin upon which the hair grew: (TA:) or, as some say, removing its inner part with a large knife: or, accord. to Ibn-Buzurj, some of the Arabs say, بَشَرْتُ الأَدِيمَ, aor. ـِ, meaning I removed from the hide its بَشَرَة; andأَبْشَرْتُهُ↓ as meaning I exposed to view its بَشَرَة that was next to the flesh; and آدَمْتُهُ I exposed to view its أَدَمَة upon which the hair grew. (TA.) [But see أَدَمَةٌ.]
Hence the saying in a trad., مَنْ أَحَبَّ القُرْآنَ قَلْيَبْشُرْ, accord. to him who recites it thus, with damm to the ش; meaning † Whoso loveth the Ḳur-án, let him make himself light of flesh, [by not eating more than will be sufficient, and so prepare himself] for [reading, or reciting,] it, [like as one prepares a horse for running,] because eating much causes one to forget it. (TA.)
Hence also, بَشَرَ الأَرْضَ, (TA,) inf. n. as above, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) † It (a swarm of locusts) stripped the ground; (TA;) ate what was upon the ground, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) i. e., upon its surface; as though the exterior of the ground were its بَشَرَة. (TA.)
And بَشَرَ, aor. ـُ, (TA,) inf. n. as above, (Ḳ,) He clipped his mustache much, so that the بَشَرَة (i. e. the exterior of the skin, TA) became apparent. (Ḳ, TA.) This the Muslim is commanded to do. (TA.)
بَشَرَنِى فُلَانٌ بِوَجْهٍ حَسَنٍ Such a one met me with a cheerful countenance. (Ṣ.) See also 2, in two places.
بَشِرَ, aor. ـَ; (IAạr, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ;) and بَشَرَ, aor. ـِ, (IAạr, Ḳ,) inf. n. بَشْرٌ and بُشُورٌ; (TA;) andابشر↓, [which is the most common, though extr. in respect of analogy, as being quasi-pass. of بَشَرَ, like احجم and احنج and اعرض and اقشع and اكبّ and انهج, (mentioned by MF in art. حنج as the only other instances of the kind,) and اخلج, (added in the TA in art. خلج,)] (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِبْشَارٌ; (Ṣ;) andاستبشر↓; (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ;) andتبشّر↓; (A;) [originally, He became changed in his بَشَرَة (or complexion) by the annunciation of an event: see بَشَّرَهُ: and hence,] he rejoiced, or became rejoiced; (IAạr, Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ;) بِكَذَا [at, or by, such a thing; or at, or by, the annunciation of such a thing]. (IAạr, Ṣ, Ḳ.*) You say, أَتَانِى أَمْرٌ بَشِرْتُ بِهِ An affair happened to me whereat I rejoiced, or whereby I became rejoiced. (Ṣ.) Andأَبْشَرَ↓ بِمَوْلُودٍ He rejoiced [at the annunciation of a new-born child]. (Ṣ.) Andأَبْشِرْ↓ بِخَيْرٍ Rejoice thou [at the annunciation of a good event]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And in the same senseأَبْشِرُوا↓ is used in the Ḳur xli. 30. (Ṣ.)
بشّرهُ (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, &c.,) the form used by the Arabs in general, (Mṣb,) inf. n. تَبْشِيرٌ; (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.;) andبَشَرَهُ↓, aor. ـُ, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb,) of the dial. of Tihámeh and the adjacent parts, (Mṣb,) inf. n. بَشْرٌ and بُشُورٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and بُشْرٌ, (TA,) or this last is a simple subst.; (Mṣb;) andابشرهُ↓; (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Ḳ;) andاستبشرهُ↓; (Ḳ, TA;) are syn.; (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.;) originally signifying He announced to him an event which produced a change in his بَشَرَة [or complexion]: and hence, (El-Fakhr Er-Rázee,) he announced to him an event which rejoiced him: (A, El-Fakhr Er-Rázee:) so in common acceptation [when not restricted by an adjunct that denotes its having a different meaning: see بُشْرَى and an ex. below in this paragraph]: (El-Fakhr Er-Rázee:) or he rejoiced him [by an annunciation]: (Mṣb:) and he announced to him an event which grieved him: [or he grieved him by an annunciation:] both these significations are proper. (El-Fakhr Er-Rázee.) You say, بشّرهُ بِالأَمْرِ [generally meaning He rejoiced him by the annunciation of the event]; andبَشَرَهُ↓ بِهِ, aor. and inf. ns. as above; &c. (TA.) And بَشَّرْتُهُ بِمَوْلُودٍ [I rejoiced him by the annunciation of a new-born child]. (Ṣ.) And it is said in the Ḳur [iii. 20, &c.], بَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ [Grieve thou them by the annunciation, or denunciation, of a painful punishment]. (Ṣ.) You say also, of a she-camel, بَشَّرَتْ بِاللَّقَاحِ, meaning † She made it known that she had begun to be pregnant. (TA. [See also 4.])
باشر المَرْأَةَ, (Ḳ, &c.,) inf. n. مُبَاشَرَةٌ (Ṣ, Mgh, TA) and بِشَارٌ, (TA,) He was, or became, in contact with the woman, skin to skin: (TA:) he enjoyed [contact with] her skin: (Mṣb:) he became in contact with her, skin to skin, both being within one garment or piece of cloth: (Ḳ:) he lay with her, [skin to skin; or in the sense of] inivit eam: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) i. q. وَطِئَهَا, both فِى الفَرْجِ and خَارِجًا مِنْهُ: (TA:) [and soبَشَرَهَا↓ inf. n. بَشْرٌ; for] بَشْرٌ and مُبَاشَرَةٌ are syn. [in the sense of congressus venereus, as is shown by an ex. in the Ṣ.]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
باشرهُ النَّعِيمُ ‡ [Enjoyment attended him; as though it clave to his skin]. (A.)
فَبَاشَرُوا رَوْحَ اليَقِينِ, or رُوحَ اليقين, is a metaphorical expression, [app. meaning ‡ And they felt the joy and happiness that arise from certainty,] occurring in a trad. of ʼAlee. (TA.)
باشر الأَمْرَ, (Ṣ, A, &c.,) inf. n. مُبَاشَرَةٌ, (Ṣ,) ‡ He superintended, managed, or conducted, the affair himself, or in his own person: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) or ‡ he was present, himself, at the affair: (A, TA:) or, [properly,] he managed, or conducted, the affair with his بَشَرَة, i. e., his own hand: (Mgh,* Mṣb:) and hence a later application of the verb in the sense of لَاحَظَ † [He regarded, or attended to, the thing, or affair, &c.]. (Mṣb.)
ابشر: see 1, first sentence, in two places.
[Hence,] ابشر الأَمْرُ وَجْهَهُ The affair made his countenance beautiful and bright: in the Ḳ we read, أَبْشَرَ الأَمْرَ حَسَّنَهُ وَنَضَّرَهُ; but this is a mistake. (TA.) Agreeably with this explanation, AA renders a reading in the Ḳur [xlii. 22], ذٰلِكَ ٱلَّذِى يُبْشِرُ ٱللّٰهُ عِبَادَهُ, meaning That is it with which God will make beautiful and bright the face of his servants: so in the L. (TA.)
[Hence,] أَبْشَرَتِ النَّاقَةُ † The she-camel conceived, or became pregnant: (Ḳ:) as though she rejoiced [her owner] by announcing her conception. (TA. [See 2, last sentence.])
And أَبْشَرَتِ الأَرْضُ ‡ The earth put forth its herbage appearing upon its surface. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
See also 1, latter part, in four places.
see 1, latter part.
تباشر القَوْمُ The people, or company of men, announced, one to another, a joyful event, or joyful events. (Ṣ.) And هُمْ يَتَبَاشَرُونَ بِذٰلِكَ الأَمْرِ They rejoice one another by the annunciation of that event. (TA.)
استبشر: see 1, latter part.
استبشرهُ He demanded of him a reward for an annunciation of joyful tidings. (M.)
بُشْرٌ: see بُشْرَى.
It is also a contraction of بُشُرٌ, which is pl. of بَشُورٌ (TA) or بَشِيرٌ. (TA in art. نشر.)
بِشْرٌ Cheerfulness, or openness and pleasantness, of countenance: (Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,* TA:) and happiness, joy, or gladness. (Ḥar p. 192.) You say, هُوَ حَسَنُ البِشْرِ He is cheerful, or open and pleasant, in countenance. (Ṣ.)
بَشَرٌ: see بَشَرَةٌ
[Hence,] البَشَرُ † Mankind: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) and the human being: (Mṣb, Ḳ:) applied to the male and to the female; and used alike as sing. and pl. (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA) and dual: (TA:) so that you say, هُوَ بَشَرٌ He is a human being, and هِىَ بَشَرٌ She is a human being, and هُمْ بَشَرٌ They (more than two) are human beings, and هُمَا بَشَرٌ They two are human beings: (TA:) but sometimes it has the dual form; (Mṣb, Ḳ;) as in the Ḳur xxiii. 49; (Mṣb, TA;) though the Arabs may have used the dual form in the sense of the sing.: (MF:) and sometimes it has a pl., namely, أَبْشَارٌ. (Ḳ.) This is a secondary application of the word: (Mṣb:) i. e., this signification is tropical; or, as some say, the word is so much used in this sense as to be, so used, conventionally regarded as proper; the sense not depending upon its having another word connected with it: but in the Ṣ and Ḳ, and by the generality of authors, this signification is given as proper. (MF.) Some say that a human being is thus called because his بَشَرَة is bare of hair and of wool. (MF.) [Hence,] أَبُو البَشَرِ [The father of mankind; meaning] Adam. (Ḳ.)
بَشَرَةٌ (Lth, Ṣ, M, A, Mgh, Mṣb) andبَشَرٌ↓, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or the latter is pl. of the former, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) [or rather a coll. gen. n., of which the former is the n. un.,] like قَصَبَهُ and قَصَبٌ, (Mṣb,) and أَبْشَارٌ is pl. of بَشَرٌ, (Ḳ,) [The external skin; the cuticle, or scarf-skin; the epidermis;] the exterior of the skin (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ) of a human being; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) and, as some say, of other creatures, (Ḳ,) such as the serpent; but this is generally disallowed: (TA:) or بَشَرَةٌ signifies the exterior of the skin of the head, in which grows the hair; as also أَدَمَةٌ and شَوَاةٌ: (Aboo-Safwán:) or the upper skin (Lth, M) of the head (M) and of the face and body of a human being; (Lth, M;) that upon which the hair grows: (M:) or, as some say, that which is next the flesh. (M.) It is said in a prov., إِنَّمَا يُعَاتَبُ الأَدِيمُ ذُو البَشَرَةِ: see أَدِيمٌ.
بَشَرَةٌ sometimes means The complexion, or hue: and fineness, or delicacy. (TA.)
بَشَرَةُ الأَرْضُ ‡ The herbage appearing upon the surface of the earth. (Ṣ, A, Ḳ.) You say, مَا أَحْسَنَ بَشَرَتَهَا ‡ How goodly is its herbage appearing upon its surface! (Ṣ, A.) And بَشَرَةٌ [alone] signifies ‡ Leguminous plants; herbs, or herbage. (TA.)
بَشَرَةٌ is used also as signifying † A man's hand. (Mṣb.) [See 3, last sentence.]
بُشْرَى (imperfectly decl., because it terminates with a fem. alif which is inseparable from it, Ṣ) andبِشَارَةٌ↓ andبُشَارَةٌ↓ [but respecting this last see بِشَارَةٌ below] (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) andبُشْرٌ↓ (Mṣb) are substs. from بَشَّرَهُ (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) [originally signifying An annunciation which produces a change in the بَشَرَة (or complexion) of the person to whom it is made: and hence, a joyful annunciation; joyful, or glad, tidings; good news]: andتَبَاشِيرُ↓ [q. v. infrà] signifies the same as بُشْرَى: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) بِشَارَةٌ↓, when used absolutely, relates only to good; (Ṣ, Mṣb;) not to evil unless when expressly restricted thereto by an adjunct: [see 2:] (Ṣ:) its pl. is بِشَارَاتٌ and بَشَائِرُ. (A.) يَا بُشْرَاىَ, in the Ḳur [xii. 19, accord. to one reading, (otherwise, as Bḍ mentions, بُشْرَاىْ, or بُشْرَىَّ, which is a dial. var. of the same, or بُشْرَى, which, as some say, was the name of a man,) meaning O my joyful annunciation, or joyful tidings, or good news!], is like عَصَاى: and in the dual you say, يَا بُشْرَيَىَّ. (Ṣ.) You say also,تَتَابَعَتِ البِشَارَاتُ↓ and البَشَائِرُ [The joyful annunciations followed consecutively]. (A.) See another ex. voce بَشِيرٌ.
[بَشَرِىٌّ Human; of, or belonging to, or relating to, mankind or a human being.]
بُشَارٌ † The refuse, or lowest or basest or meanest sort, of mankind, or of people. (IAạr, Ḳ.)
بَشُورٌ: see what next follows, in three places.
بَشِيرٌ i. q. مُبَشِّرٌ↓, (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ,) [and soبَشُورٌ↓, as will be seen by an ex. in what follows,] One who announces to a people [or person] an event, either good or evil; (TA;) but meaning the former oftener than the latter: (Mṣb:) [an announcer of a joyful event, or joyful events: one who rejoices another, or others, by an annunciation:] pl. بُشَرَآءُ (A) and بُشُرٌ, (TA in art. نشر,) or this is pl. ofبَشُورٌ↓. (TA in the present art.) It is said in the Ḳur [vii. 55], وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُرْسِلُ ٱلرِّيَاحَ بُشُرًا, and بُشْرًا, andبُشْرَى↓, and بَشْرًا; [accord. to different readings, meaning † And He it is who sendeth the winds announcing coming rain;] in which بُشُرٌ is pl. ofبَشُورٌ↓, [syn. with بَشِيرٌ and مُبَشِّرٌ, but both masc. and fem.,] (TA,) or of بَشِيرٌ, (Bḍ,) or of بَشِيرَةٌ; (TA in art. نشر;) and بُشْرًا is a contraction of the same; and بُشْرَى is syn. with بِشَارَةٌ; and بَشْرًا is the inf. n. of بَشَرَهُ in the sense of بَشَّرَهُ (TA. [But the reading commonly followed in this passage is نُشُرًا, with ن: another reading is نُشْرًا: another, نَشْرًا: and another, نَشَرًا.]) Andالمُبَشِّرَاتُ↓, (A,) or مُبَشِّرَاتُ الرِّيَاحِ, (Ṣ,) signifies ‡ Winds that announce [coming] rain: (Ṣ, A:) so in the Ḳur xxx. 45. (TA.)
Also Goodly; beautiful; elegant in form or features; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) applied to a man, and to a face: (TA:) fem. with ة; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) applied to a woman, and to a she-camel; (Ṣ;) and meaning, when applied to a she-camel, neither emaciated nor fat: or, accord. to Aboo-Hilál, neither of generous nor of ignoble breed: or, as some say, half-fattened: (TA:) pl. of the fem. بَشَائِرُ: (Ṣ:) andمَبْشُورَةٌ↓ signifies beautiful in make and colour; (IAạr, Ḳ;) applied to a girl. (IAạr.)
بَشَارَةٌ Goodliness; beauty; elegance of form or features. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.)
بُشَارَةٌ What is pared off from the face of a hide: what is pared off from its back is called تِحْلِئٌ. (Lḥ.)
Also A gift to him who announces a joyful event; and soبُشَارَةٌ↓: (Ḳ,* TA:) or the latter, which is like the عُمَالَة of the عَامِل, has this signification; (IAth;) and soبُشْرَى↓; (M;) and بِشَارَةٌ [has the same meaning accord. to common usage, but, properly,] is a subst. in the sense explained above, voce بُشْرَى. (IAth.) You say, أَعْطَيْتُهُ ثَوْبِى بِشَارَةً I gave him my garment as a reward for the joyful annunciation. (TA from a trad.)
هُوَ أَبْشَرُ مِنْهُ He is more goodly or beautiful, more elegant in form or features, and more fat, than he. (Ḳ.)
تُبُشِّرٌ, in the hand writing of J تُبَشِّرٌ, [and so in my copies of the Ṣ,] a word of which there is not the like except in the instances of تُنُوِّطٌ [or تُنَوِّطٌ], a certain bird, and وَادِى تُهُلِّكَ [or تُهَلِّكَ?] and وَادِى تُضُلِّلَ [or تُضَلِّلَ] and وَادِى تُخُيِّبَ [or تُخَيِّبَ], (TA,) A certain bird, called the صُفَارِيَّة: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) n. un. with ة. (Ḳ.)
تَبَاشِيرُ, as though it were pl. of تَبْشِيرٌ, inf. n. of بَشَّرَ; (A;) a word which has not its like except in the instances of تَعَاشِيبُ and تَعَاجِيبُ and تَفَاطِيرُ [and تَبَاكِيرُ and تَبَارِيحُ, and probably a few others]; (TA;) ‡ [Annunciations; foretokens; foretellers; foreshowers; prognostics; earnests; of what is good:] the beginnings of anything: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) the first of blossoms &c.: (TA:) the beginnings, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or first annunciations, (A,) of daybreak; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) as alsoبَشَائِرُ↓: (TA:) it has no verb: (Ṣ:) and [is said to have] no sing.: but in a trad. of El-Hajjáj, تَبْشِيرٌ occurs as meaning † the commencement of rain. (TA.) One says, فِيهِ مَخَايِلُ الرُّشْدِ وَتَبَاشِيرُهُ ‡ [In him are indications of right conduct, or belief, and its earnests]. (A.) See also بُشْرَى.
† Streaks of the light of daybreak in the night. (TA.)
† Streaks that are seen upon the surface of the ground, caused by the winds. (Lth, Ḳ.*)
† The colours of palm-trees when their fruit begins to ripen; (Ḳ;) as also تَبَاكِيرُ. (TA.)
† Such as bear fruit early, or before others, of palm-trees. (Ḳ.)
† Marks of galls upon the side of a beast. (Ḳ.)
رَجُلٌ مُؤْدَمٌ مُبْشَرٌ ‡ A perfect man; as though he combined the softness of the أَدَمَة [or inner skin] with the roughness of the بَشَرَة [or outer skin]: (Ṣ:) or a man who combines softness, or gentleness, and strength, with knowledge of affairs: (Aṣ:) and اِمْرَأَةٌ مُؤْدَمَةٌ مُبْشَرَةٌ ‡ a woman perfect in every respect. (TA.) [See also art. ادم.]
مُبَشِّرٌ and مُبَشِّرَاتٌ: see بَشِيرٌ.
مَبْشُورَةٌ: see بَشِيرٌ, last sentence.
حِجْرٌ مُبَاشِرٌ [so in two copies of the Ṣ: in Golius's Lex. مُبَاشِرَةٌ:] A mare [so I render حجر, which Golius renders ‘ vulva, ’] desiring the stallion. (Ṣ.) [See also مُبَاسِرَةٌ, with س.]