اثل اثم اثن
أَثِمَ, (Lth, Ṣ, M, &c.,) aor. ـَ, (Lth, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِثْمٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or أَثَمٌ, the former being a simple subst., (Mṣb,) and مَأْثَمٌ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) He fell into what is termed إِثْمٌ[i. e. a sin, or crime, &c.]; (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb,* Ḳ *;) [he sinned; committed a sin, or crime;] he did what was unlawful: (M,* Ḳ:) andتَأْثِيمٌ↓ signifies the same as إِثْمٌ: (Ḳ:) it may be either an inf. n. of أَثَمَ↓, which [says ISd] I have not heard, or, as Sb holds it to be, a simple subst. like تَنْبِيتٌ: (M:) and is said to be used in the sense of إِثْم in the Ḳur lii. 23 [and lvi. 24]. (TA.) [It should be added also, thatتأْثَامٌ↓, like تَكْذَابٌ, is syn. with تأْثِيمٌ and إِثْمٌ; and, like تأثيم, may be an inf. n. ofأَثَّمَ↓, or a simple subst.: see an ex. voce بَرُوقٌ.] In the dial. of some of the Arabs, the first letter of the aor. is with kesr, as in تِعْلَمُ and نِعْلَمُ; and as the hemzeh in إِثْمٌ is with kesr, the radical hemzeh [in the aor.] is changed into ى; so that they say إِيثَمُ and تِيثَمُ [for آثَمُ and تَأْثَمُ.] (TA.) In the saying,
* لَوْ قُلْتَ مَا فِى قَوْمَهَا لَمْ تِيثَمِ ** يَفْضُلَهَا فِى حَسَبٍ وَمِيسَمِ *
the meaning is, [Shouldst thou say, thou wouldst not sin, or do wrong, in so saying,] There is not, among her people, any one who excels her [in grounds of pretension to respect, and in impress, or character, of beauty]. (M.)
أَثَمَهُ ٱللّٰهُ فِى كَذَا, aor. ـُ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and ـِ, (Ṣ,) or ـَ, (Ḳ,) but there is no other authority than the Ḳ for this last, nor is there any reason for it, as the medial radical letter is not faucial, nor is the final, and in the Iktitáf el-Azáhir the aor. is said to be ـِ and ـُ, (MF, TA,) [God reckoned him to have sinned, or committed a crime or the like, in such a thing; or] God reckoned such a thing against him as an إِثْم: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or أَثَمَهُ, aor. ـِ (Fr, T, M, Mṣb) and ـُ, (Mṣb,) inf. n. أَثْمٌ (Fr, T, Mṣb) and أَثَامٌ (Fr, T, TA) and إِثَامٌ, (Fr, TA,) He (God) requited him, (Fr, T,) or punished him, (M,) for what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. sin, or crime, &c.]: (Fr, T, M:) [see also أَثَامٌ below:] or he (a man) pronounced him to be آثم [i. e. a sinner, or the like]: (Mṣb:) [or] آثَمَهُ↓, aor. يَؤْثِمُهُ, has this last signification, said of God; and also signifies He found him to be so. (T.)
You say also, أَثَمَتِ النَّاقَةُ المَشْىَ, aor. ـِ, inf. n. أَثْمٌ, The she-camel was slow. (M.)
أثّمهُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَأْثِيمٌ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) He said to him أَثِمْتَ [Thou hast fallen into a sin, or crime, &c.; hast sinned, &c.]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
See also 1, first and second sentences.
آثمهُ He made him, or caused him, to fall into what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime, &c.], (Zj, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) or what is termed ذَنْبٌ. (Mṣb.)
See also 1, last sentence but one.
تأثّم He abstained from what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. sin, or crime, &c.]; (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) like تَحَرَّجَ meaning “he preserved himself from what is termed حَرَجٌ:” (Mṣb:) or he did a work, or deed, whereby he escaped from what is termed إِثْمٌ: (TA:) and he repented of what is so termed, (M, Ḳ,) and begged forgiveness of it; as though he removed the إِثْم itself by repentance and by begging forgiveness; or sought to do so by those two means. (M.) You say also, تأثّم مِنْ كَذَا He abstained from such a thing as a sin, or crime; syn. تَحَّنَثَ, q. v. (Ṣ, Ḳ, in art. حنث.)
إِثْمٌ [accord. to some, an inf. n.; see أَثِمَ: accord. to others, only a simple subst., signifying] A sin, a crime, a fault, an offence, or an act of disobedience, syn. ذَنْبٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) for which one deserves punishment; differing from ذَنْبٌ inasmuch as this signifies both what is intentional and what is unintentional: (Kull:) or [so accord. to the M, but in the Ḳ “and,”] an unlawful deed: (M, Ḳ:) or a deed which retards from recompense: or, accord. to Fr, what is exclusive of the [punishment termed] حَدّ: accord. to Er-Rághib, it is a term of more general import than عُدَوانٌ: (TA:) مَأْثَمٌ↓ [which is originally an inf. n. of أَثِمَ] is syn. with إِثْمٌ; (T,* Mgh;) and so, too, is أَثَامٌ↓, (Mṣb,) orإِثَامٌ↓, signifying a deed retarding recompense: (TA:) the pl. of إِثْمٌ is آثَامٌ: (M:) and the pl. ofمَأْثَمٌ↓ is مَآثِمُ. (T.)
[Sometimes it is prefixed to a noun or pronoun denoting its object:]
[and sometimes it means † The punishment of a sin &c.: see explanations of a passage in the Ḳur v. 32, voce بَآءَ.]
Wine: (Aboo-Bekr El-Iyádee, T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) sometimes used in this sense; (Ṣ;) but tropically; not properly: (IAmb:) I think, [says ISd,] because the drinking thereof is what is thus termed. (M.)
[And for a like reason,] † Contention for stakes, or wagers, in a game of hazard; syn. قِمَارٌ; (M, Ḳ;) which is a man's destruction of his property. (M.) It is said in the Ḳur [ii. 216, respecting wine and the game called المَيْسِر], قُلْ فِهِيمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ [Say thou, In them both are great sin and means of profit to men]: and Th says, when they contended in a game of this kind, and won, they gave food and alms, and these were means of profit. (M.)
أَثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ.
Also The requital, or recompense, of إِثّم [i. e. sin, or crime, &c.]: (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb:) so says Zj, (T, M,) and in like manner say Kh and Sb: (T:) or punishment (Yoo, Lth, T, M, Ḳ) thereof: (Lth, T, M:) andإِثَامٌ↓ andمَأْثَمٌ↓ signify the same; (M, Ḳ;) the latter like مَقْعَدٌ. (TA. [In the CK this is written مَأثِم.]) So in the Ḳur [xxv. 68], يَلْقَ أَثَامَا [He shall find a requital, or recompense, or a punishment, of sin]: (T, Ṣ, M:) in my opinion, [says ISd,] the correct meaning is, he shall find the punishment of آثَام [or sins]: but some say, the meaning is that which here follows. (M.)
A valley in Hell. (M, Ḳ.)
إِثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ:
أَثِيمٌ: see آثِمٌ.
Also A great, or habitual, liar; or one who lies much; and soأَثُومٌ↓. (Ḳ.) So in the Ḳur ii. 277: or it there signifies Burdened with إثْم [or sin, &c.]. (TA.) In the Ḳur xliv. 44, it means, accord. to Fr, The unrighteous, or sinning; like آثِمٌ↓: (T:) or the unbeliever: (TA:) or, accord. to Zj, in this instance, (M,) by the اثيم is meant Aboo-Jahl. (M, Ḳ.)
Also The commission of إِثْم [sin, or crime, &c.,] much, or frequently; and soأَثِيمَةٌ↓. (M, Ḳ.)
أَثِيمَةٌ: see أَثِيمٌ.
أَثَامٌ: see آثِمٌ.
آثِمٌ Falling into what is termed إِثمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime, &c.]; (Ṣ, Mṣb,* Ḳ;*) [sinning; committing a sin, or crime;] doing what is unlawful: (Ḳ:) and in like manner, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) but having an intensive signification, (Mṣb,) أَثِيمٌ↓, andأَثُومٌ↓, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andأَثَّامٌ↓: (M, Mṣb, Ḳ: [in the CK, erroneously, without teshdeed:]) the pl. of the first of these three is أُثَمَآءُ; that of the second, أُثُمٌ; and that of the third, أَثَّامُونَ. (M.) See also أَثِيمٌ.
آثِمَةٌ, (Ṣ,) and آثِمَاتٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, [in the CK, erroneously, اَثِماتٌ.]) A she-camel, (Ṣ,) and she-camels, slow, or tardy; (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) weary, fatigued, or jaded. (Ḳ. [In the CK, we find مُعِيْباتٌ erroneously put for مُعْيِيَاتٌ.]) Some pronounce it with ت. (Ṣgh.) [In like manner,] مُؤَاثِمٌ↓ signifies That is slack, or slow, in pace, or going; اَلَّذِى يَكْذِبُ فِى السَّيْرِ. (Ṣgh, Ḳ. [In Golius's Lex., as from the Ḳ, اَلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ السَّيْرَ. Both are correct, signifying the same.])
تَأْثَامٌ: see 1.
تَأْثِيمٌ: see 1.
مَأْثَمٌ: see إِثْمٌ, in two places:
مَأْثُومٌ [Reckoned to have sinned, or the like;] having a thing reckoned against him as an إِثْم: (Ṣ:) or requited for what is termed إِثْمٌ. (Fr, T.)
مُؤَاثِمٌ: see آثِمٌ.