كسد كسر كسط
1. ⇒ كسر
كَسَرَهُ, (Ṣ, A, &c.,) aor. ـِ
كُسِرَ He had his leg broken; his leg broke. (Mgh.)
فُلَانٌ يَكْسِرُ عَلَيْكَ الفُوقَ, (A, Ḳ,) or الأَرْعَاظَ, (Ḳ,) orيُكَسِّرُ↓, (as in the CK,* and in a MṢ copy of the Ḳ, but we find the former reading in art. رعظ in the Ḳ,) [lit., Such a one breaks against thee the notch of the arrow, or the sockets of the arrow-heads: meaning,] ‡ such a one is angry with thee: (A, Ḳ:) or is vehemently angry with thee. (Ḳ, art. رعظ, in which see further explanations.)
[كُسِرَ بَيْنَهُمْ رُمْحٌ lit., A spear was broken among them: meaning, † a quarrel occurred among them. (Reiske, cited by Freytag, but whether from a classical author is not said; and explained by him as signifying Simultas inter eos intercessit.)]
كَسَرَ الكِتَابَ عَلَى عِدَّةِ أَبْوَابٍ وَفُصُولٍ ‡ [He divided the book, or writing, into a number of chapters and sections]. (A.)
كَسَرَ الشَّعْرَ, aor. ـِ
كَسَرْتُ القَوْمَ, inf. n. as above, † I [broke, crushed, routed, or] defeated, the people or party. (Mṣb.)
كَسَرْتُ خَصْمِى ‡ [I defeated my adversary]. (A.)
[كَسَرَ نَفْسَهُ † He broke, or subdued, his spirit.]
[† He abased, or humbled, himself.]
كَسَرْتُ مِنْ سَوْرَتِهِ ‡ [I broke, or subdued, or abated, somewhat of his impetuosity, or violence, or tyranny, or anger]. (A.)
كَسَرَ حُمَيَّا الخَمْر بِٱلْمِزَاجِ ‡ [He broke, or subdued, or abated, the intoxicating influence of the wine by the mixture of water]. (A.)
كَسَرَ مِنْ بَرْدِ المَآءِ, and حَرِّهِ, aor. and inf. n. as above, † He abated, or allayed, somewhat of the coldness of the water, and its heat. (TA.)
اِكْسِرْ عَنَّا: see an ex. voce رُوبَةٌ.
[كَسَرَ العَطَشَ † It abated, or allayed, thirst.]
كَسَرَ مَتَاعَهُ ‡ He sold his goods by retail, one piece of cloth after another: (IAạr, Ḳ:) because, [on the contrary,] wholesale makes them to find purchasers readily. (TA)
كَسَرْتُ الرَّجُلَ عَنْ مُرَادِهِ † I turned the man, averted him, or turned him back, from his desire. (Mṣb.)
يَكْسِرُ ذَنَبَهُ بَعْدَ مَا أَشَالَهُ [app. † He contorts his tail after raising it], said of a camel. (Ḳ.)
كَسَرَ الثَّوْبَ, and الجِلْدَ, † He folded, and he creased, the garment, or piece of cloth, and the skin. Ex. of the former signification, [in which the pronoun refers to a tent:] مِنْ حَيْثُ يُكْسَرُ جَانِبَاهُ [† Where its two sides are folded]. (Ṣ.) You say also كَسَرَ الوِسَادَ, meaning ‡ He folded, or doubled, the pillow, or cushion, and leaned, or reclined, upon it. (Ḳ.) See also كَاسِرٌ.
كَسَرَ جَفْنَهُ نَحْوَهُ † [He blinked, (lit. he wrinkled his eyelid) towards him]. (Mgh. art. غمز.) You say also, رِيحٌ حَارَّةٌ تَكْسِرُ العَيْنَ حَرًّا † [A hot wind, that makes the eye to blink, or contract and wrinkle the eyelids, by reason of heat]. (Ḳ, art. خوص.) And كَسَرَ عَيْنَهُ, (A,) and كَسَرَ مِنْ طَرْفِهِ, (Ḳ,) aor. and inf. n. as above, (TA,) ‡ He contracted (غَضَّ, q. v.,) his eye, or eyes; [so as to wrinkle the lids; in which sense the former phrase is used in the present day:] (Ḳ:) and كَسَرَ عَلَى طَرْفِهِ, accord. to Th, he contracted (غَضَّ) his eye, or eyes, somewhat: (TA:) [or perhaps عَلَى is here a mistake for عَلَىَّ, in which case we must read طَرْفَهُ, so that the meaning would be as above with the addition at me:] andمُكَاسَرَةُ↓ العَيْنَيْنِ signifies المُغَاضَنَةُ [i. e. the contracting of the eyes so as to wrinkle the lids]. (Ṣ, Ḳ, in art. غضن.)
كَسَرَ الطَّائِرُ جَنَاحَيْهِ, (A, TA,) aor. ـِ
[كَسَرَ الحَرْفَ, aor. ـِ
2. ⇒ كسّر
كسّرهُ, (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَكْسِيرٌ, (Mṣb,) is with teshdeed to denote muchness [of the action] or multiplicity [of the objects] (Ṣ) [He broke it much, in pieces, or into many pieces: or many times, or repeatedly; or he broke it, meaning a number or collection of things.]
فُلَانٌ يُكَسِّرُ عَلَيْكَ الفُوقَ, or الأَرْعَاظَ: see 1.
[كسّرهُ also signifies He divided it (i. e. a number, and a measure,) into fractions.]
كسّرهُ الكَرَى ‡ [Drowsiness made him languid]. (A, TA in art. هيض.)
[كسّر شَعَرَهُ, inf. n. تَكْسِيرٌ, † He crimped his hair, see رَطَّلَ.]
كسّر المَآءُ الوَادِى ‡ The water made [the كُسُور, i. e.,] the turnings, bendings, or windings, (مَعَاطِف,) of the valley, and the parts thereof eaten away by torrents, to flow with water. (Th.)
3. ⇒ كاسر
5. ⇒ تكسّر
تكّسر, (Ṣ, A, Mṣb, Ḳ,) quasi-pass. of 2, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) [It broke, or became broken, much, in pieces, or into many pieces; or many times, or repeatedly; or it (a number or collection of things) broke, or became broken.]
[Said of water, and of sand, † It became rippled by the wind. And of crisp hair, † It became crimped; or became rimpled, as though crimped. (In these senses it is used in the Ṣ in art. حبك, &c. See حِبَاكٌ.) Also said of the skin, † It became wrinkled: see تَغَضَّنَ. Said of a garment, or piece of cloth, and of a coat of mail, and skin, † It became folded, and it became creased, much, or in several, or many places. See an ex. below, voce كِسْرٌ.]
[And hence, as meaning, † It became contracted,] said also of the eye. (TA in art. خشع.) [See 1.]
[‡ He was, or became, languid, or loose in the joints. And † He affected languor, or languidness: a very common signification.] You say, فِيهِ تَخَنُّثٌ وَتَكَسُّرٌ † [In him is effeminacy, and affectation of languor or languidness]. (A.) And one says of an effeminate man, تكسّر فِى كَلَامِهِ † [He affected languor, or languidness, in his speech], (IDrd, O, voce تَفَرَّكَ,) and also مَشْيِهِ [his walk]. (Ḳ, ibid.) See also 7.
7. ⇒ انكسر
انكسرت السِّهَامُ عَلَى الرُّؤُوسِ † The portions became fractional to the several heads; were not divisible into whole numbers. (Mṣb.)
انكسر الشِّعْرُ † The poetry became [broken, or] incorrect in measure. (TA.)
[انكسر القَوْمُ † The people became broken, or defeated.]
انكسر خَصْمِى ‡ [My adversary became defeated.] (A.)
[انكسرت نَفْسُهُ † His spirit became broken, or subdued: and انكسر, alone, he became broken in spirit; his sharpness of temper, vehemence of mind, or fierceness, became broken, or subdued; he became meek, gentle, or humble.]
[انكسر, said of a man, also signifies, very frequently, ‡ He became languid, or languishing. See the act. part. n., below. And see 5.] فَتْرَةٌ and اِنْكِسَارٌ and ضَعْفٌ are syn. (Ṣ, art. فتر.)
انكسر عَنِ الشَّىْءِ † He lacked power, or ability, to do, or accomplish the thing. And انكسر [alone] † He, or it, (said of anything, [man or beast,]) remitted, flagged, or became remiss, in an affair, lacking power, or ability, to perform, or accomplish, it. (TA.)
انكسر نَظَرُ الطَّرْفِ † The look of the eye, or eyes, became languid, or languishing; syn. فَتَرَ. (IḲṭṭ, in TA, art. فتر.) And انكسر طَرْفُهُ † [His eye, or eyes, or sight, became languid, or languishing, or not sharp]. (T, Ḳ, art. فتر.)
Also انكسر, said of the coldness of water, [and of cold, absolutely, and of the heat of water,] and of heat, [absolutely,] and of anything, (TA,) for instance, of a price, and soكَسَرَ↓, (Fr. in TA, art. قط,) † It abated, or became allayed; or, [said of heat,] it became languid, or faint. (TA.)
Said of dough, † It became soft, and leavened, or good, and fit to be baked. (TA.)
[Said of a garment, or piece of cloth, and skin, † It became folded; it became creased. Ex.:] يَطْوِى الثِّيَابَ أَوَّلَ طَيِّهَا حَتَّى تَنْكَسِرَ عَلَى طَبِّهِ [He folds the garments, or pieces of cloth, the first time of folding them, so that they may crease agreeably with his folding]. (Ṣ, Ḳ, voce قَسَامِىٌّ. [In one copy of the Ṣ, I find تَتَكَسَّرَ in the place of تَنْكَسِرَ, which latter reading I find in a better copy of the same work.])
8. ⇒ اكتسر
see 1, first sentence.
كَسْرٌ: see كِسْرٌ, throughout.
‡ A fraction, or broken part of an integral, as the half, and the tenth, and the fifth; (Mṣb;) what does not amount to an integral portion: (Ḳ:) pl. كُسُورٌ. (A, Mṣb.) You say, ضَرَبَ الحُسَّابُ الكُسُورَ بَعْضَهَا فِى بَعْضٍ ‡ [The calculator multiplied the fractions together]. (A.)
Little in quantity or number: (ISd, Ḳ:) as though it were a fraction of much. (ISd.)
† A crease, wrinkle, ply plait, or fold, in skin, and in a garment or piece of cloth; (JK, Ṣ,* Ḳ,* voce غَرٌّ, in the CK غُرّ; and so accord. to the explanation of the pl. in the present art. in the TA;) as alsoمَكْسِرٌ↓: (accord. to the explanations of its pl. in the Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb voce غَضْنٌ:) pl. of the former كُسُورٌ: (JK, Ṣ, voce غَرٌّ; and TA in the present art.;) and of the latter, مَكَاسِرُ. (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, voce غَضْنٌ;, &c.)
[As a conventional term in grammar, A vowel-sound, well known; the sign for which is termed كَسْرَةٌ↓.]
كِسْرٌ andكَسْرٌ↓, (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.,) the latter of which is [said to be] of higher authority (أَعْلَى) than the former, [but this is doubtful, for the former is certainly the more common,] (TA,) A portion of a limb: or a complete limb: (Ḳ:) or a limb by itself, which is not mixed with another: (TA:) or half of a bone, with the flesh that is upon it: (Ḳ:) or a bone upon which there is not much flesh, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) and which is broken; otherwise it is not thus called: (Ṣ) or any bone: (AHeyth:) or a limb of a camel: (TA:) or of a human being or other: (ISd. TA:) pl. [of pauc.] أَكْسَارٌ (TA) and [of mult.] كُسُورٌ. (Ṣ, TA.)
كِسرُ قَبِيحٍ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) andكَسْرُ↓ قَبِيحٍ, (Ṣ,) The bone of the سَاعِد [here meaning the upper half of the arm, from the part next the middle to the elbow]. (El-Umawee, Ṣ, Ḳ.) [See also قَبِيحٌ. And كسر حَسَنٍ signifies The upper part of that bone.]
Also كِسْرٌ andكَسْرٌ↓ The side of a بَيْت [or tent]: (Ḳ:) or the part of [each of] the two sides thereof that descends from the طَرِيقَتَانِ [app. meaning the two outer poles of the middle row]; every tent having two such, on the right and left: (TA:) or the lowest شُقَّة [or oblong piece of cloth] of a [tent of the kind called] خِبَآء: (A, Ḳ:) or the part of that شقّه which is folded or creased (تَكَسَّرَ وَتَثَنَّى) upon the ground: (Ḳ:) or the lowest شقّة of a بَيْت [or tent], that is next the ground, from where its (the tent's) two sides are folded (مِنْ حَيْثُ يُكْسَرُ جَانِبَاهُ), on thy right hand, and thy left. (ISk, Ṣ.)
Also, (Ḳ,) orكَسْرٌ↓ [only], (TA,) [but for this limitation there appears no reason,] A side (Ḳ, TA) of anything; as, [for instance,] of a desert: (TA:) pl. أَكْسَارٌ and كُسُورٌ [app. in all the senses: see above]. (Ḳ.)
قِدْرٌ كِسْرٌ, and أَكْسَارٌ, (TA,) and إِنَآءٌ أَكْسَارٌ, (IAạr,) and جَفْنَةٌ أَكْسَارٌ, (Ḳ,) A cooking-pot, (TA,) and a vessel, (IAạr,) and a bowl, (Ḳ,) large, and [composed of several pieces] joined together: (IAạr, Ḳ:) because of its greatness or its oldness: as though, in the second and following phrases, the term كسر applied to every distinct part of it. (TA.)
كَسْرَةٌ † A defeat. You say, وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الكَسْرَةُ Defeat befell them. (Mṣb.)
كِسْرَةٌ (in some copies of the Ḳ كِسْرٌ, but this is a mistake, TA,) A piece of a broken thing: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or rather a piece broken from a thing: (TA:) or a fragment, or broken piece, of a thing: (Mṣb:) pl. كِسَرٌ. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) You say, كِسْرَةٌ مِنْ الخُبْزِ A broken piece of bread. (Mṣb.) See also كُسَارٌ.
كِسْرَى and كَسْرَى, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) the former of which is the more chaste, accord. to Th and others, and it alone is allowed by Aboo-ʼAmr Ibn-El-ʼAlà, (Mṣb,) A name (TA) applied to the king of the Persians, (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) or a surname of the kings of the Persians, (Ṣ,) like النَّجَاشِىُّ, a name of the king of Abyssinia, (TA), arabicized from خُسْرَوْ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) which means “possessing ample dominion,” (Ḳ,) in the Persian language: so they say: but خُسْرَوْ is itself arabicized from خُوشْ رُوْ, which means, in that language, “goodly in countenance”: (TA:) [but that خسرو is an arabicized word may reasonably be doubted:] accord. to IDrst, it is changed into كسرى because there is no word in Arabic having the first letter with damm and ending with و; and the خ is changed into ك to shew that it is Arabicized: (MF:) the pl. is أَكَاسِرَةٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) contr. to analogy, (Ṣ,) and كَسَاسِرَةٌ and أَكَاسِرُ and كُسُورٌ, (Ḳ,) [all of which are also] contr. to analogy: (TA:) by rule it should be كِسْرَوْنَ, like عِيسَوْنَ (Ṣ, Ḳ) and مُوسَوْنَ. (Ṣ.)
كِسْرِىٌّ: see كِسْرَوِىٌّ.
كِسْرَوِىٌّ andكِسْرِىٌّ↓ Of, or relating to, كِسْرَى; rel. ns. from كِسْرَى: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) and كَسْرَوِىٌّ alone is the rel. n. from كَسْرَى. (Mṣb.) [In the TA, it is said that one should not say كَسْرَوِىٌّ; but it seems that what is not allowable is كَسْرِىٌّ.]
كُسَارٌ and كُسَارَةٌ [Fragments, or broken pieces or particles, that fall from a thing:] what breaks from a thing: (Ṣgh:) or what breaks in pieces from a thing, (Ḳ, TA,) and falls: (TA:) fragments, or broken pieces or particles, (دُقَاق, ISk, Ṣ, and حُطَام, Ṣ,) of fire-wood. (ISk, Ṣ.) You speak of the كُسَار of glass, and of a mug, and of aloes-wood. (A.)
كُسُورٌ † The turnings, bendings, or windings, (مَعَاطِف, Ḳ, TA,) and parts eaten away by torrents, (جِرَفَة, TA,) and ravines, (شِعَاب, Ḳ, TA,) of valleys, (Ḳ, TA,) and of mountains: (TA:) a pl. without a sing.: (Ḳ:) you do not say كَسْرُ الوَادِى nor كِسْرُ الوادى. (TA.)
أَرْضٌ ذَاتُ كُسُورٍ ‡ A land having [places of] ascent and descent. (Ṣ, A.)
كَسِيرٌ i. q. مَكْسُورٌ↓, [Broken,] (Ṣ, Ḳ,) applied to a thing: (Ṣ:) and so the fem., without ة: (TA:) pl. كَسْرَى, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) like as مَرْضَى is pl. of مَرِيضٌ, (Ṣ,) and كَسَارَى: (Ḳ:) [and مَكَاسِيرُ is pl. of مَكْسُورٌ:] Abu-l-Ḥasan says, that Sb mentions the pl. مَكَاسِيرُ because it is of a kind proper to substs. (TA.)
ناقة كَسِيرٌ (Ṣ, Ḳ) i. q. مَكْسُورَةٌ [lit., A broken she-camel,] (Ḳ,) is like the phrase كَفٌّ خَضِيبٌ, (Ṣ, TA,) meaning مَخْضُوبَةٌ: (TA;) or a she-camel having one of its legs broken: (Mgh:) and شَاةٌ كَسِيرٌ a sheep, or goat, having one of its legs broken: كسير being of the measure فَعِيلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ: (Mgh, Mṣb:) and كَسِيرَةٌ also, [app. as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. is predominant,] like نَطِيحَةٌ: (Mṣb:) كَسِيرٌ, occurring in a trad. is explained as signifying a sheep, or goat, having a broken leg, that cannot walk; (IAth,* Mgh;) but this requires consideration. (Mgh.)
كَاسِرٌ / كَاسِرَةٌ
كَاسِرٌ [Breaking]; fem. with ة
‡ Folding or doubling, and leaning or reclining upon, a pillow or cushion. Hence the following. in a trad. of ʼOmar, لا يَزَالُ أَحَدُهُمْ كَاسِرًا وِسَادَهُ عِنْدَ ٱمْرَأَةٍ مُغْزِيَةٍ, meaning, ‡ Not one of them ceases to fold or double his pillow or cushion at the abode of a woman whose husband is absent in war, and to lean or recline upon it, and enter upon discourse with her. (IAth, TA.)
‡ An eagle, (A, Ḳ,) and a hawk or falcon, (A,) contracting his wings, (A, Ḳ,) or contracting them somewhat, so that he may descend in his flight, (TA,) or in order to alight. (A, Ḳ.)
AlkaAsiru↓ The eagle. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ.)
الإِكْسِيرُ i. q. الكِيمِيَآءُ q. v. (Ṣgh, Ḳ.)
جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيرِ † [The broken plural;] the plural in which the composition of the singular is changed; (Ḳ;) the change being either apparent, as in رِجَالٌ, pl. of رَجُلٌ, or understood, as in فُلْكٌ, which is both sing. and pl., for the ḍammeh in the sing. in this case is like the ḍammeh of قُفْلٌ, and that in the pl. is like that of أسْدٌ. (Ibn-ʼAḳeel: see Dieterici's “Alfijjah”, &c.; pp. 329 and 330.)
Also تَكْسِيرٌ † [The area of a circle]: in the circle are three things: دَوْرٌ [or circumference] and قُطْرٌ [or diameter] and تَكْسِيرٌ [or area], which [last] is the product of the multiplication of the half of the قطر by the half of the دور: and it is sometimes called مِسَاحَةٌ. You say, مَا تَكْسِيرُ دَائِرَةٍ قُطْرُهَا سَبْعَةٌ وَدَوْرُهَا ٱثْنَانِ وَعِشْرُونَ [What is the area of a circle of which the diameter is seven and its circumference two-and-twenty?]: and the answer is ثَمَانِيَةٌ وَثَلَاثُونَ وَنِصْفٌ [Eight-and-thirty and a half]. (TA.) [It is scarcely necessary to add that this is not perfectly exact.]
مَكْسِرٌ A place of breaking, (Ḳ, TA,) of anything. (TA.) You say, عُودٌ صُلْبُ المَكْسِرِ [Wood, or a piece of wood, or a branch, or twig, hard in the place of breaking,] when you know its goodness by its breaking: (Ṣ, A:) and عُودٌ طَيِّبُ المَكْسِرِ [Wood,, &c., good in the place of breaking,] i. e. approved. (Ḳ.)
Hence, رَجُلٌ صُلْبُ المَكْسِرِ (A, L) ‡ A man who bears up against difficulty, distress, or adversity: because one breaks a piece of wood, to try if it be hard or soft. (TA.) And of a pl. number, هُمْ صِلَابُ المَكَاسِرِ. (A.) And فُلَانٌ هَشُّ المَكْسِرِ, (TA,) andالمُكَسَّرِ↓, (TA in art. هش, q. v.,) † [Such a one is easy, or compliant, when asked], which is an expression of praise when it means [lit.] that he is not one whose wood gives only a sound when one endeavours to produce fire from it; and of dispraise when it means [lit.] that be is one whose wood is weak. (TA.) And فُلَانٌ طَيِّبُ المَكْسِرِ † Such a one is praised when tried, proved, or tested: (Ṣ, TA:) and رَدِىْءُ المَكْسِرِ [dispraised when tried,, &c.]. (TA.) [Wherefore it is said that] مَكْسِرٌ also signifies † The internal state; an internal, or intrinsic, quality; the intrinsic, or real, as opposed to the apparent, state, or to the aspect; syn. مَخْبَرٌ. (Ḳ.)
Also مَكْسِرٌ The lowest part (أَصْلٌ Ḳ, TA) of anything; and especially of a tree, where the branches are broken off. (TA.)
[Hence] it is said to be metonymically used as meaning ‡ Old property. (TA voce فَرْعٌ.)
مَكْسُورٌ: see كَسِيرٌ.
سَوْطٌ مَكْسُورٌ † A soft, weak, whip. (TA.)
مُكَسَّرٌ pass. part. n. of 2, q. v.
See also مَكْسِرٌ, with which it is made synonymous.
‡ A valley whose كُسُور (q. v.) flow with water: (Ḳ:) or are made to flow: (Th:) accord. to one relation of a saying in which it occurs, it is مُكْسَرٌ. (TA.)
فُلَانٌ مُكَاسِرِى, (Ṣ,) or جَارِى مُكَاسِرِى, (ISd, Ḳ,) Such a one is my neighbour; (Ṣ;) the كِسْر (q. v.) of his tent is next the كِسْر of my tent. (Ṣ, ISd, Ḳ.)
مُنْكَسِرٌ has for its pl. مَكَاسِيرُ, which is extr.; like مَسَاحِيقُ, pl. of مُنْسَحِقٌ. (TA in art. سحق.) رَأَيْتُهُ مُنْكَسِرًا ‡ I saw him in a languid, or languishing state. (A.)