اثل اثم اثن
1. ⇒ أثم
أَثِمَ, (Lth, Ṣ, M, &c.,) aor. ـَ
* لَوْ قُلْتَ مَا فِى قَوْمَهَا لَمْ تِيثَمِ ** يَفْضُلَهَا فِى حَسَبٍ وَمِيسَمِ *
the meaning is, [Shouldst thou say, thou wouldst not sin, or do wrong, in so saying,] There is not, among her people, any one who excels her [in grounds of pretension to respect, and in impress, or character, of beauty]. (M.)
أَثَمَهُ ٱللّٰهُ فِى كَذَا, aor. ـُ
You say also, أَثَمَتِ النَّاقَةُ المَشْىَ, aor. ـِ
2. ⇒ أثّم
أثّمهُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَأْثِيمٌ, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) He said to him أَثِمْتَ [Thou hast fallen into a sin, or crime,, &c.; hast sinned,, &c.]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
See also 1, first and second sentences.
4. ⇒ آثم
آثمهُ He made him, or caused him, to fall into what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime,, &c.], (Zj, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) or what is termed ذَنْبٌ. (Mṣb.)
See also 1, last sentence but one.
5. ⇒ تأثّم
تأثّم He abstained from what is termed إِثْمٌ [i. e. sin, or crime,, &c.]; (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ;) like تَحَرَّجَ meaning “he preserved himself from what is termed حَرَجٌ:” (Mṣb:) or he did a work, or deed, whereby he escaped from what is termed إِثْمٌ: (TA:) and he repented of what is so termed, (M, Ḳ,) and begged forgiveness of it; as though he removed the إِثْم itself by repentance and by begging forgiveness; or sought to do so by those two means. (M.) You say also, تأثّم مِنْ كَذَا He abstained from such a thing as a sin, or crime; syn. تَحَّنَثَ, q. v. (Ṣ, Ḳ, in art. حنث.)
إِثْمٌ [accord. to some, an inf. n.; see أَثِمَ: accord. to others, only a simple subst., signifying] A sin, a crime, a fault, an offence, or an act of disobedience, syn. ذَنْبٌ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) for which one deserves punishment; differing from ذَنْبٌ inasmuch as this signifies both what is intentional and what is unintentional: (Kull:) or [so accord. to the M, but in the Ḳ “and,”] an unlawful deed: (M, Ḳ:) or a deed which retards from recompense: or, accord. to Fr, what is exclusive of the [punishment termed] حَدّ: accord. to Er-Rághib, it is a term of more general import than عُدَوانٌ: (TA:) مَأْثَمٌ↓ [which is originally an inf. n. of أَثِمَ] is syn. with إِثْمٌ; (T,* Mgh;) and so, too, is أَثَامٌ↓, (Mṣb,) orإِثَامٌ↓, signifying a deed retarding recompense: (TA:) the pl. of إِثْمٌ is آثَامٌ: (M:) and the pl. ofمَأْثَمٌ↓ is مَآثِمُ. (T.)
[Sometimes it is prefixed to a noun or pronoun denoting its object:]
[and sometimes it means † The punishment of a sin, &c.: see explanations of a passage in the Ḳur v. 32, voce بَآءَ.]
Wine: (Aboo-Bekr El-Iyádee, T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) sometimes used in this sense; (Ṣ;) but tropically; not properly: (IAmb:) I think, [says ISd,] because the drinking thereof is what is thus termed. (M.)
[And for a like reason,] † Contention for stakes, or wagers, in a game of hazard; syn. قِمَارٌ; (M, Ḳ;) which is a man's destruction of his property. (M.) It is said in the Ḳur [ii. 216, respecting wine and the game called المَيْسِر], قُلْ فِهِيمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ [Say thou, In them both are great sin and means of profit to men]: and Th says, when they contended in a game of this kind, and won, they gave food and alms, and these were means of profit. (M.)
أَثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ.
Also The requital, or recompense, of إِثّم [i. e. sin, or crime,, &c.]: (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb:) so says Zj, (T, M,) and in like manner say Kh and Sb: (T:) or punishment (Yoo, Lth, T, M, Ḳ) thereof: (Lth, T, M:) andإِثَامٌ↓ andمَأْثَمٌ↓ signify the same; (M, Ḳ;) the latter like مَقْعَدٌ. (TA. [In the CK this is written مَأثِم.]) So in the Ḳur [xxv. 68], يَلْقَ أَثَامَا [He shall find a requital, or recompense, or a punishment, of sin]: (T, Ṣ, M:) in my opinion, [says ISd,] the correct meaning is, he shall find the punishment of آثَام [or sins]: but some say, the meaning is that which here follows. (M.)
A valley in Hell. (M, Ḳ.)
إِثَامٌ: see إِثْمٌ:
أَثِيمٌ: see آثِمٌ.
Also A great, or habitual, liar; or one who lies much; and soأَثُومٌ↓. (Ḳ.) So in the Ḳur ii. 277: or it there signifies Burdened with إثْم [or sin,, &c.]. (TA.) In the Ḳur xliv. 44, it means, accord. to Fr, The unrighteous, or sinning; likeآثِمٌ↓: (T:) or the unbeliever: (TA:) or, accord. to Zj, in this instance, (M,) by the اثيم is meant Aboo-Jahl. (M, Ḳ.)
Also The commission of إِثْم [sin, or crime,, &c.,] much, or frequently; and soأَثِيمَةٌ↓. (M, Ḳ.)
أَثِيمَةٌ: see أَثِيمٌ.
أَثَامٌ: see آثِمٌ.
آثِمٌ Falling into what is termed إِثمٌ [i. e. a sin, or crime,, &c.]; (Ṣ, Mṣb,* Ḳ;*) [sinning; committing a sin, or crime;] doing what is unlawful: (Ḳ:) and in like manner, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) but having an intensive signification, (Mṣb,) أَثِيمٌ↓, andأَثُومٌ↓, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andأَثَّامٌ↓: (M, Mṣb, Ḳ: [in the CK, erroneously, without teshdeed:]) the pl. of the first of these three is أُثَمَآءُ; that of the second, أُثُمٌ; and that of the third, أَثَّامُونَ. (M.) See also أَثِيمٌ.
آثِمَةٌ, (Ṣ,) and آثِمَاتٌ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, [in the CK, erroneously, اَثِماتٌ.]) A she-camel, (Ṣ,) and she-camels, slow, or tardy; (Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) weary, fatigued, or jaded. (Ḳ. [In the CK, we find مُعِيْباتٌ erroneously put for مُعْيِيَاتٌ.]) Some pronounce it with ت. (Ṣgh.) [In like manner,] مُؤَاثِمٌ↓ signifies That is slack, or slow, in pace, or going; اَلَّذِى يَكْذِبُ فِى السَّيْرِ. (Ṣgh, Ḳ. [In Golius's Lex., as from the Ḳ, اَلَّذِى يُكَذِّبُ السَّيْرَ. Both are correct, signifying the same.])
تَأْثَامٌ: see 1.
تَأْثِيمٌ: see 1.
مَأْثَمٌ: see إِثْمٌ, in two places:
مَأْثُومٌ [Reckoned to have sinned, or the like;] having a thing reckoned against him as an إِثْم: (Ṣ:) or requited for what is termed إِثْمٌ. (Fr, T.)
مُؤَاثِمٌ: see آثِمٌ.