منح منذ منع


مُنْدُ

is a simple word; (Ḳ;) or, accord. to some, a compound word, as will be explained hereáfter: (TA:) Sb says, that it is with respect to time like مِنْ with respect to place: (Ṣ, L:) it is indecl., [generally] with damm for its termination; and مُذْ is indecl. also, [generally] with its final letter quiescent, (Ṣ, L, Ḳ,) [unless followed by a quiescent letter, when it is movent in different manners which will be shown below,] and it is formed from مُنْذُ by elision: (M, L, Ḳ:) منذ is also written and pronounced مِنْذُ, (M, L, Ḳ,) in the dial. of the Benoo-Suleym; (M, L;) and مذ, مِذْ, (M, L, Ḳ,) in the dial. of the tribe of 'Okl. (M, L.) Each may be a prep., governing what follows it in the gen. case, and used in the same manner as فِى [signifying In, or during, or from the beginning of]: and in this case, each is prefixed only to that which denotes present time: thus you say, مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذُ اللَّيْلَةِ [I have not seen him in this night; or simply I have not seen him this night]: (Ṣ, L:) or each is followed by a noun in the gen. case, and in this instance is a prep., in the sense of مِنْ [meaning Since, or lit., from,] when relating to a past time [such as a particular past day or the like]; and in the sense of فِى [meaning In, or from the beginning of,] when relating to the present time; and in the sense of مِنْ and إِلَى together [meaning From the beginning to the end of; or during the whole course of; or simply during, or for;] when relating to a computed period of time, or number of days or the like: ex. [relating to a past time,] مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُنْذُ يَوْمِ الخَمِيسِ [I have not seen him since Thursday, إِلَى ٱلْآنَ to the present time]; (Mughnee, Ḳ;) and [relating to the present time,] مُنْذُ يَوْمِنَا or عَامِنَا [in, or from the beginning of, (this) our day, or (this) our year;]; and, [relating to a computed period of time, or number of days or the like,] مُنْذُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ [from the beginning to the end of, i. e., during, or for, three days]. (Mughnee.) Each may also be a noun, governing the noun which follows it in the nom. case, as signifying a particular day or the like, or as signifying a definite length of time: in the case of a noun signifying a particular day or the like, you say, مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ يَوْمُ الجُمْعَةِ [I have not seen him (since the commencement of a space of time); the commencement of the space of time thereof (i. e., أَوَّلُ مُدَّةِ عَدَمِ رُؤْيَتِى إِيَّاهُ the commencement of the space of time of my not seeing him) was Friday; meaning, since Friday]: and, in the case of a noun signifying a definite length of time, you say, مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ سَنَةٌ, meaning, أَمَدُ ذٰلِكَ سَنَةٌ, [I have not seen him (during, or for, a time); the time thereof (i. e., أَمَدُ عَدَمِ رُؤْيَتِى إِيَّاهُ the time of my not seeing him) is a year; meaning, during, or for, a year;] and the noun in this latter case can only be indeterminate; for you cannot say, مُذْ سَنَةُ كَذَا: (Ṣ:) when followed by a noun in the nom. case, as in the instance of مُنْذُ يَوْمَانِ [or, accord. to more approved usage, مُذْ يَوْمَانِ, as will be shown below, The time is two days, meaning during, or for, two days], each is an inchoative, and what follows it is an enunciative; and its meaning is the time with respect to what is present, and to a computed period, or a number of days or the like; and the commencement of the space of time with respect to a past time [such as a particular past day or the like]: or each is an adv. n. [of time], an enunciative, of which what follows is the inchoative, and meaning بَيْنَ وَبَيْنَ, as in the instance of لَقِيتُهُ مُنْذُ يَوْمَانِ, [or, rather, مُذْ يَوْمَانِ,] i. e., بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَ لِقَائِهِ يَوْمَانِ [Two days have been between the time in which I now am and (the time of) my meeting him]: (Ḳ:) but this opinion is rejected by Ibn-Hájib. (TA.) Accord. to some of the Arabs, for they differ on this point, مذ governs in the gen. case a noun signifying a past time and one signifying a time not past: and accord. to some of them, منذ governs in the nom. case a noun signifying a past time and one signifying a time not past: (M, L:) but the general and most approved way is to make مذ govern in the gen. case a noun signifying a time not past, and in the nom. case one signifying a time past; and to make منذ govern in the gen. case a noun signifying a time not past and one signifying a time past: (T, M, L:) most of the Arabs hold, that each must govern in the gen. case a noun signifying the present time; and that it is preferable to make منذ govern in the same case, and to make مذ govern in the nom. case, a noun signifying a past time: (Mughnee:) [they therefore say, مُنْذُ اللَّيْلَةِ and مُذُ اللَّيْلَةِ, and مُنْذُ يَوْمِ الخَمِيسِ and مُنْذُ يَوْمَينِ; but they say, مُذْ يَوْمُ الخَمِيسِ and مُذْ يَوْمَانِ.] Some [or, rather, most] say, لَمْ أَرَهُ مُذْ يَوْمَانِ, and لَمْ أَرَهُ مُنْذُ يَوْمَينِ, [I have not seen him for, or during, two days;] making مذ [in these instances] to govern the nom. case; and منذ, the gen. case. (L.) Such is said when the period of separation is a day and part of a day. (Mṣb, art. شهر.) The Benoo-Dabbeh and Er-Rabáb make مذ to govern the gen. case in every instance. (M, L.) The phrases, مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ عَامٌ أَوَّلُ, and مُذْ عَامٌ أَوَّلَ, (Ṣ, Ḳ, art. وأل; and L,) and مُذْ عَامُ الأَوَّلِ, and مُذْ عَامًا أَوَّلَ, [I have not seen him since last year,] are also mentioned by different authors. (L.) The Arabs generally agree in pronouncing منذ with damm to the ذ when it is followed by a movent or a quiescent letter; (T, M, L;) as in لَمْ أَرَهُ مُنْذُ يَوْمٍ, and مُنْذُ اليَوْمِ: (T, L:) and to pronounce مذ with the ذ quiescent when it is followed by a movent letter, (T, M, L,) and with damm and [sometimes] with kesr when it is followed by a conjunctive ا; (M, L;) as in لَمْ أَرَهُ مُذْ يَوْمَانِ, and لَمْ أَرَهُ مُذُ اليَوْمِ, [and مُذِ اليَوْمِ]: (T, L:) and so say most of the grammarians. (T.) Lḥ says, The Benoo-ʼObeyd, of the tribe of Ghanee, make the ذ of مذ movent when it is followed by a movent or a quiescent letter, and make the noun following it to be in the nom. case, saying مُذُ اليَوْمُ; and some of them pronounce it with kesr when followed by a quiescent letter, saying مُذِ اليَوْمُ; but this is not the proper way. (M, L.) In the phrase مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذُ اليَوْمِ, the Arabs make the ذ movent because of the occurrence [otherwise] of two quiescent letters together; and they [generally] give it not kesr, but damm, because the latter is the final vowel of its original منذ. (M, L.) One says also, مَا لَقِيتُةُ مُنْذَ اليَوْمِ, and مُذَ اليَوْمِ, which fet-h to the ذ in each. (Ḳ.) The Benoo-Suleym are related to have used the expression مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مِنْذُ سِتٌّ [by ستّ meaning six nights], with kesr to the م of منذ, and with the noun following it in the nom. case: and the tribe of 'Okl are related to have used the expression مِذُ يَوْمَانِ, with the ن elided, and with kesr to the م, and damm to the ذ. (M, L.)
Each of the two words منذ and مذ is also followed by a verbal proposition, as in the instance
* مَا زَالَ مُذْ عَقَدَتْ يَدَاهُ إِزَازَهُ *
[He has not ceased, since his two hands tied his wrapper of the lower part of the body]: or a nominal proposition, as in the instance
* وَلَا زِلْتُ أَبْغِى المَالَ مُذْ أَنَا يَافِعٌ *
[And I ceased not to seek wealth from the time of my being a youth, or young man]: in such cases, each is an adv. n. prefixed to the proposition [and governing it virtually in the gen. case], or to a noun significant of time [understood as] prefixed thereto [in the same manner]: or, as some say, each is an inchoative. (Ḳ.)
The original of مذ is منذ, because they restore the ḍammeh to the ذ in the case of the occurrence of two quiescent letters together; as in the instance of مُذُ اليَوْمِ, for were not its original with damm, they would give it kesr: [but this some do, as has been shown above:] and because its dim. is مُنَيْذٌ: (Ḳ:) for when مذ is used as a proper name of a man, its dim. is thus formed, by restoring the ن, that it may be of the measure فُعَيْلٌ: (IJ, M, L:) or when مذ is a noun, it is originally منذ; and when it is a particle, it is itself original. (Ḳ.)
Accord. to some, منذ (T, Ṣ, L, Ḳ) and مذ (Ḳ) are originally مِنْ and إِذْ, which are made one word, (T, Ṣ, L, Ḳ,) by eliding the hemzeh, and then giving damm to the ذ because of the occurrence of two quiescent letters together; (Ḳ;) مُنْذُ كَانَ [and مُذْ كَانَ] meaning مِنْ إِذْ كَانَ: (T, L:) but there is nothing to indicate the truth of this opinion: (Ṣ, L:) or, as some say, منذ and مذ are originally the prep. من and ذو in the sense of الَّذِى (L, Ḳ) in the dial. of Teiyi: so says Fr.; adding, that when either governs a gen. case, it is used in the manner of مَنْ; and when it governs a nom. case, it is as though one said, [in using the expression مُنْذُ أَوْ مُذْ يَوْمَانِ,] مِنَ ٱلَّذِى هُوَ يَوْمَانِ; and that the former government prevails in the case of منذ because the ن is not suppressed: (L:) or, as some say, they are originally مِنْ and the noun of indication ذَا; so that in the phrase مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُنْذُ يَوْمَانِ, [accord. to more approved usage, مُذْ يَوْمَانِ,] we virtually say, مِنْ ذَا ٱلْوَقْتِ يَوْمَانِ: but each of these assertions is a deviation from the plain way. (Ḳ.)