كفح كفر كفل
1. ⇒ كفر
كَفَرَ الشَّىْءَ, (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) aor., in the sense first explained below ـِ; (Ṣ, Ḳ, &c.;) [respecting which Fei observes,] ElFárábee, whom J follows, says that it is like يَضْرِبُ, but in a trustworthy copy of the T it is written ـُ, and this is the proper form, because they say that كَفَرَ النِّعْمَةَ [of which the aor. is ـُ] is borrowed from كَفَرَ الشَّىْءَ in the sense which is first explained below; (Mṣb;) and MF says, that the saying of J, following his maternal uncle Aboo-Naṣr El-Fárábee, that the aor. of this verb is ـِ, is doubtless a mistake; but to this, [says SM,] I reply, that it is correctly ـِ, as J and F and other leading lexicologists have said; though the aor. of the verb of كُفْرٌ as meaning the contr. of إِيْمَانٌ is ـُ; (TA;) [or, if this latter verb be taken from the former, the aor. of the former may have been originally ـِ and ـُ, and general usage may have afterwards applied the aor. ـِ
* فِى لَيْلَةٍ كَفَرَ النُّجُومَ غَمَامُهَا *
In a night whereof the clouds that covered the sky concealed the stars. (Mṣb.) You say also كَفَرَهُ اللَّيْلُ, and كَفَرَ عَلَيْهِ, The night covered it with its blackness. (TA.) And كَفَرَتِ الرِّيحُ الرَّسْمَ The wind covered the trace or mark [with dust.] (A.) And كَفَرَ فَوْقَ دِرْعِهِ He clad himself with a garment over his coat of mail. Andكَفَّرَ↓ دِرْعَهُ بِثَوْبٍ He covered his coat of mail with a garment. (TA.) And كَفَرَ مَتَاعَهُ He put his goods in a receptacle. (TA.) And كَفَرَ ٱلْمَتَاعَ فِى الوِعَآءِ He covered, or concealed, the goods in the receptacle. (A.) Andكَفَّرَ↓ نَفْسَهُ بِالسِّلَاحِ He covered himself with the arms. (A.) And كَفَرَ الجَهْلُ عَلَى عِلْمِ فُلَانٍ Ignorance covered over the knowledge of such a one. (TA.) وَكَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ, [thus, with damm as the vowel of the aor.,] in the Ḳur, iii. 96, has been explained as signifying And wherefore do ye cover the familiarity and love in which ye were living? (TA.)
Hence, (Mṣb, TA,) كَفَرَ, (Ṣ,) and كَفَرَ النِّعْمَةَ, and بِالنِّعْمَةِ; (Mṣb;) and كَفَرَ نِعْمَةَ ٱللّٰهِ, and بِنِعْمَةِ ٱللّٰهِ; (Ḳ;) aor. ـُ
And hence, كَفَرَ, inf. n. كُفْرَانٌ, is used to signify [absolutely] He denied, or disacknowledged. (TA.) [See the act. part. n., below: and see 3. See also art. ف, p. 2322 a.] You say كَفَرَ بِالصَّانِعِ He denied the Creator. (Mṣb.)
Hence also, (TA.) كَفَرَ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) aor. ـُ
[He blasphemed: a signification very common in the present day.]
Also, كَفَرَ بِكَذَا He declared himself to be clear, or quit, of such a thing. (Mṣb.) In this sense it is used in the Ḳur xiv. 27. (Mṣb, TA.)
And كَفَرَ also signifies He was remiss, or fell short of his duty, with respect to the law, and neglected the gratitude or thankfulness to God which was incumbent on him. So in the Ḳur xxx. 43; as is shown by its being opposed to عَمِلَ صَالِحًا. (TA.)
كَفَرَ لَهُ, inf. n. كَفْرٌ: see 2.
2. ⇒ كفّر
كفّرهُ, inf. n. تَكْفِيرٌ: see 1, first signification, in three places.
Hence, كَفَّرَ الذَّنْبَ It (war in the cause of God [or the like]) covered, or concealed, the crime or sin: (Mgh:) [or expiated it: or annulled it; for] تكفير with respect to acts of disobedience is like إِحْبَاطٌ with respect to reward. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) The saying in the Ḳur [v. 70.] لَكَفَّرْنَا عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ means, We would cover, or conceal, their sins, so that they should become as though they had not been: or it may mean, We would do away with their sins; as is indicated by another saying in the Ḳur [xi. 116,] “good actions do away with sins.” (El-Basáïr.) كَفَّرَ ٱللّٰهُ عَنْهُ الذَّنْبَ signifies God effaced his sin. (Mṣb.)
And كَفَّرَ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ [He expiated his oath;] he performed, (Mṣb,) or gave, (Ḳ,) what is termed كَفَّارَة [i. e. a fast, or alms, for the expiation of his oath]: (Mṣb, Ḳ:) تَكْفِيرٌ of an oath is the doing what is incumbent, or obligatory, for the violation, or breaking, thereof: (Ṣ:) كَفَّرَ يَمِينَهُ is a vulgar phrase. (Mgh.)
كَفَّرَهُ as syn. with أَكْفَرَهُ: see 4.
كَفَّرَ لَهُ, inf. n. تَكْفِيرٌ, (A, Mgh, TA,) He did obeisance to him, lowering his head, or bowing, and bending himself, and putting his hand upon his breast: (Mgh:) or put his hand upon his breast and bent himself down to him: (TA:) or he made a sign of humbling himself to him; did obeisance to him: (A:) namely, an عِلْج [or unbeliever of the Persians or other foreigners] (A, Mgh) or a ذِمِّىّ [or free non- Muslim subject of a Muslim government, i. e., a Christian, a Jew, or a Sabian] (Mgh) to the king; (A, Mgh;) or a slave to his master, or to his دِهْقَان [or chief]: (TA:) andكَفَرَ↓, [aor. ـُ
تَكْفِيرٌ also signifies The crowning a king with a crown, [because] when he, or it, is seen, obeisance is done to him (إِذَا رُئِىَ كُفِّرَ لَهُ). (Ḳ.)
3. ⇒ كافر
كَافَرَنِى حَقِّى He denied, or disacknowledged, to me my right, or just claim. (A, Mgh, Ḳ.) Hence the saying of 'Ámir, إِذَا أَقَرَّ عِنْدَ القَاضِى بِشَىْءٍ ثُمَّ كَافَرَ [When he confesses a thing in the presence of the Kádee, then denies, or disacknowledges: كَافَرَ being thus used in the sense of كَفَرَ]. But as to the saying of Moḥammad [the lawyer], رجُلٌ لَهُ عَلَى آخَرَ دَيْنٌ فَكَافَرَهُ بِهِ سِنِينَ [A man who owed to another a debt, and denied to him, in the case of it, for years], he seems to have made it imply the meaning of المُمَاطَلَة, and therefore to have made it trans. in the same manner as المماطلة is trans. (Mgh.)
4. ⇒ اكفر
اكفرهُ, (Ṣ, A, Mgh, Ḳ,) andكفّرهُ↓, (A, Mgh, Mṣb,) [the latter of which is the more common in the present day,] He called him a كَافِر [i. e. a disbeliever, an unbeliever, or an infidel]: (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ:) he attributed, or imputed to him, charged him with, or accused him of, disbelief, or infidelity: (Ṣ, A, Mṣb:) or he said to him كَفَرْتَ [Thou hast become an unbeliever, or infidel, or Thou hast blasphemed: in this last sense, “he said to him Thou hast blasphemed,” كفّرهُ, to which alone it is assigned in the Mṣb, is very commonly used in the present day]. (Mṣb.) Hence the saying, لَا تُكْفِرْ أَحَدًا مِنْ أَهْلِ قِبْلَتِكَ Do not thou attribute or impute disbelief or infidelity to any one of the people of thy kibleh; (Ṣ, TA;) i. e., do not thou call any such a disbeliever, &c.; or do not thou make him such by thine assertion and thy saying. (TA.) لَا تُكَفِّرُوا أَهْلَ قِبْلَتِكُمْ is not authorized by the relation, though it be allowable as a dial. form. (Mgh.)
[Also] أَكْفَرْتُهُ, inf. n. إِكْفَارٌ, I made him a disbeliever, an unbeliever, or an infidel; I compelled him to become a disbeliever,, &c. (Mṣb.) And أَكْفَرَ فُلَانٌ صَاحِبَهُ Such a one compelled his companion by evil treatment to become disobedient after he had been obedient. (Mgh.) And أَكْفَرَ الرَّجُلُ مُطِيعَهُ The man compelled him who had obeyed him to disobey him: (T, TA:) or he made him to be under a necessity to disobey him. (TA.)
اكفر He (a man, TA) kept, or confined himself, to the كَفْر, (Ḳ,) i. e. قَرْيَة [town or village]; (TA;) as alsoاكتفر↓. (IAạr, Ḳ.)
5. ⇒ تكفّر
تكفّر بِالسِّلَاحِ He covered himself with the arms. And تكفّر بِالثَّوْبِ He enveloped himself entirely with the garment. (A.)
8. ⇒ اكتفر
see 4, last signification.
كَفْرٌ The darkness and blackness of night; [because it conceals things;] as also, sometimes, كِفْرٌ↓. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) [See also كَافِرٌ.] See a verse cited voce ذُكَآءُ.
Earth, or dust; because it conceals what is beneath it. (Lḥ.)
[Hence also] A grave, or sepulchre: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) pl. كُفُورٌ. (Ṣ.) Whence the saying, أَللّهُمَّ ٱغْفِرْ لِأَهْلِ الكُفُورِ [O God, pardon the people of the graves]. (Ṣ.)
[And hence, perhaps,] A town, or village; [generally the latter;] syn. قَرْيَةٌ: (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ:) a Syriac word, and mostly used by the people of Syria [and of Egypt]: or, accord. to El-Ḥarbee, land that is far from men, by which no one passes: (TA:) pl. كُفُورٌ: (Ṣ, Mṣb:) in the present day, it is applied in Egypt to any small قَرْيَة [or village] by the side of a great قَرْيَة [or town]: they say القَرْيَةُ الفُلَانِيَّةُ وَكَفْرُهَا [Such a town and its village]: and sometimes one قَرْيَة has a number of كُفُور. (TA.) Hence the saying of Mo'áwiyeh, أَهْلُ الكُفُورِ هُمْ أَهْلُ القُبُورِ [The people of the villages are the people of the graves]; meaning, that they are as the dead; they do not see the great towns and the performance of the congregational prayers of Friday: (Ṣ, Mgh:) by الكفور he meant the villages (القُرَى) remote from the great towns and from the places where the people of science assemble, so that ignorance prevails among their inhabitants, and they are most quickly affected by innovations in religion and by natural desires which cause to err. (Az, TA.) Hence also the trad. (of Aboo-Hureyreh, TA), لَيُخْرِجَنَّكُمُ ٱلرُّومُ مِنْهَا كَفْرًا كَفْرًا [The Greeks will assuredly expel you from them, town by town, or village by village]; (Ṣ,* TA;) i. e. from the فُرًى of Syria. (Ṣ, TA.)
كَفْرٌ عَلَى كَفْرٍ also signifies One upon another; or one part upon another. (TA.)
كُفْرٌ: see 1. [As a simple subst., Ingratitude,, &c.]
[And particularly Denial, or disacknowledgment, of favours or benefits, and especially of those conferred by God: and disbelief, unbelief; infidelity.] It is of four kinds: كُفْرُ إِنْكَارٍ the denial, or disacknowledgment, of God, with the heart and the tongue, having no knowledge of what is told one of the unity of God [&c.]: and كُفْرُ جُحُودٍ the acknowledgment with the heart without confessing with the tongue: [or the disacknowledgment of God with the tongue while the heart acknowledges Him:] and كُفْرُ المُعَانَدَةِ the knowledge of God with the heart, and confession with the tongue, with refusal to accept [the truth]: and كُفْرُ النِّفَاقِ the confession with the tongue with disbelief in the heart: all of these are unpardonable: (L, TA:) the greatest كُفْر is the denial, or disacknowledgment, of the unity [of God], or of the prophetic office [of Moḥammad and others], or of the law of God. (El-Basáïr.) [Also, Blasphemy. Its pl., as a simple subst. in all these senses, is said to be كُفُورٌ.]. Akh says, that كُفُورًا [in the accus. case] in the Ḳur xvii. 101, [to which may be added v. 91 of the same ch., and xxv. 52,] is pl. of كُفْرٌ, like as بُرُودٌ is pl. of بُرْدٌ. (Ṣ.)
Tar, or pitch, syn. قِيرٌ; with which ships are smeared; (Ḳ;) of which there are three sorts, كُفْرٌ and قِيرٌ and زِفتٌ: كفر is melted, and then ships are smeared with it: [whence, app., its name, from its being a covering:] زفت is used for smearing skins for wine, &c. (ISh.)
كِفْرٌ: see كَفْرٌ.
كَفَرٌ: see كَافُورٌ.
كَفْرَةٌ: see كَافِرٌ.
كُفَرَّى, and its variations: see كَافُورٌ.
كَفُورٌ: see كافر.
كَفَّارٌ: see كافر.
كَفَّارَةٌ a subst. from تَكْفِيرُ اليَمِينِ, (Ṣ,) or an intensive epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates; signifying [An expiation for a sin or crime or a violated oath;] an action, or a quality, which has the effect of effacing a wrong action or sin or crime; (TA;) that which covers, or conceals, sins or crimes; such as the كفّارة of oaths [violated], and that of [the kind of divorce termed] ظِهَار, and of unintentional homicide; (T, TA;) an expiation (مَا كُفِّرَ بِهِ), such as an alms-giving, and a fasting, and the like: (Ḳ:) pl. كَفَّارَاتٌ. (T, TA.)
كَافِرٌ / كَافِرَةٌ
كَافِرٌ A sower: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or a tiller of the ground: (Mṣb:) because he covers over the seed with earth: (Ṣ, Mṣb:*) pl. كُفَّارٌ. (Ṣ, TA.) The pl. is said by some to be thus used in the Ḳur lvii. 19. (TA.)
Dark clouds, or a dark cloud; (Ḳ;) because it conceals what is beneath it. (TA.)
Night: (Ḳ:) or intensely black night; because it conceals everything by its darkness. (Ṣ.)
The darkness; (Ḳ;) because it covers what is beneath it; (TA;) as alsoكَفْرَةٌ↓, accord. to the copies of the Ḳ; but in the L, كَفْرٌ, q. v. (TA.)
The sea; (Ṣ, A, Ḳ;) for the same reason. (TA.) Thaalabeh Ibn-So'eyr El-Mazinee says, (Ṣ, TA,) describing a male and a female ostrich and their returning to their eggs at sunset, (TA,)
* فَتَذَكَّرَا ثَقَلًا رَثِيدًا بَعْدَمَا ** أَلْقَتْ ذُكَآءُ يَمِينَهَا فِى كَافِرِ *
[And they remembered goods placed side by side, after the sun had cast its right side into a sea]; i. e., the sun had begun to set: or the poet may mean [by كافر] night: (Ṣ, TA:) but Ṣgh says, that the right reading is تَذَكَّرَتْ; the pronoun referring to the female ostrich. (TA.)
Also, A great river: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) used in this sense by El-Mutalemmis: (Ṣ:) and a great valley. (Ḳ.)
[A man] staying, or abiding, [in a place,] and hiding himself. (TA.) [See an ex. voce عَرْشٌ.]
[A man] wearing arms; covered with arms: (Az, Ḳ:) as alsoمُكَفِّرٌ↓ (A, Ḳ) andمُتَكَفِّرٌ↓ (Ṣ, A) andمُكَفَّرٌ↓: (A:) or this last signifies bound fast in iron; (Ḳ, TA;) as though covered and concealed by it: (TA:) pl. of the first, كُفَّارٌ. (Ḳ.) Hence the following, (Ḳ,) said by Moḥammad during the pilgrimage of valediction, (TA,) لَا تَرْجِعُوا بِعْدِى كُفَّارًا يَضْرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رِقَابَ بَعْضٍ (Ḳ) [Do not ye become again, after me, i. e., after my death,] wearers of arms, preparing yourselves for fight, [one party of you smiting the necks of others;] as though he meant thereby to forbid war: (AM, TA:) or [do not ye become unbelievers, after me,, &c.; i. e.,] do not ye call people unbelievers, and so become unbelievers [yourselves]. (AM, Ḳ, TA.)
A coat of mail; (Ṣgh, Ḳ;) because it conceals what is beneath it. (TA.)
One who has covered his coat of mail with a garment worn over it. (Ṣ.)
كَافِرُ الدُّرُوعِ A garment that is worn over the coat of mail. (A.)
One who denies, or disacknowledges, the favours or benefits of God: (Ḳ:) [ungrateful; unthankful; especially to God:] one who denies, or disacknowledges, the unity [of God], and the prophetic office [of Moḥammad and others], and the law of God, altogether, accord. to the common conventional acceptation: a disbeliever; an unbeliever; an infidel; a miscreant; contr. of مُؤْمِنٌ: (El-Basáïr:) because he conceals the favours of God: (Ṣ:) or because his heart is covered; as though it were of the measure فَاعِلٌ in the sense of the measure مَفْعُولٌ: (IDrd, TA:) or because كُفْر covers his heart altogether: (Lth, TA:) i. e. having a covering to his heart: or because, when God invites him to acknowledge his unity, He invites him to accept his favours; and when he refuses to do so, he covers the favour of God, excluding it from him: (Az, TA:) fem. with ة
Also, simply, Denying, or disacknowledging; a denier, or disacknowledger: followed byبِ before the thing denied: pl. كَافِرُونَ: (Ṣ, TA;) so in the Ḳur ii. 38, (TA,) and xxviii. 48. (Ṣ, TA.)
[Also, Blaspheming; a blasphemer.]
كَافُورٌ The spathe, or envelope of the طَلْع [or spadix], (Aṣ, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA,) or upper covering thereof, (TA,) of a palm-tree; (Aṣ, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA;) the كِمّ of a palm-tree: (Mgh, Mṣb:) as alsoكُفَرَّى↓, (Ṣ, Mgh, Mṣb,) with damm to the ك and fet-ḥ to the ف and teshdeed to the ر, (Mgh, Mṣb,) or كُفُرَّى, [so in the copies of the Ḳ, and so I have found it written in other works, so that both forms appear to be correct,] and كَفَرَّى and كِفِرَّى, (Ḳ,* TA,) andكَافِرٌ↓ (AḤn, Ḳ) andكَفَرٌ↓: (Ḳ:) so called because it conceals what is within it: (Mgh, Mṣb:) or, accord. to AA and Fr, the طَلْع [by which they probably mean the spathe, for, as is said in the Mgh, it is applied by some to the كِمّ (or spathe) before it bursts open]: (Ṣ:) [كفرّى↓ is sometimes masc., though more properly and commonly fem.:] IAar says, I heard Umm-Rabáh say. هٰذِهِ كفرّى and هٰذَا كفّرى: (TA:) the pl. of كَافُورٌ is كَوَافِيرُ; and the pl. of كَافِرٌ is كَوَافِرُ. (TA.)
Also ‡ The زَمَع of the grape-vine; (Ḳ, TA;) i. e., the leaves which cover what is within them of the raceme; likened to the كافور of the طلع; (TA;) the كِمّ [or calyx] of the grapes, before the blossom comes forth; because they cover the unopened raceme; accord. to IF, as alsoكُفَرَّى↓: (Mṣb:) pl. كَوَافِيرُ and كَوَافِرُ, accord. to the Ḳ; but it is well known that the former is pl. of كافور, and the latter of كافر. (TA.)
And, accord. to some, † The envelope [or calyx] of any plant. (TA.)
[Camphor;] a kind of perfume, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) well known, from certain trees [the laurus camphora of Linn.] in the mountains of the sea of India and China, which afford shadow to many people or creatures, (Ḳ,) by reason of its greatness and its many spreading branches, (TA,) which leopards or panthers frequent, and the wood of which is white and easily broken; the كافور is found within it, and is of various kinds, in colour red, and becoming white only by تَصْعِيد [or sublimation]. (Ḳ.)
Accord. to the M, A mixture of perfume, composed of the spathe (كافور) of the spadix of the palm-tree. (TA.)
A certain spring, or fountain, in paradise. (Fr. Ḳ.) So in the Ḳur [lxxvi. 5,] إِنَّ ٱلْأَبْرَارَ يَشْرَبُونَ مِنْ كَأْسٍ كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا كَافُورًا [Verily the pious shall drink a cup of wine whereof the mixture is Káfoor]. (Fr.) IDrd says, that it should be imperfectly decl., because it is a fem. [proper] name, determinate, of more than three letters; but it is made perfectly decl. for the conformity of the ends of the verses: Th says, that it is made perfectly decl. because it is used by way of comparison; and that if it were a [proper] name of the spring, or fountain, it would be imperfectly decl.: Th means, says ISd, whereof the mixture is like كافور [or camphor]: and Zj says, that it may mean that the taste of perfume and كافور is in it, or that it is mixed with كافور. (TA.)
A certain plant, (Lth, Ḳ,) [which I believe to he the same as the camphorata Monspeliensis, see my “Thousand and One Nights,” ch. xxviii. note 6,] of sweet odour, (ISd, Ḳ,) the flower of which is (Lth, Ḳ) white, (Lth,) like the flower of the أُقْحُوَان [or camomile]. (Lth, Ḳ.)
IDrd says, I do not think the كافور is Arabic, because they sometimes say قَفُورٌ and قَافُورٌ. (TA.)
أَكْفَرُ [More, or most, ungrateful or unthankful, especially to God; or disbelieving or unbelieving]. (TA.)
تَكْفِيرٌ, as a subst., The crown of a king. (ISd, Ḳ.)
One who, though beneficent, is regarded, or treated, with ingratitude; (Ḳ;) a benefactor whose beneficence is not gratefully acknowledged. (A.)
مُكَفِّرٌ: see كَافِرٌ.
رَمَادٌ مَكْفُورٌ Ashes upon which the wind has swept the dust so that it has covered them. (Ṣ.) See also مُكَفَّرٌ.
مُتَكَفِّرٌ: see كَافِرٌ.