عشب عشر عشرق
عَشَرَ, (Ḳ,) aor. ـُ, as is expressly stated by the expositors of the Fṣ and by others, but F, confounding two usages of the verb, says ـِ, (TA,) inf. n. عَشْرٌ, (TA,) He took one from ten. (Ḳ.)
And عَشَرَهُمْ He took one from among them, they being ten. (Mṣb.)
And عَشَرَهُمْ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) aor. ـُ, (Ṣ, O, TA,) accord. to the Ḳ ـِ, but this is at variance with other authorities, as mentioned above, (TA,) inf. n. عَشْرٌ, (Ḳ,) or عُشْرٌ, with damm, (Ṣ, O,) the former correct, but the latter is preferred by MF, who quotes it from the Expositions of the Fṣ, (TA,) and عُشُورٌ; (Ḳ;) andعشّرهُمْ↓, (O, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَعْشِيرٌ; (TA;) He took from them the عُشْر [i. e. the tenth, or, by extension of the term in the Muslim law, the half of the tenth, or the quarter of the tenth,] of their several kinds of property. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) And in like manner you say, (TA,) عَشَرَ المَالَ, (Mṣb, TA,) aor. ـُ, inf. n. عَشْرٌ and عُشُورٌ; (Mṣb;) andعشّرهُ↓; (TA;) He took the عُشْر of the property. (Mṣb, TA.) It is said in a trad., respecting women, لَا يُعْشَرْنَ, meaning, They shall not have the tenth of the value of their ornaments taken. (TA.)
عَشَرَ, aor. ـِ, He added one to nine. (L, Ḳ.) [In the TA and CK, this signification is connected with the first mentioned above, at the commencement of this art., by أَوْ, instead of وَ, which latter is evidently the right reading.]
see 1, in two places.
عشّرهُمْ, (O, Mṣb, TA,) inf. n. تَعْشِيرٌ, (TA,) also signifies He made them ten, by adding one to nine. (O, Mṣb, TA. [See وَحَّدَهُ.]) Andاعشر↓ العَدَدَ He made the number ten. (TA.)
عشّر المُصْحَفَ, inf. n. تَعْشِيرٌ, He put, in the copy of the Ḳur-án, [the marks called] the عَوَاشِر [pl. of عَاشِرَةٌ]. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.*)
اَللّٰهُمَّ عَشِّرْ خُطَاىَ O God, write down ten good deeds for every one of my steps. (Lḥ, TA.)
عشّر لِٱمْرَأَتِهِ, or عِنْدَهَا, He remained ten nights with his wife: and in like manner the verb is used in relation to any saying or action. (TA voce سَبَّعَ.)
عشّرت, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, [in the CK عَشَرَت,]) inf. n. تَعْشِيرٌ; (Ṣ;) andاعشرت↓; (Ḳ;) She (a camel) became what is termed عُشَرَآء; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) she completed the tenth month of her pregnancy. (Mṣb.)
And عشّروا Their camels became such as are termed عِشَار [pl. of عُشَرَآءُ]. (O.)
عشّر القَدَحَ He broke the قدح [or drinking-bowl] into ten pieces. (O, TA.)
And [hence, app.,] عشّر الحُبُّ قَلْبَهُ † Love emaciated him [as though it broke his heart into ten pieces]. (TA.)
And عشّر, (A, Ḳ,) inf. n. تَعْشِيرٌ, (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) He (an ass) brayed with ten uninterrupted reciprocations of the sound. (Ṣ, A, O, Ḳ.*) They assert that, when a man arrived at a country of pestilence, he put his hand behind his ear, and brayed in this manner, like an ass, and then entered it, and was secure from the pestilence: (Ṣ,* O, TA:) or he so brayed at the gate of a city where he feared pestilence, and consequently it did not hurt him. (A.)
Also He (a hyena) cried, or howled, in the same manner. (A.) And He (a raven) croaked in the same manner. (Ḳ.)
عاشرهُ, (Ḳ,) inf. n. مُعَاشَرَةٌ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) He mixed with him; consorted with him; held social or familiar intercourse, or fellowship, with him; conversed with him; or became intimate with him; syn. خَالَطَهُ. (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ.) [See also 6.]
اعشر العَدَدَ: see 2.
اعشروا They became ten. (Ṣ, O.)
اعشرت said of a she-camel: see 2.
Also She (a camel) completed ten months from the time of her bringing forth. (TA.)
Also, orعشّرت↓, She brought forth her tenth offspring. (TA in art. بكر.)
And the former, said of camels, They came to water on the tenth day, counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first. (O.)
And اعشر He was, or became, one whose camels came to water on the tenth day, counting the day of the next preceding water-ing as the first; expl. by the words وَرَدَتْ إِبِلُهُ عِشْرًا, (Ṣ, TA,) or العِشْرَ. (TA.)
And He came to be within [the period of] the [first] ten [nights] of Dhu-l-Hijjeh (فِى عَشْرِ ذِى الحِجَّةِ). (T, TA.)
And أَعْشَرْنَا مُنْذُ لَمْ نَلْتَقِ We have had ten nights pass over us since we met. (L, TA.)
تَعَاشَرُوا They mixed; consorted; or held social or familiar intercourse, or fellowship; one with another; conversed together; or became intimate, one with another; syn. تَخَالَطُوا; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoاعتشروا↓. (TA.)
Q. Q. 1. عَشْرَنَهُ
عَشْرَنَهُ He made it twenty: an extr. word [with respect to formation, and post-classical, like سَبْعَنَ, q. v.]. (Ḳ, TA.) [In the CK, عَشَرْتُهُ, and expl. there as signifying I made it twenty: but this is evidently a mistranscription.]
عَشْرٌ fem. of عَشَرَةٌ [q. v.].
عُشْرٌ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) andعُشُرٌ↓ (TA) A tenth; a tenth part; one part of ten parts; as alsoعَشِيرٌ↓ andمِعْشَارٌ↓; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) which last is [of a form] not used [to denote a fractional part] except as applied to the tenth part (Ṣ, O) and [in the instance of مِرْبَاعٌ applied to] the fourth part: (O:) or, as some say, مِعْشَارٌ is the tenth of the tenth [i. e. a hundredth part]: and as some say, مِعْشَارٌ is the tenth of the عَشِير↓, which latter is the tenth of the عُشْر; so that, accord. to this, the معشار is one of a thousand; for it is the tenth of the tenth of the tenth: (Mṣb:) [in the TA, “and as some say, معشار is pl. of عشير, which latter is pl. of عُشْرٌ:” but this is evidently a mistake:] the pl. of عُشْرٌ is أَعْشَارٌ (Mṣb, Ḳ) and عُشُورٌ; (Ḳ;) and that ofعَشِيرٌ↓ is أَعْشِرَآءُ: (Ṣ, O, Mṣb:) it is said in a trad., تِسْعَةُ أَعْشِرَآءِ الرِّزْقِ فِى التِّجَارَةِ وَجُزْءٌ مِنْهَا فِى السَّابِيَآءِ, i. e. [Nine tenths of the means of subsistence consist in merchandise, and one part of them consists in] the increase of animals. (Ṣ, A,* O.*)
أَخَذَ عُشْرَ أَمْوَالِهِمْ [means He took the tenth, or tithe, or by extension of the term in the Muslim law, the half of the tenth, or the quarter of the tenth, of their several kinds of property]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) [See 1, and see عَشَّارٌ.]
عُشْرٌ [as a pl. of which the sing. is not mentioned], applied to she-camels, That excern into the udder (تُنْزِلُ) a scanty دِرَّة [or quantity of milk (in the CK دَرَّة)] without its collecting [and increasing]. (O, Ḳ.)
عِشْرٌ A period of eight days between [camels'] twice coming to water; for they come to water on the tenth day [counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first]; and in like manner, the term for every one of the periods between two waterings is with kesr: [see ثِلْثٌ:] (Ṣ, O:) or camels' coming to water on the tenth day [after the next preceding period of abstinence, i. e., counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first]: or on the ninth day [not counting the day of the next preceding watering; for it is evident that these two explanations are virtually one and the the same]; (Ḳ;) as in the Shems el-'Uloom, on the authority of Kh, where it is added that they keep them from the water nine nights and eight days, and then bring them to water on the ninth day, which is the tenth from [by which is meant including] the former [day of] watering: (TA:) after the عِشْر, there is no name for a period between the two waterings until the twentieth [day]; (Ṣ, O;) but you say, هِىَ تَرِدُ عِشْرًا وَغِبًّا, and عِشْرًا وَرِبْعًا, [and so on,] to the twentieth [day counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first]; (Aṣ;) and then you say, that their period between two waterings is عِشْرَانِ, (Aṣ, Ṣ, O,) i. e., eighteen days; (Ṣ, O;) and when they exceed this, they are termed جَوَازِئُ [meaning “that satisfy themselves with green pasture so as not to need water”]. (Aṣ, Ṣ, O.)
Also The eighth young one, or offspring. (A in art. ثلث.)
And A piece that is broken off from a cooking-pot, (Ḳ, TA,) or from a drinking-cup or bowl, (TA,) and from anything; (Ḳ, TA;) as though it were one of ten pieces; (TA;) as alsoعُشَارَةٌ↓, (Ḳ, TA,) which signifies a piece of anything: (O, TA:) pl. of the former, أَعْشَارٌ [and pl. pl. أَعَاشِيرُ]; (TA;) and of↓↓ the latter, عُشَارَاتٌ. (O, TA.)
[Hence, app.,] بُرْمَةٌ أَعْشَارٌ A cookingpot, or one of stone, broken in pieces: thus [we find the latter word] occurring in the pl. form [and used as an epithet]. (Ṣ, O.) And قِدْرٌ أَعْشَارٌ A cooking-pot broken into ten pieces: (Ḳ:) or a large cooking-pot, of ten pieces joined together by reason of its largeness: (A:) or a cooking-pot so large that it is carried by ten men, (Ḳ,) or by ten women: (TA:) or [simply] a cooking-pot broken in pieces; not derived from anything: (TA:) pl. قُدُورٌ أَعْشَارٌ, (A,) and أَعَاشِيرُ. (A, Ḳ.) And جَفْنٌ أَعْشَارٌ [A scabbard of a sword, or a sword-case,] broken in pieces. (O.) And قَلْبٌ أَعْشَارٌ [† A broken heart.] (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And أَعْشَارُ جَزُورٍ The portions of a slaughtered camel [for which players at the game called المَيْسِر contend, and which are ten in number; not seven, as is said in one place in the TA. In Ḥar p. 579, اعشار in this case is said to be pl. of عُشْرٌ; but I think that we have better reason for regarding it as a pl. of عِشْرٌ]. (Az, Ṣ, O, Ḳ.) Imra-el-Ḳeys says,
* وَمَا ذَرَفَتْ عَيْنَاكِ إِلَّا لِتَضْرِبِى ** بِسَهْمَيْكِ فِى أَعْشَارِ قَلْبٍ مُقَتَّلِ *
[And thine eyes did not shed tears but that thou mightest play with thy two arrows for the portions of a heart subdued and killed by the passion of love]: he means, by the two arrows, the two called المُعَلَّى and الرَّقِيب; to the former of which are assigned seven portions, and to the latter, three; so that both together gain all the portions; for the slaughtered camel is divided into ten portions: therefore he means that she has played for his heart with her two arrows, [alluding to the glances shot from her eyes,] and gained possession of it altogether: (Az, Ṣ,* O:* [see also a verse cited voce رَقِيبٌ:]) or accord. to some, he means that his heart had been broken, and then repaired like as cooking-pots are repaired: but Az says that the former explanation, which is mentioned by Th, pleases him more. (TA.) Hence the saying, ضَرَبَ فِى أَعْشَارِهِ وَلَمْ يَرْضَ بِمِعْشَارِهِ [He played for all the portions of it, and was not content with the fifth of it]; meaning he took the whole of it. (A.)
And أَعْشَارٌ alone means Cooking-pots that boil the ten portions [of a جَزُور]. (Ḥar. p. 579.)
أَعْشَارٌ also signifies The primary feathers of the wing of a bird; (Ṣ, O, TA;) and soعَوَاشِرُ↓. (TA.)
عُشَرٌ Three nights of the [lunar] month, [the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth,] after the تُسَع [q. v.]. (Ṣ, O.)
Also [The asclepias gigantea of Linnæus; or gigantic swallow-wort;] a species of tree [or shrub] in which is a substance answering the purpose of tinder, (Ḳ,) like cotton, (TA,) than which there is nothing better wherein to strike fire, and with which cushions are stuffed, (Ḳ,) on account of its softness: (TA:) [see رَآءٌ, in art. روأ:] accord. to AḤn, (TA,) a large species of tree [or shrub], of the kind called عِضَاه, having a sweet gum, (AḤn, Ṣ, O,*) and milk, (O,) and broad leaves, growing up high, (AḤn,) from the flowers and shoots of which, (AḤn, Ḳ,) or from the joints of the branches and from the places of the flowers whereof, (O,) there comes forth a well-known kind of sugar, (AḤn, O,* Ḳ,) in which is somewhat of bitterness, (O, Ḳ,) called سُكَّرُ العُشَرِ; (AḤn, TA;) [or this is a kind of red sugar, which falls like dew upon this tree; (Golius, from Ibn-Maạroof and the Mj;)] it produces also bladders, resembling the شَقَاشِق [or faucial bags] of camels, in which they bray, [blowing them out from their months, with a gurgling sound,] (AḤn, TA,) [and] like the bladder of the smaller قَتَاد [q. v.]; (Ṣ, O;) and it has a blossom like that of the دِفْلَى, tinged, [but with what hue is not said,] and shining, and beautiful in appearance, as well as a fruit: (AḤn, TA:) n. un. with ة: and pl. [of this latter] عُشَرٌ [or rather this is a coll. gen. n.] and عُشَرَاتٌ. (Ṣ, O.) [See also سَلَعٌ.]
عُشُرٌ: see عُشْرٌ.
عِشْرَةٌ Social, or familar, intercourse; fellowship; i. q. مُخَالَطَةٌ; (O,* Ḳ;) or a subst. from the latter word. (Ṣ, Mṣb.) Sometimes it governs as a verb, [like the inf. n.,] accord. to some grammarians, as in the following ex.:
* بِعِشْرَتِكَ الكِرَامَ تُعَدُّ مِنْهُمْ *
[By thine associating with the generous thou will be reckoned as one of them]. (I’Aḳ p. 211.)
عَشَرَةٌ [Ten;] the first of the عُقُود; (A, Ḳ;) with ة, (Mṣb,) and with fet-ḥ to the ش, (TA,) for the masc.; (Mṣb, TA;) and عَشْرٌ, without ة, (Mṣb, TA,) and with one fet-ḥah, (TA,) for the fem. (Mṣb, TA.) You say, عَشَرَةُ رِجَالٍ [Ten men]: and عَشْرُ نِسْوَةٍ [ten women]. (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, TA.) [In De Sacy's Arabic Grammar, for the former is inadvertently put عَشْرَةٌ; and for the latter, عَشَرٌ; and in Freytag's lexicon we find عَشَرٌ instead of عَشْرٌ.] عَشَرَاتٌ [is the pl. of عَشَرَةٌ: and also] signifies Decimal numbers. (M in art. ست.) The vulgar make عَشْرٌ masc., as meaning a number of days, saying العَشْرُ الأَوَّلُ, and العَشْرُ الأَخِيرُ; but this is wrong [unless thereby they mean to speak of nights with their days, as will be shown by what follows]: the month consists of three عَشَرَات; namely, العَشْرُ الأُوَلُ [The first ten nights. with their days], pl. of أُولَى; and العَشْرُ الوُسَطُ [The middle ten nights, with their days], pl. of وُسْطَى; and العَشْرُ الأَخَرُ [The last, lit. the other, ten nights, with their days], pl. of أُخْرَى; or العَشْرُ الأَوَاخِرُ [The last ten nights, with their days], pl. of آخرَةٌ. (Mṣb.) [العَشْرُ الأَوَاخِرُ is also especially applied to The last ten nights of Ramadán, with their days: and عَشْرُ ذِى الحِجَّةِ to The first ten nights of Dhu-l-Hijjeh, with their days: and العَشْرُ, alone, to The first ten nights of El-Moharram, with their days.] The Arabs also said, سِرْنَا عَشْرًا, meaning We journeyed ten nights, with their days; making the fem. [لَيَالٍ] to predominate over the masc. [أَيَّام]; as is the case in the Ḳur ii. 234. (Mṣb.) And أَيَّامُ العَشْرِ is used for أَيَّامُ اللَّيَالِى العَشْرِ [The days of the ten nights]. (Mgh.) [See some other observations applying to the syntax of عَشَرَةٌ and عَشْرٌ, voce خَمْسَةٌ. And respecting a peculiar pronunciation of the people of El-Ḥijáz, and a case in which عَشَرَة is imperfectly decl., see ثَلَاثَةٌ.]
[عَشْرٌ is also applied to A portion, or paragraph, of the Ḳur-án properly consisting of ten verses; but it is often applied to somewhat more, or less, than what is considered by some, or by all, as ten verses, either because there is much disagreement as to the divisions of the verses or for the sake of beginning and ending with a break in the tenour of the text: (see عَاشِرَةٌ:) pl. أَعْشَارٌ. These divisions have no mark to distinguish them in some MSS.: in others, each is marked by a round ornament at the end; or by the word عشر, or the letter ع, over, or over against, the commencement.]
When you have passed the number ten, you make the masc. fem., and the fem. masc. [to nineteen inclusively]: in the masc., you reject the ة in عَشَرَة; and from thirteen to nineteen [inclusively], you add ة to the former of the two nouns; and [in every case] you pronounce the ش with fet-ḥ; and you make the two nouns one noun, [and, as such,] indecl., with fet-ḥ for the termination: (TA:) you say, أَحَدَ عَشَرَ [Eleven], (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,) [and اِثْنَا عَشَرَ Twelve,] and ثَلَاثَةَ عَشَرَ [Thirteen], and so on; (Mṣb, TA;) with fet-ḥ to the ش; and in one dial. with sukoon [أَحَدَ عَشْرَ, &c.]; (Mṣb;) or the former only: (Ṣ, O:) and, as ISk says, some of the Arabs make the ع quiescent, [as many do in the present day,] saying أَحَدَ عْشَرَ, and so on to تِسْعَةَ عْشَرَ [inclusively] except in the instance of اِثْنَا عَشَرَ and اِثْنَىْ عَشَرَ, because of the quiescence of the ا and ى; and Akh says that they make the ع quiescent because the noun is long and its vowels are many: (Ṣ, O) in the fem., you add ة to the latter of the two nouns, and reject the ة in the former of them, and make the ش in عشرة quiescent: you say إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ (TA,) [and اِثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ,] and so on to تِسْعَ عَشْرَةَ [inclusively]: and if you choose, you say إِحْدَى عَشِرَةَ, [&c.,] with kesr to the ش: the former is of the dial. of the people of El-Ḥijáz, [and is the more common,] and the latter is of the dial. of the people of Nejd: (Ṣ, O, TA:) but fet-ḥ to the ش in this case is unknown to the grammarians and lexicologists, as Az says, though an instance has been adduced in an unusual reading of the Ḳur ii. 57, and another in vii. 160. (TA.) Every noun of number, from eleven to nineteen [inclusively], is mansoob, [or more properly speaking, each of the two nouns of which it is composed is indecl., with fet-ḥ,] in the cases of refa and nasb and khafd, except that of twelve; for اِثْنَا and اِثْنَتَا are decl. [i. e. you say, in a case of nasb or khafd, اِثْنَىْ عَشَرَ and اِثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ]. (TA.)
[In the same manner also عَشَرَ and عَشْرَةَ are used in the ordinal compounds,]
عُشَرَآءُ A she-camel that has been ten months pregnant, (Ṣ, Mgh, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) from the day of her having been covered by the stallion: she then ceases to be [of those] called مَخَاضً, and she is called عشرا until she brings forth, and also after she has brought forth, (Ṣ, O,) or when she has brought forth, at the completion of a year: or when she has brought forth she is termed عَاتِذٌ: (TA:) or that has been eight months pregnant: or, applied to a she-camel, i. q. نُفَسَآءُ applied to a woman: (Ḳ:) it is applied also to any female that is pregnant, but mostly to the female of the horse and camel: (IAth:) it is the only sing. word of this measure, which is a pl. measure, except نُفَسَآءُ: (MF:) the dual is عُشَرَاوَانِ: (Ṣ, O, TA; in one copy of the Ṣ عُشْرَاوَانِ:) and pl. عُشَرَاوَاتٌ; (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA; in one copy of the Ṣ, and in the CK عُشْراوات;) but some disallow this; (MF;) and عِشَارٌ; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) like as نِفَاسٌ is pl. of نُفَسَآءُ; (Mṣb;) and عُشَارٌ: (Ḳ in art. نفس:) or عِشَارٌ is applied to she-camels until some of them have brought forth and others are expected to bring forth. (Ḳ.) Some say that عِشَار have no milk; though El-Farezdaḳ applies this term to camels that are milked, because of their having recently brought forth; and it is said that camels are most precious to their owners when they are عشار. (TA.) عَشَائِرُ, as pl. of عِشَارٌ, which is pl. of عُشَرَآءُ, signifies Gazelles that have recently brought forth. (O.)
لَبَنٌ عُشَرِىٌّ Milk of camels that feed upon the عُشَر, q. v. (TA.)
عِشْرُونَ Twenty; twice ten: (Ḳ:) applied alike to a masc. and a fem.: (Mṣb:) you say عِشْرُونَ رَجُلًا [Twenty men], and عِشْرُونَ ٱمْرَأَةً [Twenty women: the noun following it being in the accus. case as a specificative]: (TA:) it is decl. with و and ى [like a pl. formed by the addition of و and ن]; (Mṣb;) and when you prefix it to another noun, making it to govern the latter in the gen. case, you drop the ن, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) and say, عِشْرُو زَيْدٍ [The twenty of Zeyd], (Mṣb,) and عِشْرُوكَ [Thy twenty], (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,) and عِشُرِىّ [My twenty], changing the و into ى [in this last case], because of the letter following it, and these incorporating: (Ṣ, O:) so says Ks; but most disallow this mode of prefixing in the case of a decimal number [of this kind], (Mṣb.) [It signifies also Twentieth.] It is not a pl. of عَشَرَةٌ, (so in a copy of the Ṣ and in the O and in the TA.) or عَشْرٌ, (so in another copy of the Ṣ,) [or perhaps the right reading is عِشْرٌ, as may be inferred from what will be presently added: but first it should be observed that if it were pl. of عَشَرَةٌ, or of عَشْرٌ, it would signify at least three times ten:] some hold it to be a pl. of عِشْرٌ, saying, (TA.) as عِشْرٌ signifies camels' coming to water on the ninth day, they do not say عِشْرَانِ [for twenty], but they say عِشْرُونَ, (in the Ḳ, لَمْ يُقَلْ عِشْرَيْنِ وَقَالُوا عِشْرِينَ: but the correct reading seems to be لَمْ يَقُولُوا: TA: [in the CK it is more incorrect, لم يقل عِشْرِينَ وقالوا عِشْرَيْنِ:]) making eighteen days to be عِشْرَانِ, and the nineteenth and twentieth a portion of the third عِشْر; and so, [regarding the portion as a whole,] forming the pl. عِشْرُونَ; (Ḳ,* TA;) agreeably with a well-known license, which allows the calling two and a part of the third a pl: (TA:) this is the opinion of Kh and IDrd and some others: but J and most of the lexicologists hold that عِشْرُونَ is not a pl. of عَشَرَةٌ nor of عِشْرٌ nor of any other word, and their opinion I hold to be correct, applying as it does to the other similar nouns of number. (MF.)
عُشَارَ Ten and ten; [or ten and ten together; or ten at a time and ten at a time;] (MF;) changed from عَشَرَة, (Ṣ,) or rather عَشَرَةً عَشَرَةً; as alsoمَعْشَرَ↓; (MF;) [for which reason, and its having the quality of an epithet, each is imperfectly decl.] You say, جَاؤُوا عُشَارَ عُشَارَ, (Ṣ, M, O, L, Ḳ,) andمَعْشَرَ مَعْشَرَ↓, (M, O, L, Ḳ,) and عُشَارَ once, andمَعْشَرَ↓ once, (M, L, TA,) They came ten [and] ten. (Ṣ, M, O, L, Ḳ.) MF says that the repetition is manifestly wrong; but it is allowed by the M and L, as well as the Ḳ; [and is for the purpose of corroboration;] andمَعْشَرَ مَعْشَرَ↓ is also authorized by the TṢ. (TA.) AʼObeyd says that more than أُحَادَ and ثُنَآءَ and ثُلَاثَ and رُبَاعَ has not been heard, except عُشَارَ occurring in a verse of El-Kumeyt. (O, TA.) [But خُمَاسَ is mentioned in the Ḳ.]
عَشِيرٌ: see عُشْرٌ, in three places.
Also A certain measure of land, a tenth of the قَفِيز, (O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) which is the tenth of the جَرِيب [q. v.]: (O, TA:) pl. أَعْشِرَآءُ. (TA in art. جرب.)
And An associate; i. q. مُعَاشِرٌ. (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
And A husband; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ;) because he and his wife are associates, each of the other. (Ṣ, O.) يَكْفُرْنَ العَشِيرَ means They are ungrateful to the husband. (Mṣb.)
And A wife. (Mṣb.)
And A relation. (Ḳ.)
And A friend. (Ḳ.) Pl. عُشَرَآءُ. (Ḳ.)
Also The cry of the ضَبُع [or hyena, or female hyena]: (Ḳ:) in this sense, a word not derived. (TA.)
عُشَارَةٌ; and its pl.: see عِشْرٌ.
عُشَارِىٌّ A garment, or piece of cloth, (A, Ḳ,) ten cubits long. (Ṣ, A, Mgh, O, Ḳ.)
And A boy ten years old: fem. with ة. (TA.)
عَشُورَى and عَشُورَآءُ: see عَاشُورَآءُ.
عَشِيرَةٌ A man's kinsfolk: (Bḍ and Jel in ix. 24:) or his nearer or nearest relations, or next of kin, by descent from the same father or ancestor: (Ḳ:) or a small sub-tribe; a small portion, or the smallest subdivision, of a tribe, less than a فَصِيلَة: (TA voce شَعْبٌ, q. v.:) or a tribe; syn قَبِيلَةٌ; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb;) a man's قَبِيلَة; (Ḳ;) as alsoعَشِيرٌ↓, without ة: (TA:) or a community, such as the Benoo-Temeem, and the Benoo-ʼAmr-Ibn-Temeem: (ISh:) a word having no proper sing.: (Mṣb:) accord. to some, from عِشْرَةٌ: accord. to others, from عَشَرَةٌ, the number so called: (Bḍ ubi suprà, and MF:) pl. عَشَائِرُ (Mṣb, Ḳ) and عَشِيرَاتُ. (Mṣb.) [See also مَعْشَرٌ.]
عَشَائِرُ is also a pl. pl. of عُشَرَآءُ [q. v., last sentence]. (O.)
عَشَّارٌ (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) andعَاشِرٌ↓ (O, Mṣb, Ḳ) andمُعَشِّرٌ↓ (TA) One who takes, or receives, the عُشْر [q. v.] of property. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.) Where the punishment of the عَشَّار, or عَاشِر, is mentioned in traditions, as where it is said that the عَاشِر is to be put to death, the meaning is, he who takes the tenth as the people in the Time of Ignorance used to do: such is to be put to death because of his unbelief; or because, being a Muslim, he holds this practice to be lawful: but such as performed the like office for the Prophet and for the Khaleefehs after him may be thus called because of the relation of what he takes to the tenth, as the quarter of the tenth, and the half of the tenth, and as he takes the tenth wholly of the produce that is watered [only] by the rain, and the tenth of the property in merchandise [of foreigners, and half the tenth of that] of non-Muslim subjects. (TA.) [There is either a mistake or an omission in the last part of the statement above, in the TA, which I have rectified by inserting “of foreigners” &c.]
عَاشِرٌ: see عَشَّارٌ.
One says also, صَارَ عَاشِرَهُمْ [meaning he became the tenth of them]. (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
عَاشِرَةٌ The circular sign which marks a division of an 'ashr (عَشْر) in a copy of the Ḳur-án: (O, L, Ḳ:) a post-classical term: (O, L:) pl. عَوَاشِرُ. (Ṣ, Ḳ.)
And عَوَاشِرُ القُرْآنِ means The verses that complete an عَشْر of the Ḳur-án. (Ḳ.)
And إِبِلٌ عَوَاشِرُ Camels coming to water after an interval of eight days; (Ṣ, O;) on the tenth day [counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first]: or on the ninth day [not counting the day of the next preceding watering: see عِشْرٌ]. (Ḳ.)
For another signification of the pl., عَوَاشِرُ, see عِشْرُ, last sentence.
عَاشِرَةُ is a proper name of The ضَبُع [i. e. hyena, or female hyena]; a determinate noun: [but it has for] pl. عَاشِرَاتٌ. (O.)
عَاشُورٌ: see what next follows.
عَاشُورَآءُ andعَشُورَآءُ↓ (Mṣb, Ḳ) and عَاشُورَى (Mṣb, Ḳ) andعَشُورَى↓ (Ḳ) andعَاشُورٌ↓, (Mṣb, Ḳ,) or يَوْمُ عَاشُورَآءَ (Ṣ, O, and Ḳ in art. تسع, &c.) or يَوْمُ العَاشُورَآءِ (Ṣ in that art., &c.) and يَوْمُ عَشُورَآءَ, (Ṣ, O,) The tenth day of the month El-Moharram: (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or the ninth thereof, (Ḳ,) accord. to some; but most of the learned, of old and late times, agree that it is the former; (Mṣb in art. تسع;) and AZ says that by the ninth may be meant the tenth; after the same manner as the term عِشْرٌ, relating to camels' coming to water, is [said to be] applied to a period of nine days, [but means the coming to water on the tenth day, counting the day of the next preceding watering as the first,] as Lth says, on the authority of Kh. (TA.) Few nouns of the measure فَاعُولَآءُ have been heard. (Az, TA.)
مَعْشَرٌ A company, or collective body, (Az, Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) of people, (Ṣ,) consisting of men, exclusive of women; like نَفَرٌ and قَوْمٌ and رَهْطٌ; (Az, Mṣb;) having no proper sing.: (Az:) or any company, or collective body, whose state of circumstances is one; a community; as the معشر of the Muslims and that of the Polytheists: (Lth:) or a great company, or collective body; so called [from عَشَرَةٌ,] because they are many; for عشرة is that large and perfect number after which there is no number but what is composed of the units comprised in it: (MF:) or the family of a man: or jinn (i. e. genii) and mankind: (Ḳ: [or the author of the Ḳ may mean, or jinn: and also mankind:]) in the Ḳur [vi. 130, and lv. 33], we find the expression يَا مَعْشَرَ ٱلْجِنِّ وَٱلْإِنْسِ; but this means O معشر consisting of the jinn and of mankind: and [vi. 128], يَا مَعْشَرَ الجِنِّ, without the mention of الانس: (MF:) pl. مَعَاشِرُ. (Ṣ, Mṣb.) [See also عَشِيرَةٌ.]
مَعْشَرَ: see عُشَارَ, in four places.
مُعْشِرٌ ‡ A woman who has completed her full time of pregnancy. (TA.)
[مُعَشَّرٌ pass. part. n. of 2, q. v. See also مُثَلَّثٌ.]
مُعَشِّرٌ: see عَشَّارٌ.
Also One whose camels have brought forth: and one whose camels have become عِشَار [pl. of عُشَرَآء]. (O, Ḳ.)
مِعْشَارٌ: see عُشْرٌ.
Also A she-camel whose milk is abundant (Ḳ, TA) in the nights of her bringing forth. (TA.)