ظلف ظلم ظلى
1. ⇒ ظلم
ظَلَمَ, aor. ـِ
It is also trans. by means of بِ; as in the phrase in the Ḳur [vii. 101 and xvii. 61] فَظَلَمُوا بِهَا, because the meaning is كَفَرُوا [i. e. And they disbelieved in them], referring to the آيَات [or signs]; (M, TA;*) the verb having this meaning tropically or by implication; or being thus made trans. because implying the meaning of التَّكْذِيب: or [the meaning is, and they wronged themselves, or the people, because of them; for], as some say, the ب is causative, and the objective complement, i. e. أَنْفُسَهُمْ, or النَّاسَ, is suppressed. (TA.)
And it is doubly trans. by itself: (TA:) one says, ظَلَمَهُ حَقَّهُ [He made him to suffer loss, or detriment, of his right, or due; or defrauded, or despoiled, or deprived, him of it]; andتظلّمهُ↓ حَقَّهُ: (M, Ḳ:) [and] you say,تَظَلَّمَنِى↓ فُلَانٌ, [as well as تظلّمنى مَالِى, occurring in a verse cited in the M,] meaning ظَلَمَنِى مَالِى [i. e. Such a one caused me to suffer loss,, &c., of my property]. (Ṣ.) It is said in the Ḳur [iv. 44], إِنَّ ٱللّٰهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ, for لَا يَظْلِمُهُمْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةِ, and the verb is made doubly trans. because the meaning is لَا يَسْلُبُهُمْ [i. e. Verily God will not despoil them, or deprive them, of the weight of one of the smallest of ants, or a grub of an ant,, &c.]: or مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ, may be put in the place of the inf. n., for ظَلْمًا حَقِيرًا كَمِثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ [i. e. with a paltry spoliation or deprivation, such as the weight of one of the smallest of ants,, &c.]. (M.)
One says also, أَرَادَ ظِلَامَهُ and مُظَالَمَتَهُ, [these two nouns being inf. ns. of ظَالَمَهُ↓, or the former, as mentioned above, is, accord. to some, an inf. n. of ظَلَمَ,] meaning ظُلْمَهُ or ظَلْمَهُ [i. e. He desired the wronging,, &c., of him]. (M, Ḳ.)
ظَلَمَهُ, inf. n. ظُلْمٌ [or ظَلْمٌ?], also means He imposed upon him a thing that was above his power, or ability. (TA.) And يُظْلَمُ He is asked for a thing that is above his power, or ability. (Ṣ.)
And one says, ظَلَمَ البَعِيرَ ‡ He slaughtered the camel without disease. (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.) And ظُلِمَتِ النَّاقَةُ † The she-camel was slaughtered without disease: or was covered without her desiring the stallion. (M.) And ظَلَمَ الحِمَارُ الأَتَانَ ‡ The he-ass leaped the she-ass (Ḳ, TA) before her time: (TA:) or when she was pregnant: (Ḳ, TA:) so in the A. (TA.)
And ظَلَمَ الوَطْبَ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) inf. n. ظُلْمٌ [or ظَلْمٌ?], (Ṣ,) ‡ He gave to drink of the milk of his skin before its becoming thick (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA) and its butter's coming forth. (TA. [And the like is said in the T and M.]) And ظَلَمَ القَوْمَ † He gave to drink to the people, or party, (T, M, Ḳ,) milk before it had attained to maturity, (T, Ḳ,) as related on the authority of AʼObeyd, (T,) or [milk such as is termed] ظَلِيمَة: (M:) but this is a mistake: it is related on the authority of Aḥmad Ibn-Yaḥyà [i. e. Th] and AHeyth that one says, ظَلَمْتُ السِّقَآءَ, and اللَّبَنَ, meaning I drank, or gave to drink, what was in the skin, and the milk, before its attaining to maturity and the extracting of its butter: accord. to ISk, one says, ظَلَمْتُ وَطْبِىَ القَوْمَ, [but I think that it is correctly ظَلَمْتُ وَطْبِى لِلْقَومِ, agreeably with a verse cited in the T and M,] meaning I gave to drink [to the people, or party,] the contents of my milk-skin before the thickening thereof. (T.) And ظَلَمْتُهُ is said of anything as meaning † I did it hastily, or hurriedly, before its proper time, or season. (M, TA.)
ظَلَمْتُ الحَوْضَ means † I made the watering-trough in a place in which watering-troughs should not be made. (ISk, T.) And ظَلَمَ الأَرْضَ means ‡ He dug the ground in what was not the place of digging: (M, Ḳ, TA:) or when it had not been dug before. (M.) And, said of a torrent, † It furrowed the earth in a place that was not furrowed. (T.) And ظَلَمَ البِطَاحَ, said of a torrent, ‡ It reached the بطاح [or wide water-courses containing fine, or broken, pebbles,, &c.], not having reached them before. (A, TA.) And ظَلَمَ الوَادِى ‡ The water of the valley reached a place that it had not reached before. (Fr, T, Ṣ, Ḳ, TA.)
When men have added upon the grave other than its own earth, لَا تَظْلِمُوا ‡ [Transgress not ye the proper limit] is said to them. (TA.)
And one says, لَا تَظْلِمْ وَضَحَ الطَّرِيقِ † Turn not thou from the main part, or the beaten track, of the road. (M.) And لَا تَظْلِمْ عَنْهُ شَيْئَا † Turn not thou from it at all. (T.) And لَزِمَ الطَّرِيقَ فَلَمْ يَظْلِمْهُ † [He kept to the road, and] did not turn from it to the right and left. (TA.)
And مَا ظَلَمَكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ (T, Ḳ, TA) ‡ What has prevented thy doing (Ḳ, TA) such a thing? (TA.) A man complained to Abu-l-Jarráh of his suffering indigestion from food that he had eaten, and he said to him, مَا ظَلَمَكَ أَنْ تَقِىْءَ † [What has prevented thy vomiting?]. (Fr, T.) And one says, مَا ظَلَمَكَ عَنْ كَذَا † What has prevented thee from such a thing? (T.) Respecting the saying
* قَالَ بَلَى يَا مَىَّ وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَمْ *
[addressed by a man to a woman who had invited him to visit her], Fr says, they say that the meaning is حَقًّا [Truly, or in truth; i. e. He said, Yes, O Meiya, truly, or in truth, I will visit thee]; and it is a prov.; (T;) or اليَوْمُ ظَلَمَ, or بَلَى وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَمَ, is a prov.; (Meyd;) and thus it was expl. by IAạr, as used in the manner of an oath: but Fr says, in my opinion the meaning is, and a day in which is a cause of prevention shall not prevent me: [so that the words of the hemistich above may be rendered, he said, Yes, O Meiya, though the day present an obstacle, for I will overcome every obstacle]: (T:) accord. to Kr, قَدِمَ فُلَانٌ وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَمَ means Such a one came truly, or in truth: [or it may be rendered such a one came though the day presented an obstacle:] but in the saying
* إِنَّ الفِرَاقَ اليَوْمَ وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَمْ *
the meaning is said by some to be وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَمَنَا [i. e. Verily separation is to-day, and the day has wronged (us)]: or, as some say, ظلم here means, has put the thing in a wrong place: (M:) accord. to ISk, the phrase وَاليَوْمُ ظَلَم means [And, or but, or though,] the day has put the affair in a wrong place. (T.) [See also Freytag's Arab. Prov. ii. 911.]
ظَلِمَ, said of the night: see 4.
2. ⇒ ظلّم
ظلّمهُ, inf. n. تَظْلِيمٌ, (T, Ṣ, &c.,) He told him that he was ظَالِم [i. e. doing wrong or acting wrongfully, &c., or a wrongdoer]: (T:) or he attributed, or imputed, to him ظُلْم [i. e. wrongdoing,, &c.]. (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ.)
And He (a judge) exacted justice for him from his wronger, and aided him against him. (T.)
3. ⇒ ظالم
see 1, in the middle of the paragraph.
4. ⇒ اظلم
اظلم, said of the night, (Fr, T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andظَلِمَ↓, (Fr, T, Ṣ, Ḳ,) the latter with kesr, (Ṣ,) like سَمِعَ, (Ḳ,) [erroneously written in the TT as from the M ظَلَمَ,] It became dark; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) or it became black; (M;) or it came with its darkness. (Mṣb.) It is said in the Ḳur [ii. 19], وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا [And when it becomes dark to them they stand still]; the verb being intrans.: or, accord. to the Ksh, and Bḍ follows it, it may be trans. [so that the meaning is, and when He makes their place dark, &c.]; as is shown by another reading, which is أُظْلِمُوا: accord. to AḤei, it is known by transmission as only intrans.; but Z makes it to be trans. by itself; Ibn-Es-Saláh affirms it to be trans. and intrans.: and Az [so in the TA, but correctly ISd, in the M,] mentions the saying, تَكَلَّمَ فَأَظْلَمَ عَلَيْنَا البَيعتَ † [He spoke, and made dark to us the house, or chamber, or tent], meaning he made us to hear what we disliked, or hated, the verb being trans. (TA.)
And أَظْلَمُوا They entered upon the ظَلَام [or darkness, or beginning of night]: (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ:) or, as in the Mufradát [of Er-Rághib], they became in darkness. (TA.)
And they said, مَا أَظْلَمَهُ and ما أَضْوَأَهُ [How dark is it! and How light, or bright, is it!]; which is anomalous. (Ṣ, TA.)
And اظلم الثَّغْرُ The front teeth glistened. (T, Ḳ.) Hence the saying [of a poet],
* إِذَا مَا ٱجْتَلَى الرَّائِى إِلَيْهَا بِطَرْفِهِ ** غُرُوبَ ثَنَايَاهَا أَضَآءَ وَأَظْلَمَا *
[as though meaning, When the beholder of her with his eye looks at the fineness, or sharpness, (but غُرُوب is variously explained,) of her central teeth, it shines brightly, and glistens: but Az plainly indicates another meaning; i. e., he sees (lit. lights on, or finds,) brightness and lustre; for he immediately adds, without the intervention of وَ or أَوْ, evidently in relation to this verse,] أَضَآءَ أَىْ أَصَابَ ضَوْءًا وَأَظْلَمَ أَصَابَ ظَلْمًا: (T:) [and ISd cites the verse above with the substitution of بِعَينِهِ for بِطَرْفِهِ and of أَنَارَ for أَضَآءَ immediately after saying that] أَظْلَمَ signifies he looked at the teeth and saw lustre (الظَّلْمَ). (M.) [In the Ḳ, next after the explanation of اظلم الثَّغْرُ given above, it is added that اظلم said of a man signifies أَصَابَ ظَلْمًا: thus, with fet-ḥ, to the ظ, accord. to the TA: in my MṢ. copy of the Ḳ and in the CK, ظُلْمًا, which is doubtless a mistranscription.]
5. ⇒ تظلّم
تظلّم مِنْهُ (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ, [but in some copies of the Ṣ, منه is omitted,]) He complained of his ظُلْم [or wrongdoing,, &c.], (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) إِلَى الحَاكِمِ [to the judge]: (T:) in some copies of the Ṣ, تُظُلِّمَ. (TA.)
And تظلّم signifies also He transferred the responsibility for the ظُلْم [or wrongdoing,, &c.,] upon himself, (M, Ḳ,) accord. to IAạr, who has cited as an ex.,
* كَانَتْ إِذَا غَضِبَتْ عَلَىَّ تَظَلَّمَتْ *
[as though meaning She used, when she was angry with me, to transfer the responsibility for the wrongdoing upon herself; which may mean that she finally confessed the wrongdoing to be hers]; but [ISd says] I know not how that is: the تَظَلُّم in this case is only the complaining of الظُّلْم; for when she was angry with him, it was not allowable [to say] that she attributed the ظُلْم to herself. (M.)
See also 1, former half, in two places.
6. ⇒ تظالم
تظالم القَوْمُ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb) The people, or company of men, treated, or used, one another wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically (ظَلَمَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضًا). (M, Mṣb.)
And [hence] تَظَالَمَتِ المِعْزَى ‡ The goats smote one another with their horns by reason of their being fat and having abundance of herbage. (IAạr, M, TA.) One says, وَجَدْنَا أَرْضًا تَظَالَمَ مِعْزَاهَا ‡ We found a land whereof the goats smote one another with their horns by reason of satiety and liveliness. (T, TA.)
7. ⇒ انظلم
8. ⇒ اظتلم ⇒ اظطلم ⇒ اظّلم
اِظَّلَمَ (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ) and اِظْطَلَمَ and اِطَّلَمَ, (Ṣ, M,) which last is [said to be] the most usual, (Ṣ,) [but I have mostly found the first to be used,] of the measure اِفْتَعَلَ, (Ṣ, M,) He took upon himself [the bearing of] ظُلْم [or wrong,, &c.,] in spite of difficulty, trouble, or inconvenience: (Ṣ, TA:) or he bore الظُّلْم [or wrong,, &c.,] (T, M, Ḳ, TA,) willingly, being able to resist; (T, TA;) andاِنْظَلَمَ↓ signifies [thus likewise, or] he bore الظُّلْم. (Ṣ, M, Ḳ.)
ظَلْمٌ The lustre, and brightness, of gold. (Z, TA.)
And hence, (Z, TA,) The lustre (lit. running water) upon the teeth; (Lth, T, Z, TA;) the lustre (مَآء, Ṣ, M, Ḳ, and بَرِيق, Ṣ, Ḳ) of the teeth, (Lth, T, Ṣ, M, Z, Ḳ, TA,) from the clearness of the colour, not from the saliva, (Lth,* T,* M,) like blackness within the bone thereof, by reason of the intense whiteness, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) resembling the فِرِنْد [q. v.] of the sword, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) or appearing like the فِرِنْد [of the sword], so that one imagines that there is in it a blackness, by reason of the intense lustre and clearness: (M:) or, accord. to Sh, whiteness of the teeth, as though there were upon it [somewhat of] a blackness: or, as Abu-l-ʼAbbás El-Ahwal says, in the Expos. of the “Kaabeeyeh,” lustre (lit. running water) of the teeth, such that one sees upon it, by reason of its intense clearness [app. meaning transparency], what resembles dustcolour and blackness: or, accord. to another explanation, fineness, or thinness, and intense whiteness, of the teeth: (TA:) pl. ظُلُومٌ. (Ṣ, M.)
Also Snow: (M, Ḳ:) it is said to have this meaning: and the phrase مُشْرَبَةِ الثَّنَايَا بِمَآءِ الظَّلْمِ, used by a poet, may mean [Having the central teeth suffused with the lustre termed ظَلْم, as is indicated in the T and Ṣ, or] with the water of snow. (Lth, T.)
ظُلْمٌ [as a simple subst. generally means Wrong, wrongdoing, injustice, injuriousness, or tyranny]: see 1, first sentence, in two places.
[ظُلْمُ الارضِ in the CK is a mistranscription for ظَلَمَ الأَرْضَ.]
[And الظُلْمُ in one place in the CK, as syn. with الظَّلْمَآءُ, is a mistake for الظُّلْمَةُ.]
لَقِيتُهُ أَدْنَى ظَلَمٍ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) or أَدْنَى ذِى ظَلَمٍ, (Ḳ, TA, [in the CK اَوَّلَ ذِى ظَلَمٍ,]) means ‡ I met him the first of everything: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) or the first thing: (M:) or when the darkness was becoming confused: (M, Ḳ:) or أَدْنَى ظَلَمٍ means near; (El-Umawee, Ṣ, M, Ḳ;) or nearness: (M, Ḳ:) and one says, هُوَ مِنْكَ أَدْنَى ذِى ظَلَمٍ [app. He is near thee], and رَأَيْتُهُ أَدْنَى ذِى ظَلَمٍ [app. I saw him near]: (M:) and ظَلَمٌ is also syn. with شَخْصٌ [as meaning an object seen from a distance, or a person]; (Ḳ;) or, as some say, it has this meaning in the phrase أَدْنَى ظَلَمٍ [so that لَقِيتُهُ أَدْنَى ظَلَمٍ may mean I met him the nearest object seen from a distance, or the nearest person]: (M:) and accord. to Kh, one says, لَقِيتُهُ أَدْنَى ظُلْمَةٍ↓, or أَوَّلَ ذِى ظُلْمَةٍ, (as in different copies of the Ṣ,) meaning I met him the first thing that obstructed my sight. (Ṣ.)
ظَلَمٌ signifies also A mountain: and the pl. is ظُلُومٌ. (M, Ḳ.)
ظُلَمٌ an appellation of Three nights (T, Ṣ, Ḳ) of the lunar month (T, Ṣ) next after the three called دُرَعٌ; (T, Ṣ,* Ḳ;*) so says AʼObeyd: (T:) thus called because of their darkness: (Ṣ:) the sing. is ظَلْمَآءُ↓; (T, Ṣ;) so that it is anomalous; for by rule it should be ظُلْمٌ; (Ṣ;) and the sing. of دُرَعٌ is دَرْعَآءُ: so says AʼObeyd: but accord. to AHeyth and Mbr, the sings. are ظُلْمَةٌ↓ and دُرْعَةٌ, agreeably with rule; and this is the correct assertion. (T. [See more in art. درع, voce أَدْرَعُ.])
ظِلَمٌ: see ظِلَّامٌ.
ظُلْمَةٌ (T, Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) andظُلُمَةٌ↓ (Ṣ, M, Ḳ) [accord. to the CK ظُلْمٌ and ظُلُمٌ, both of which are wrong,] andظَلْمَآءُ↓ (Ṣ, M, Mṣb, Ḳ) Darkness; contr. of نُورٌ: (Ṣ, Mṣb:) or nonexistence of نُور [or light]: or an accidental state that precludes the coëxistence therewith of نُور: (Er-Rághib, TA:) or the departure of light; as alsoظَلَامٌ↓; (M, Ḳ;) which last has no pl.; (T, TA;) or this last signifies the beginning, or first part, of night, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb,) even though it be one in which the moon shines; and is said by Sb to be used only adverbially; one says, أَتَيْتُهُ ظَلَامًا, meaning I came to him at night, and مَعَ الظَّلَامِ i. e. at the time of the night: (M, TA:) the pl. of ظُلْمَةٌ is ظُلَمٌ and ظُلُمَاتٌ and ظُلَمَاتٌ (T, Ṣ, Mṣb) and ظُلْمَاتٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) or, accord. to IB, the first of these pls. is of ظُلْمَةٌ and the second is of ظُلُمَةٌ. (TA.) One says,هُوَ يَخْبِطُ الظَّلَامَ↓ [or فِى الظَّلَامِ, expl. in art. خبط], and الظُّلْمَةَ [which means the same] andالظَّلْمَآءَ↓ [which is also expl. in art. خبط]. (TA.)
ظُلْمَةٌ is also [tropically] used as a term for † Ignorance: and † belief in a plurality of gods: and † transgression, or unrighteousness: like as نُورٌ is used as a term for their contraries: (Er-Rághib, TA:) and it is said in the A that الظُّلْمُ is ظُلْمَةٌ, like as العَدْلُ is نُورٌ. (TA.) ظُلُمَاتُ البَحْرِ means † The troubles, afflictions, calamities, or hardships, of the sea. (M.)
And one says لَيْلَةٌ ظُلْمَةٌ, [using the latter word as an epithet, (in the CK, erroneously, ظَلِمَةٌ,)] andلَيْلَةٌ ظَلْمَآءُ↓, both meaning A night intensely dark; (M, Ḳ;) or the latter means مُظْلِمَةٌ [i. e. dark, or black]: (Ṣ:) andلَيْلٌ ظَلْمَآءُ↓ also, (M, Ḳ,) which is anomalous, (Ḳ,) mentioned by IAạr, but [ISd says] this is strange, and in my opinion he has put لَيْلٌ in the place of لَيْلَةٌ, as in his mentioning لَيْلٌ قَمْرَآءُ [q. v.]. (M.)
ظُلُمَةٌ: see ظُلْمَةٌ.
ظَلَامٌ: see ظُلْمَةٌ, in two places.
ظُلَامٌ: see 1, in the first quarter of the paragraph.
ظِلَامٌ: see 1, near the beginning:
It signifies also Little, or small, in quantity: or mean, contemptible, paltry, or of no weight or worth:
whence the saying, نَظَرَ إِلَىَّ ظِلَامًا, meaning شَزْرًا [i. e. He looked at me from the outer angle of the eye, with anger, or aversion]. (Ḳ.)
ظَلُومٌ: see ظَلَّامٌ.
[Hence,] one says اِمْرَأَةٌ ظَلُومٌ لِلسِّقَآءِ † [A woman wont to give to drink the milk of the skin before its attaining to maturity and the extracting of its butter: see ظَلَمَ الوَطْبَ, and what follows it, in the first paragraph]. (M.)
ظَلِيمٌ [as syn. with مَظْلُومٌ in the primary sense of the latter I have not found: but as an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates it signifies] ‡ Milk that is drunk before its becoming thick and its butter's coming forth or being extracted; (Ṣ,* M;) as alsoظَلِيمَةٌ↓, (T, Ṣ, M,) andمَظْلُومٌ↓. (T, Ṣ.)
And † A place that is مَظْلُوم↓ [i. e. dug where it should not be dug]: (M, TA:) used in this sense by a poet describing a person slain in a desert, for whom a grave was dug in a place not proper for digging [it]. (M.)
And ‡ The earth of land that is مَظْلُومَة↓ (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA) i. e. dug, (TA,) or dug for the first time. (Ṣ.) And † The earth of the لَحْد [or lateral hollow] of a grave; which is put back, over it, after the burial of the dead therein. (T, TA.)
Also The male ostrich: (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ:) said (by IDrd, TA) to be so called because he makes a place for the laying and hatching of the eggs (يُدَحِّى, inf. n. تَدْحِيَةٌ,) where the doing so is not proper: (M, TA:) or, accord. to Er-Rághib and others, because he is believed to be deaf: (TA:) pl. ظِلْمَانٌ (T, M, Ḳ) and ظُلْمَانٌ (M, Ḳ) and أَظْلِمَةٌ, (T, M,) which last is a pl. of pauc. (T.)
And الظَّلِيمَانِ is an appellation of Two stars; (M, Ḳ,* TA;) the two stars of القَوْس [or Sagittarius] that are on the northern curved end of the bow [i. e. λ and μ, above the nine stars called النَّعَائِم, or “the ostriches”]. (Ḳzw in his descr. of Sagittarius.) And الظَّلِيمُ is the name of The bright star [α] at the end of النَّهْر [i. e. Eridanus]: and A star upon the mouth of الحُوت [i. e. Piscis Australis] (Ḳzw in his descr. of Eridanus.) [It seems to be implied in the Ḳ that الظَّلِيمُ is the name of two stars; or it may be there meant that each of two stars is thus called. Freytag represents the sing. as “a name of stars,” and the dual also as “a name of stars;” referring, in relation to the former, to Ideler's “Untersuch,” pp. 201, 228, and 233; and in relation to the latter, to the same work, pp. 106 and 184.]
ظُلَامَةٌ: see مَظْلِمَةٌ.
ظَلِيمَةٌ: see مَظْلِمَةٌ:
ظَلَّامٌ (TA) andظِلِّيمٌ↓ (Ṣ, TA) [andظَلُومٌ↓, mentioned in the M and Ḳ with ظَالِمٌ, as though syn. therewith, but it is an intensive epithet,] One who acts wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically, much, or often; i. q. كَثِيرُ الظُّلْمِ. (Ṣ, TA.)
ظَلَّامُونَ لِلْجُزُرِ occurs in a verse of Ibn-Mukbil [meaning † Men often slaughtering camels without disease]. (T, Ṣ.)
ظِلَّامٌ (AḤn, T, M, Ḳ) andظَلَّامٌ↓ (T) andظِلَامٌ↓ (Ḳ) andظَالِمٌ↓ andظِلَمٌ↓, (T, Ḳ,) the last mentioned by IAạr, and its sing. is ظِلْمَةٌ↓, (T,) accord. to AḤn, A certain herb, (M, Ḳ, TA,) which is depastured; (M, TA;) accord. to IAạr, a strange kind of tree; (T, TA;) accord. to Aṣ, a kind of tree (T, TA *) having long [shoots such as are termed] عَسَالِيج [pl. of عُسْلُوجٌ q. v.], (T, Ḳ, TA,) which extend so that they exceed the limit of the أَصْل [i. e. either root or stem] thereof; for which reason the tree is called ظَلَّام. (T, TA.)
ظِلِّيمٌ: see ظَلَّامٌ.
ظَالِمٌ [Acting wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically: and wronging; or treating, or using, wrongfully,, &c.:] part. n. of ظَلَمَ: (M, Ḳ:) andمُتَظَلِّمٌ↓ signifies the same; as well as complaining of his wrongdoer: (T:) [the pl. of the former is ظَالِمُونَ and ظَلَمَةٌ:] and ظَلَمَةٌ signifies those who debar men from, or refuse to them, their rights, or dues. (IAạr, T, TA.)
أَظْلَمُ [More, and most, wrongful, unjust, injurious, or tyrannical, in conduct]. El-Muärrij says, I heard an Arab of the desert say to his companion, أَظْلَمِى وَأَظْلَمُكَ فَفَعَلَ ٱللّٰهُ بِهِ, meaning The more wrongful in conduct of me and of thee [may God do to him what He will do; i. e. may God punish him]. (T.) [And] one says, لَعَنَ ٱللّٰهُ أَظْلَمِى وَأَظْلَمَكَ i. e. [May God curse] the more wrongful in conduct of us. (Ḳ. [But in the TA, a doubt is intimated as to the correctness of this latter saying.]) One says also, لَهُوَ أَظْلَمُ مِنْ حَيَّةٍ [i. e. Verily he is more wrongful in conduct than a serpent]: because it comes to a burrow which it has not excavated, and makes its abode in it: (Fr, T:) for it comes to the burrow of the [lizard called] ضَبّ, and eats its young one, and takes up its abode in its burrow. (TA voce حَيَّةٌ.)
And الأَظْلَمُ is an appellation of The ضَبّ; because it eats its young ones. (TA.)
مُظْلِمٌ [Becoming dark,, &c.: see its verb, 4].
[Hence,] شَعَرٌ مُظْلِمٌ ‡ Hair intensely black. (M, Ḳ, TA.) And نَبْتٌ مُظْلِمٌ ‡ A plant intensely green, inclining to blackness by reason of its [deep] greenness. (M, Ḳ, TA.) And يَوْمٌ مُظْلِمٌ ‡ A day of much evil: (Ḳ, TA:) or a very evil day: and a day in which one finds hardship, or difficulty. (M.) And أَمْرٌ مُظْلِمٌ ‡ An affair such that one knows not how to enter upon it; (AZ, M, Ḳ;) and soأَمْرٌ مِظْلَامٌ↓: (Ḳ:) [or,] accord. to Lḥ, one says يَوْمٌ مِظْلَامٌ↓, meaning † a day such that one knows not how to enter upon it. (M.)
مَظْلِمَةٌ and مَظْلَمَةٌ: see 1, near the beginning.
Also the former, (T, Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and the latter likewise, mentioned by Ibn-Málik and ISd and IḲṭṭ, and مَظْلُمَةٌ, which is disallowed by several but mentioned on the authority of Fr, and all three are mentioned in the Towsheeh and in copies of the Ṣ, (MF, TA,) andظُلَامَةٌ↓, (T, Ṣ, M, Mgh, Mṣb, Ḳ,) andظَلِيمَةٌ↓, (Ṣ, TA,) A thing of which one has been defrauded; (M, Ḳ; [in the CK, تَظَلَّمَهُ is erroneously put for تُظُلِّمَهُ;]) a thing of which thou hast been defrauded, (اَلَّتِى ظُلِمْتَهَا, T,) or a thing that thou demandest, (مَا تَطْلُبُهُ, Ṣ, Mṣb,) in the possession of the wrongdoer; (T, Ṣ, Mṣb;) a term for a thing that has been taken from thee; (Ṣ; [thus, as is said in the M, the first is expl. by Sb;]) a right, or due, that has been taken from one wrongfully: (A, Mgh:) the pl. of مظلمة is مَظَالِمُ. (Mgh, TA.) In the phrase يَوْمُ المَظَالِمِ, [meaning The day of the demand of things wrongfully taken, and particularly applied to the great day of judgment,] the prefixed noun [i. e. طَلَبِ] is suppressed. (Mgh.) [Respecting the office termed النَّظَرُ فِى المَظَالِمِ The examination into wrongful exactions, see De Sacy's Chrest. Ar., see. ed., i. 132.]
مُظَلَّمٌ † A house, or chamber, decorated with pictures; (M, TA;) as though the pictures were put therein where they should not be: it is related in a trad. that the Prophet, having been invited to a repast, saw the house, or chamber, to be مُظَلَّم, and turned away, not entering: (M:) or adorned with gilding and silvering; an explanation disapproved by Az, but pronounced by Z to be correct, from الظَّلْمُ signifying “the lustre, and brightness, of gold.” (TA.)
And † Herbage spreading (مُنْبَثٌّ [in the CK مُنْبَت]) upon the ground, not rained upon. (Ḳ, TA.)
Also, of birds, † The رَخَم [or vultur percnopterus], and crows, or ravens. (IAạr, M, Ḳ.*)
مِظْلَامٌ: see مُظْلِمٌ, in two places.
مَظْلُومٌ [Wronged; treated, or used, wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically:]
[and hence used in other senses]: see ظَلِيمٌ, in three places. أَرْضٌ مَظْلُومَةٌ is also expl. as meaning ‡ Land that is dug in a place not proper for digging: (TA:) or land in which a watering-trough has been dug, not being a proper place for digging it: (ISk, M:) or land in which a well, or a wateringtrough, has been dug, when there had not been any digging therein: (A, TA:) or hard land, when it is dug. (Ḥam p. 56.) Also † Land upon which rain has not fallen. (T.) And بَلَدٌ مَظْلُومٌ † A country upon which rain has not fallen, and wherein is no pasturage for the camels upon which people journey. (T.)
مُتَظَلِّمٌ: see ظَالِمٌ.