ضيع ضيف ضيق
1. (ضيف ⇒ ضاف)
ضَافَ, (M, Ḳ,) [aor. يَضِيفُ,] inf. n. ضَيْفٌ; (TḲ;) andاضاف↓, (M,) andتضيّف↓, andضيّف↓; (Ḳ;) He, or it, inclined, (M, Ḳ,) and approached, or drew near; إِلَيْهِ [to him, or it]. (M.)
And ضافت الشَّمْسُ, (Ṣ, M, Mgh,) or ضافت الشمس لِلْغُرُوبِ, (O,) aor. تَضِيفُ, inf. n. ضَيْفٌ; (M;) andتضيّفت↓, (Ṣ, M, Mgh,) or تضيّفت للغروب; (O;) andضيّفت↓, (Ṣ, M, Mgh,) ضيّفت للغروب; (O;) The sun inclined, (Ṣ, Mgh, O,) or drew near, (M,) to setting. (Ṣ, M, Mgh, O.)
And ضافت said of a woman, aor. as above, She menstruated; (O, Ḳ;) because she who does so inclines, or declines, from a state of pureness to menstruation. (O, TA.)
And ضاف السَّهْمُ, (M,) or ضاف السهم عَنِ الهَدَفِ, (Ṣ, O,) The arrow turned aside from the butt: (Ṣ, M, O:) like صاف. (Ṣ, O.) And ضاف عَنِ الشَّىْءِ, inf. n. ضَوْفٌ [and ضَيْفٌ], He, or it, turned away from the thing: like صاف, inf. n. صَوْفٌ [and صَيْفٌ]. (M in art. ضوف.)
And ضاف said of a man, † He feared; as alsoاضاف↓. (M.) Andاضاف↓ مِنْهُ † He feared it, or was cautious of it; namely, an event, or affair; (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ, TA;) as also ضاف مِنْهُ: (TA:) or ‡ he was cautious of it with the caution of one encompassed, or beset, thereby. (Z, TA.)
ضِفْتُهُ, (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) aor. أَضِيفُهُ, (O, Ḳ,) inf. n. ضِيَافَةٌ, (Ṣ,) or ضَيْفٌ, (Mṣb,) or both; (M, O, Ḳ;) andتَضَيَّفْتُهُ↓; (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ;) I alighted at his abode; (M, Mṣb;) and inclined to him: (M:) or I alighted at his abode (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) as a ضَيْف [or guest], (Ṣ, O, Ḳ,) or and became his ضَيْف [or guest]. (M, O, Mṣb. [See also 3.]) And ضاف القَوْمَ, andتَضَيَّفَهُمْ↓, He alighted at the abode of the people, or party, as a ضَيْف [or guest]. (Mgh.) Andتَضَيَّفْتُهُ↓ I came to him as a ضَيْف [or guest]. (L, TA.)
[Hence,] ضافهُ الهَمُّ † Anxiety befell him. (Ṣ, M,* O. [See, again, 3.])
And ضِفْتُهُ signifies also I sought, or desired, of him entertainment as a ضَيْف [or guest]; and soتَضَيَّفْتُهُ↓; (M;) or this latter, (L, Mṣb,) andاِسْتَضَفْتُهُ↓, (M,) I asked of him such entertainment. (M, L, Mṣb.)
ضيّف, intrans.: see 1, first and second sentences.
As trans.: see 4, last sentence, in four places.
[Hence,] ضَيَّفْتُهُ signifies also † I protected him, or defended him, from him who sought, or pursued, him: (Mṣb:) ‡ I rendered him safe, secure, or free from fear; and became at peace with him; thus used metaphorically. (TA.)
ضايفهُ [app. signifies He straitened him: (see 6:) or, perhaps, he became his guest; like ضَافَهُ, &c].
[Hence one says,] ضايفهُ الهَمُّ ‡ [Anxiety straitened him: or, perhaps, befell him; like ضَافَهُ]. (TA.)
[And ضايفهُ, inf. n. مُضَايَفَةٌ, signifies also It was, or became, correlative to it; as, for instance, fathership to sonship. See also the next paragraph.]
4. (اضيف ⇒ اضاف)
اضاف, intrans.: see 1, in three places.
Also, said of a man, He ran, and hastened, made haste, or sped, (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ,) and fled, or turned away and fled: (Ḳ:) and said of a dog as meaning he ran away, or fled. (TA in art. جبن.)
And اضاف عَلَى الشَّىْءِ i. q. أَشْرَفَ عَلَيْهِ [He looked upon, or viewed, the thing from above: or he was, or became, on the brink, or verge, or at the point, of the thing: &c.]. (O, Ḳ,* TA.)
تُضِيفُ إِلَى صَوْتِ الفَحْلِ, said of a she-camel, means She hears with desire of going to him the voice, or sound, of the stallion. (M.)
And الإِضَافَةُ andالتَّضَايُفُ↓ signify Correlation, or reciprocal relation, so that one of the two cannot be conceived in the mind without the other; as in the case of الأُبُوَّةُ and البُنُوَّةُ [i. e. fathership and sonship]. (KT. [See also 3.])
اضافهُ إِلَيْهِ He made it to incline towards it; (Ṣ, M,* O, Mṣb, Ḳ;*) namely, a thing (Ṣ, O) to a thing. (Ṣ, O, Mṣb.) He made it to lean, rest, or stay itself, against it, or upon it. (M, TA.) You say, اضاف ظَهْرَهُ إِلَى الحَائِطِ He leaned his back against the wall. (MA.) And اضاف إِلَيْهِ أَمْرًا ‡ He rested, or stayed, upon him an affair, and desired him to do what would suffice. (TA.)
And He made him to have recourse to it, or to betake himself to it for refuge. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
And He adjoined it to it. (Mṣb.)
And hence الإِضَافَةُ as a conventional term of the grammarians; because the first [of two nouns in the case to which it applies] is adjoined to the second: (Mṣb:) [for] إِضَافَةُ الاِسْمِ إِلَى الاِسْمِ is [The prefixing the noun to the noun so that the former governs the latter in the gen. case] as when you say غُلَامُ زَيْدٍ; in which instance, غلام is termed مُضَافٌ↓, and زيد is termed مُضَافٌ↓ إِلَيْهِ: and this is done for the purpose of particularizing or appropriating, and of making known or definite: therefore the إِضَافَة of a thing to itself [i. e. the prefixing a noun in this manner to one identical therewith in meaning] is not allowable, because a thing does not make known, or definite, itself; (Ṣ;) unless by an ellipsis, as when you say حَقُّ اليَقِينِ for حَقُّ الشَّىْءِ اليَقِينِ; or, accord. to Fr, the Arabs used to do so because of the difference of the two words themselves. (Ṣ voce جَامِعٌ.) [الإِضَافَةُ is also often used as meaning The state of being prefixed in the manner explained above; or the connection of a noun so prefixed with its complement. The various kinds of إِضَافَة are sufficiently explained in the grammars of De Sacy and others: they are not proper subjects of a lexicon, though much is said respecting them in the O, and more in the Mṣb.]
[Hence also, بِالإِضَافَةِ إِلَى كَذَا meaning In comparison with (lit. to), or in relation to, (like بِالنِّسْبَةِ إِلَى,) such a thing; as though in juxtaposition to it: a phrase of frequent occurrence: see an ex. in Bḍ ii. 6.]
أَضَفْتُهُ (inf. n. إِضَافَةٌ, Mṣb) andضَيَّفْتُهُ↓ (inf. n. تَضْيِيفٌ, O) both signify the same, (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) from الضِّيَافَةُ; (O;) i. e. both signify I made him a guest, or lodged him, or gave him refuge or asylum, syn. أَنْزَلْتُهُ, (Ṣ, M, Mṣb,) with me, as a ضَيْف [or guest], (Ṣ,) and entertained him: (Ṣ, M, Mṣb:) أَضَافُوهُ andضَيَّفُوهُ↓ both signify أَنْزَلُوهُ: (Mgh:) accord. to Th, أَضَفْتُهُ signifies I lodged him at my abode as a ضَيْف: and I gave him (i. e. one in fear) protection, or refuge or asylum: (Mṣb:) andضَيَّفْتُهُ↓ is also expl. as meaning I fed him: andضيّفهُ↓ as meaning he made him to be in the condition of أَضْيَاف [or guests]. (TA.)
intrans.: see 1, first and second sentences.
تَضَيُّفٌ signifies also The being collected together. (KL, from the Mj.)
And The being a تَابِع [or follower, &c.]. (Id.)
As trans.: see 1, latter half, in four places.
تضايف as said of a valley, [from ضِيفٌ “a side,”] It became narrow; syn. تَضَايَقَ. (Ṣ, M, O.) تَضَايَفْنَ عَلَيْهِ, a phrase used by a poet [describing camels following an old camel], They became near to him, (Ṣ, M, O,) by his side. (Ṣ, M.) And you say, تضايفهُ القَوْمُ The people, or party, became on both sides of him (بِضِيفَيْهِ). (TA.) And تَضَايفُه السَّبُعَانِ The two beasts of prey hemmed him in on both sides. (TA.) And تَضَايَفَتِ الكِلَابُ الصَّيْدَ and تَضَايَفَتْ عَلَيْهِ [The dogs hemmed in the object of the chase on both sides, or round about]. (TA.) [In the TA, all these are said to be tropical; but why, I see not.]
(انضيف ⇒ انضاف)]
[انضاف إِلَيْهِ signifies He, or it, became joined, or adjoined, or added, to him, or it: and he joined himself to him: but is perhaps postclassical.]
10. (استضيف ⇒ استضاف)
see 1, last sentence.
You say also اِسْتَضَافَنِى, meaning He desired me, or asked me, to grant him protection, or refuge. (Mṣb.) And استضاف فُلَانٌ إِلَى فُلَانٍ Such a one had recourse, or betook himself, to such a one for protection, or refuge. (IAạr, M.)
ضَيْفٌ A guest: and guests: (MA:) so called because adjoined to the family and fed with them: (Ḥam p. 124:) it is applied to one, and to a pl. number, (Ṣ, M, MA, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) and to a male and to a female, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ,) because it is originally an inf. n.: (MA, Mṣb:) [as a sing.,] i. q.مُضَيَّفٌ↓, (M,) which is syn. with نَزِيلٌ: (TA:) and applied to a pl. number, it may be pl. [or rather a quasi-pl. n.] of ضَائِفٌ↓, which is syn. with نَازِلٌ; thus being of the class of زَوْزٌ and صَوْمٌ: (M:) and it is also pluralized, having for its pls. أَضْيَافٌ and ضِيفَانٌ (Ṣ, M, MA, O, Mṣb, Ḳ) and ضُيُوفٌ (Ṣ, M, MA, O, Ḳ) and ضِيَافٌ, (MA, TA,) the first of which is properly a pl. of pauc., but is also used as a pl. of mult.: (M:) and a female is termed ضَيْفَةٌ as well as ضَيْفٌ: (Ṣ, M, O, Mṣb, Ḳ:) El-Ba'eeth says,
* لَقًى حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْىَ ضَيْفَةٌ *
[A castaway with whom his mother became pregnant while she was a guest]: (Ṣ, M, O:) or, accord. to AHeyth, the meaning here is that which follows. (O.)
ضَيْفَةٌ applied to a woman signifies also Menstruating: (O, Ḳ:) so says AHeyth with reference to the citation above from El-Ba'eeth. (O.)
ضِيفٌ The side (T, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ) of a valley (T, M) and of a mountain (M) [&c.: see 6]: and, as metaphorically used by an anonymous poet, of the ذَكَر: (M:) andمَضَايِفُ↓ signifies the sides of a valley. (TA.)
And one says, فُلَانٌ فِى ضِيفِ فُلَانٍ, meaning Such a one is in the vicinage, or quarter, of such a one. (M.)
ضَيْفَنٌ One who comes with a guest: (Ṣ, O:) or who so comes intruding without invitation: (Ḳ:) or one who follows a guest: derived from ضَيْفٌ, accord. to Sb; but said by AZ to belong to art. ضفن: (M:) [accord. to J and Ṣgh] the ن is augmentative: the pl. is ضَيَافِنُ. (Ṣ, O.)
ضِيَافَةٌ an inf. n. of ضِفْتُهُ in the first of the senses assigned to the latter above. (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ.)
[And] a subst. from أَضَفْتُهُ and ضَيَّفْتُهُ [as such signifying The entertainment of a guest or guests; i. e. the act of entertaining: and an entertainment as meaning a repast, given to a guest or guests; a banquet, or feast]. (Mṣb.) [Hence, دَارُ الضِّيَافَةِ The house of entertainment of guests.]
ضَائِفٌ A man alighting as a guest; syn. نَازِلٌ: (M, TA:) see ضَيْفٌ: its [proper] pl. is ضُيَّفٌ. (TA.)
مُضَافٌ; and مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ: see 4.
The former signifies also ‡ One who is made an adjunct, or adherent, to a people, or party, (Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ, TA,) and made to incline to them, (M,) not being of them. (M, TA.) One says, مَا هُوَ إِلَّا مُضَافٌ ‡ [He is none other than an adjunct, or adherent]. (TA.)
And ‡ One whose origin, or lineage, or parentage, is suspected; or who makes a claim to relationship not having it: (O, Ḳ, TA:) and (Ḳ) whose origin, or relationship, is referred to a people, or party, of whom he is not a member. (O, Ḳ, TA.)
And One who is constrained to betake himself to a place of refuge, (M, O, Ḳ, TA,) to a narrow, or confined, place, and who is burdened with evil: (TA:) El-Bureyk El-Hudhalee says,
* وَيَحْمِى المُضَافَ إِذَا مَا دَعَا *
[And he protects him who is constrained to betake himself to a place of refuge, when he calls for aid]. (M.) Andمُسْتَضَافٌ↓ signifies the same as مُضَافٌ [app. in the last of the senses expl. above]: so says IB; and he cites the saying of Jowwás Ibn-Ḥeiyán El-Azdee,
* وَلَقَدْ أَقْدَمُ فِى الرَّوٌ ** عِ وَأَحْمِى المُسْتَضَافَا *
[app. meaning And verily I advance boldly in the case of fear, and I protect him who is constrained to betake himself to a place of refuge]. (TA.) [See also مَضُوفٌ.]
Also One who is beset, hemmed in, or encompassed, in war, or battle: (Ṣ, O, Ḳ: said in the TA to be tropical:) or one falling among the horsemen and men of valour, having in him no strength. (M.) [See, again, مَضُوفٌ.]
And One in a state of fear. (TA.)
مَضُوفٌ Beset by distress of mind: (TA:) [accord. to Freytag, as from the Deewán of the Hudhalees, constrained to seek refuge: (see also مُضَافٌ:)] it occurs in the saying of the Hudhalee,
* أَنْتَ تُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ المَضُوفِ *
[Thou answerest the prayer, or call, of him who is beset &c.]; and is formed after the manner of بُوعَ for بِيعَ. (M, TA.)
مَضِيفٌ a dial. var. of مَصِيفٌ [q. v.]. (TA.) [ISd says that] مَضِيفًا occurring in a verse of Aboo-Dhu-eyb [as some relate it], cited voce كَرَبَةٌ, [where the reading of مَصِيفًا is given,] is for ضَائِفًا, meaning Turning aside; crooked. (M.)
مُضِيفٌ Fleeing; or turning away and fleeing. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O. [See also its verb.])
مُضَافَةٌ Hardship, or difficulty, or distress. (TA.)
مَضُوفَةٌ, an anomalous word, by rule مَضِيفَةٌ, (Kh, Sb, TA in art. ضوف,) Anxiety; and want, or a want; (O and Ḳ in that art.;) andمَضِيفَةٌ↓ andمُضِيفَةٌ↓ signify the same; (O in that art. and in art. ضيف;) or these two signify anxiety, and grief: (Ḳ in this art.:) or مَضُوفَةٌ signifies an affair, or event, that is feared, or of which one is cautious; (Ṣ and M in this art.;) thus accord. to Aṣ; andمَضِيفَةٌ↓ andمُضَافَةٌ↓ signify the same. (Ṣ, L, TA.)
مَضِيفَةٌ and مُضِيفَةٌ: see both in the next preceding paragraph; the former in two places.
مَضْيَفَةٌ, of the measure مَفْعَلَةٌ, A place of ضِيَافَة [i. e. entertainment of a guest or guests: pl. مَضَايِفُ]. (TA.)
مُضَيَّفٌ: see ضَيفٌ.
مُضَيِّفٌ The master of an abode in which guests are entertained; as alsoمَضَايِفِىٌّ↓. (TA.)
مِضْيَافٌ [One who often entertains guests]. (Ḥar p. 579.)
مَضَايِفُ [pl. of مَضْيَفَةٌ:]
[and also of a sing. not mentioned]: see ضِيفٌ.
مَضَايِفِىٌّ [from مَضَايِفُ pl. of مَضْيَفَةٌ]: see مُضَيِّفٌ.
إِسْمَآءٌ مُتَضَايِفَةٌ Correlative nouns; i. e. nouns significant of the existence of persons, or things, whereof the existence of one necessarily indicates the existence of another; as أَبٌ and اِبْنٌ [father and son]. (Er-Rághib, TA.)
مُسْتَضَافٌ: see مُضَافٌ.
مُسْتَضِيفٌ [act. part. n. of 10, q. v.:] Asking, or calling, for aid, or succour. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ.)