شخص شد شدخ
[Hence,] لَشَدَّ مَا is an expression used in the same sense as لَعَزَّ مَا (A and Ḳ in art. عز) and لَحَقَّ مَا: (A and TA in that art.:) [and in like manner without the ل: thus] one says, شَدَّ مَا أَنَّكَ ذَاهِبٌ, meaning حَقَّ أَنَّكَ ذَاهِبٌ [i. e. It is distressing, or it distresses me, that thou art going away]: and if you please, you may consider شَدَّ as similar to نِعْمَ; as when you say, نِعْمَ العَمَلُ أَنَّكَ تَقُولُ الحَقَّ [Excellent, or most excellent, is the deed, thy saying the truth]. (Sb, TA.) [And it is also used to render intensive a verb following it; as in the saying, لَشَدَّ مَا أَبْغَضَنِى Much indeed, or greatly indeed, did he hate me.]
شَدَّ عَلَيْهِ, aor. ـَ (Ṣ, L) and ـِ, (L,) inf. n. شَدٌّ (Ṣ, L) and شُدُودٌ, (L,) He charged, or made an assault or attack, upon him, in war, or battle. (Ṣ, L.) You say, شَدَّ عَلَى العَدُوِّ شَدَّةً وَاحِدَةً, and شَدَّاتٍ كَثِيرَةً, He made one charge, or assault, or attack, upon the enemy, and many charges, &c. (L.) And شَدَّ عَلَى قِرْنِهِ بِسِكِّينٍ, or بِعَصًا, He made an assault, or attack, upon his adversary, with a knife, or with a staff; as alsoاشتدّ↓ عَلَيْهِ. (Mgh.) And شَدَّ الذِّئْبُ عَلَى الغَنَمِ The wolf asaulted, or attacked, the sheep or goats. (L.) In the phrase, شَدُّوا الإِغَارَةَ, the meaning is شَدُّوا لِلْإِغَارَةِ [They made a charge for the purpose of a sudden attack upon an enemy, or a predatory incursion]; and therefore الاغارة is put in the accus. case, not as an objective complement. (Ḥam p. 8.)
شَدَّ, (Ṣ,) aor. ـُ and ـِ, (TḲ,) inf. n. شَدٌّ, (Ṣ, L, Ḳ,) also signifies He ran; (Ṣ, L,* Ḳ;*) and soاشتدّ↓. (Ṣ, L, Ḳ.) رُبَّ شَدٍّ فِى الكُرْزِ [Many a run is in the sack] is a prov., originating from the fact that a man riding a pregnant mare was pursued by an enemy, and she cast her foal, which ran with its mother, whereupon the horseman alighted, and carried it off in a sack; and the enemy overtook him, and said to him, “Throw to me the foal;” and he replied in these words, meaning that the foal was of generous race: it is applied to him whose internal, or intrinsic, qualities are commended. (Meyd.) And one says, شَدَّ فِى العَدْوِ, (A, Mgh, L,) inf. n. شَدٌّ; (L;) andاشتدّ↓; (A, Mgh, L;) He hastened, or was quick, in running: (Mgh, L:) and شَدَّ الإِحْضَارَ [meaning the same]. (Ṣ in art. افر.)
شَدَّ النَّهَارُ, (Ṣ, L,) and الضُّحَى, (L,) inf. n. شَدٌّ; (L, Ḳ; but in the latter, النَّار is erroneously put for النَّهَار; TA;) andاشتدّ↓; (L;) The day, and the morning, became advanced, the sun being high. (Ṣ,* L, Ḳ.*) [See also شَدٌّ below.]
شَدَّهُ, aor. ـُ (Ṣ, A, L, Mṣb) and ـِ, the latter anomalous, for the aor. of a trans. verb of this class, of the measure فَعَلَ, should be ـُ only, and that of an intrans. verb of the same class and measure should be ـِ, and this is the only instance, or almost the only one, of its kind, with both of these forms of aor., except عَلَّ [and بَتَّ] and نَمَّ الحَدِيثَ, but there is one trans. verb of the same class having the latter form of aor. only, namely, حَبَّ, (Fr, Ṣ, L,) inf. n. شَدٌّ, (L, Mṣb, Ḳ,) He made it, or rendered it, hard; used in relation to substances and attributes: (L:) he made, or rendered, it, or him, firm, compact, or sound; and strong, powerful, or forcible; vigorous, robust, or sturdy; syn. أَحْكَمَهُ, (L,) and قَوَّاهُ; (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ;*) as alsoشدّدهُ↓, [inf. n. تَشْدِيدٌ,] i. e. as syn. with احكمهُ (L) and قوّاهُ: (Ṣ, A, L:) he bound, or tied, him, or it, firmly, fast, or strongly; syn. أَوْثَقَهُ: [which may also be meant to convey the signification immediately preceding this last:] (Ṣ, L, Mṣb, Ḳ:) and [simply] he tied, bound, or made fast, him, or it; syn. رَبَطَهُ. (Ṣ and Mṣb and Ḳ &c. in art. ربط.) One says, شَدَّ عَضُدَهُ i. e. He strengthened [his fore arm, or perhaps his upper arm, but the former is app. here meant]. (Ṣ, L.) And شَدَّ عَلَى يَدِهِ He strengthened him, [lit. his arm, or hand,] and aided him. (L.) And شَدَّ ٱللّٰهُ مُلْكَهُ, andشَدَّدَهُ↓, God strengthened, or may God strengthen, his dominion. (Ṣ, L. [See also a similar ex. voce أَزْرٌ.]) And شَدَّ العُقْدَةَ [He tied firmly or fast or strongly, or he pulled tight, or tightened, the knot], (A, Mgh, Mṣb,) and الوَثَاقَ [the bond]. (Ḳur xlvii. 4.) [And شَدَّ الدَّابَّةَ He bound the saddle on the beast: see an ex. voce دَلِيلٌ.] شَدُّ الرِّحَالِ [lit. The binding of the camels' saddles upon their backs] is a metonymical phrase for ‡ the going a journey. (Mgh, Mṣb.) And شَدُّ المِئْزَرِ, occurring in a trad., [lit. The binding of the waist-wrapper upon the waist] is a metonymical phrase for ‡ the avoiding of women: or the exerting oneself, or employing oneself vigorously or laboriously, in work: or for both of these together. (L.) مَا أَمْلِكُ شَدًّا وَلَا إِرْخَآءً [lit. I possess not power to tighten nor to slacken] means I am not able to do anything. (TA.) [And شَدَّهُ also signifies He pressed, compressed, or squeezed, it: and he pulled, or strained, it.] وَٱشْدُدْ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ, in the Ḳur [x. 88], means And put Thou a seal upon their hearts, so that they may not heed admonition, nor be disposed, or directed, to that which is good. (L.)
أَشَدُّ لَقَدْ كَانَ كَذَا, as also أَشَدُ without teshdeed, means أَشْهَدُ [q. v.]: (Ḳ:) a strange saying. (TA.)
see the preceding paragraph, latter half, in two places.
شدّدهُ, inf. n. تَشْدِيدٌ, also signifies He made it, or rendered it, namely, a beating, and anything, hard to be borne, heavy, vehement, violent, intense, severe, strict, rigorous, or excessive; he intensified it, or aggravated it: (L:) تَشْدِيدٌ is the contr. of تَخْفِيفٌ [in this sense and in other senses here following]. (Ṣ.) [Hence, the objective complement being understood,] one says, شدّد عَلَيْهِ, (A, Mṣb,) which is the contr. of خَفَّفَ [i. e. of خَفَّفَ عَنْهُ; thus meaning He rendered his burden, suffering, distress, uneasiness, or the like, hard to be borne, heavy, vehement, violent, intense, severe, strict, rigorous, or excessive; intensified it, or aggravated it; or he pressed hard upon him; treated him with hardness, strictness, severity, or rigour]: (Mṣb:) and مَنْ شَدَّدَ شَدَّدَ ٱللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ [Whoso treateth others hardly, God will treat him hardly]. (A. [See also 8.])
[تَشْدِيدٌ, as opposed to تَخْفِيفٌ, also signifies The characterizing of a letter by a lengthened pronunciation equivalent in grammatical analysis and in prosody to doubling, denoted in writing by the sign called شَدَّة↓, i. e. by the sign ّ over that letter; as also تَثْقِيلٌ.]
شادّهُ, (A, L,) inf. n. مُشَادَّةٌ and شِدَادٌ, (L,) He vied with him, contended with him for superiority, or strove to surpass him, in strength, power, or force. (A, L.) [Hence,] مَنْ يُشَادِدِ الدِّينَ يَغْلِبْهُ, (A,) or مَنْ يُشَادَّ هٰذَا الدِّينَ بِغْلِبْهُ, i. e. Whoso contendeth for superiority in strength with this religion, and withstandeth it, or opposeth it, and tasketh himself with religious service beyond his power, it (the religion) will overcome him: a trad. (L.) And لَنْ يُشَادَّ الدِّينَ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا غُلِبَ No one shall contend for superiority in strength with religion, &c. but he will be overcome by the religion. (Ḳ,* TA.)
اشدّ, (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ,) inf. n. إِشْدَادٌ, (Ḳ,) He, (a man, Ṣ, L, Ḳ,*) or they, (a company of men, A, L,) had, (A, L,) or had with him, (Ṣ, L, Ḳ,) [or had with them,] a strong beast, (Ṣ, L, Ḳ,) or strong beasts. (A, L.)
[مَا أَشَدَّ كَذَا How hard, hard to be borne, vehement, violent, intense, or the like, or how great, is such a thing!]
تشدّد He acted, or behaved, with forced hardness, firmness, strength, vigour, hardiness, courage, vehemence, severity, strictness, or rigour; he exerted his strength, force, or energy; strained, or strained himself, or tasked himself severely; syn. تَصَلَّبَ; (A and TA in art. صلب;) and جَهَدَ نَفْسَهُ; (L;) [فِى الشَّىْءِ in the thing; as alsoشَادَّ↓ فِيهِ; for] المُشَادَّةُ فِى الشَّىْءِ and التَّشَدُّدُ فِيهِ signify the same: (Ṣ, L, Ḳ:* [see an ex. of تشدّد in the first paragraph of art. جلد:]) [and] both of these phrases signify the showing hardness, &c., in the thing. (PṢ.) You say also تشدّد لِلْأَمْرِ He applied himself with hardness, firmness, vigour, hardiness, severity, or rigour, to the affair. (MA.) And تَشَدَّدَتِ القَيْنَةُ The slavesongstress strained herself, or tasked herself severely, in raising her voice in singing. (L.)
Also He (a man) was, or became, hard, or difficult: you say, سَأَلْنَا فُلَانًا حَاجَةً فَتَشَدَّدَ عَلَيْنَا [We asked of such a one a thing wanted, and he was hard, or difficult, to us]. (TA in art. وعر.)
And He was, or became, niggardly, tenacious, or avaricious. (MA, KL.)
تشادّوا [They vied, contended for superiority, or strove to surpass one another, in strength, power, or force: see 3]. (TA in art. حمس: there coupled with اِقْتَتَلُوا.)
اشتدّ; (Ṣ, A, L, Mṣb;) andشَدَّ↓, aor ـِ, (L, Mṣb,) the only form of its aor., (L,) inf. n. شِدَّةٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) whence the former verb; (Ṣ;) andتشادّ↓; (L;) It was, or became, hard, (L, and MA and KL and PṢ in explanation of the first,) said of a substance and of an attribute: (L:) it, or he, was, or became, firm, compact, or sound; (L &c. as above;) strong, powerful, or forcible; vigorous, robust, or sturdy; (L, and A and MA and KL in explanation of the first, and Mṣb in explanation of the second:) [also it was, or became, bound, or tied, firmly, fast, or strongly:] and the first of these verbs, [and the second also,] it was, or became, hard to be borne, heavy, vehement, violent, intense, pressing, severe, strict, rigorous, tight, strait or difficult, distressing or distressful, afflictive, calamitous, or adverse. (MA, L, KL.) It is said in a trad., لَا تَبِيعُوا الحَبَّ حَتَّى يَشْتَدَّ i. e. [Ye shall not sell grain] until it becomes hard, or firm, or strong. (L.) And you say, اشتدّت العُقْدَةُ [The knot became tied firmly, fast, or strongly; or became tight]. (A, Mgh, Mṣb.) And اشتدّ الزَّمَنُ عَلَيْهِمْ The time, or fortune, became hard upon them; or severe, rigorous, distressful, afflictive, calamitous, or adverse, to them. (L. [See also 2.]) And اشتدّ بِهِ الأَمْرُ [The affair, or event, distressed, or afflicted, him; like اشتدّ عَلَيْهِ]. (L in art. جد, &c.)
See also 1, former half, in four places.
شَدٌّ an inf. n. of 1 [q. v.]. (Ṣ, L, &c.)
[Hence,] شَدُّ النَّهَارِ, and شَدُّ الضُّحَى, The time when the day, and the morning, is advanced, the sun being high. (L.) One says, جِئْتُكَ شَدَّ النَّهَارِ, and شَدَّ الضُّحَى, (L, and the like is said in the A,) and فِى شَدِّ النَّهَارِ, and فِى شَدِّ الضُّحَى, (L,) I came to thee in the time when the day, and the morning, was advanced, the sun being high. (A,* L.)
شَدَّةٌ [inf. n. of un. of شَدَّهُ: as such signifying] A single act [of making, or rendering, hard, firm, compact, or sound; strong, powerful, or forcible: and] of binding, or tying, firmly, fast, or strongly. (Mṣb.)
See also 2, last sentence but one.
Also [inf. n. of un. of the intrans. verb شَدَّ: as such signifying] A single charge or assault or attack in war or battle. (Ṣ, A,* Mgh, L, Ḳ.*)
شِدَّةٌ inf. n. of شَدَّ↓ (L, Mṣb) as syn. with اِشْتَدَّ: (L:) [and] a subst. from [i. e. syn. with] اِشْتِدَادٌ: (Ḳ:) The attribute denoted by the epithet شَدِيدٌ: (Ṣ:) hardness, (A, MA, L,) in substances and in attributes; (L;) firmness, compactness, or soundness; strength, power, or force; vigour, robustness, sturdiness, or hardiness; (MA, L; see أَشُدٌّ, which, accord. to some, is a pl. of شِدَّةٌ;) courage, bravery, firmness of heart: (L:) niggardliness, tenaciousness, or avarice: (A: [see also 5, last sentence:]) vehemence, violence, intenseness, stress, pressure, severity, strictness, rigour, tightness, straitness or difficulty: (MA:) hardship, rigour of fortune: (MA, L:) famine, dearth, want of victuals; hardness, straitness, or difficulty, of subsistence [&c.]: (L:) trouble, distress, affliction, calamity, or adversity; (MA, L;) as also [شُدَّى↓, in these as well as in some of the preceding senses, and] شَدِيدَةٌ↓, [rather meaning a hard, or distressing, event, an affliction, or a calamity, and rarely used,] of which, (L,) or of شِدَّةٌ, (MA, L,) the pl. is شَدَائِدُ, (MA, L,) agreeably with analogy if of شَدِيدَةٌ, but extr. if of شِدَّةٌ: and this pl. also signifies seditions, discords, or dissensions, whereby men are put into a state of commotion: (L:) and the rigours, or pangs, (غَمَرَات,) of death: (Ṣ and Mṣb in art. غمر:) accord. to Sb, the pl of شِدَّةٌ is شِدَدٌ, which, he says, preserves its original form [without idghám] because it does not resemble a verb. (L.) One says, قَاسَيْتُ مِنْهُ شِدَّةً [I endured, from him, hardness, &c.; or from it, hardship, &c.]. (A.) Andخِفْتُ شُدَّى↓ فُلَانٍ meaning شِدَّتَهُ [i. e. I feared the hardness, &c., of such a one]: so says AZ: and he cites this verse:
*فَإِنِّى لَا أَلِينُ لِقَوْلِ شُدَّى↓ **وَلَوْ كَانَتْ أَشَدَّ↓ مِنَ الحَدِيدِ *
[And, or for, I will not become gentle for a hard saying, (lit. a saying of hardness,) though it should be harder than iron]. (L.) Andأَصَابَتْنِى شُدَّى↓ meaning شِدَّةٌ [i. e. Hardship, &c., befell me]. (AZ, Ṣ.) [And شِدَّةٌ also signifies A strong, an intense, or a great, degree of any quality &c.]
شُدَّى: see the next preceding paragraph, in four places.
شَدِيدٌ Possessing the quality of شِدَّة: (Ṣ, L:) i. e. hard; applied to a substance and to an attribute: firm, compact, or sound: (L:) strong, powerful, forceful; vigorous, robust, sturdy, or hardy; (A, Mgh, L, Mṣb;) applied to a thing, (Mṣb,) and to a man; (A, Mgh, L;) as also شَدِيدُ القُوَى: (Mgh:) pl., applied to men, أَشِدَّآءُ and [applied to things and men] شِدَادٌ (A, L) and شُدُدٌ, (Sb, L,) which last preserves its original form [without idghám] because not resembling a verb: (L:) also courageous, brave, firm of heart: (L, Ḳ:*) and niggardly, tenacious, or avaricious; (A, L, Mṣb, Ḳ;) as alsoمُتَشَدِّدٌ↓: (Ṣ, A, L, Ḳ:) and [as is implied by the first explanation above, and shown by frequent usage,] vehement, violent, intense, pressing, severe, strict, rigorous, tight, strait or difficult, hard as meaning hard to be borne, troublesome, distressing or distressful, afflictive, calamitous, or adverse. (L, KL, PṢ, &c.) You say, هُوَ شَدِيدٌ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ [He is hard, or severe, or rigorous, to his people]. (A.) [And شَدِيدٌ عَلَى كَذَا Niggardly, tenacious, or avaricious, of such a thing.] Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, using شَدِيد in the sense of شَحِيح,
* حَدَرْنَاهُ بِالأَثْوَابِ فِى قَعْرِ هُوَّةٍ ** شَدِيدٍ عَلَى مَا ضُمَّ فِى اللَّحْدِ جُولُهَا *
[We lowered him, with the grave-clothes, into the bottom of a cavity in the ground, the sides whereof were tenacious of what was comprised in the lateral hollow which was the place of the corpse]. (L.) And the words of the Ḳur [c. 8], وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ, accord. to Zj, mean And verily, on account of the love of wealth, he is niggardly, or tenacious, or avaricious. (L.) شَدِيدُ العَيْنِ applied to a man, and شَدِيْدَةُ جَفْنِ العَيْنِ metaphorically applied by a poet to a she-camel, mean Whom sleep does not overcome. (L.) And الشَّدِيدُ means The lion; (Ḳ;) because of his strength and hardiness. (TA.) [شَدِيد with a subst. or an inf. n. following it in the gen. case, the latter having the article ال prefixed to it, or being prefixed to another noun in the gen. case, supplies the place of an intensive epithet; as in شَدِيدُ السَّوَادِ Intensely, or very, black; and شَدِيدُ الغَضَبِ Vehemently, or exceedingly, or very, angry; and] مِسْكٌ شَدِيدُ الرَّائِحَةِ Strong-smelling musk; (L;) [and رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ العَيْنِ A man intensely white in the eye.]
الحُرُوفُ الشَّدِيدَةُ [The strong letters] are those letters which, in a state of quiescence, prevent the current of the voice in their utterance; namely أ, ب, ت, ج, د, ط, ق, and ك; (TA;) the letters comprised in the words أَجَدْتَ طَبَقَكَ. (Ḳ.)
شَدِيدَةٌ [as a subst. from شَدِيدٌ, rendered such by the affix ة]: see شِدَّةٌ.
أَشَدُّ [Possessing the quality of شِدَّة, in a greater, and in the greatest, degree; i. e. more, and most, hard, &c.]. See an ex. in a verse cited voce شِدَّةٌ. حَلَبْتَ بِالسَّاعِدِ الأَشَدِّ, or حَلَبْتُهَا الخ, is a prov., expl. in art. حلب. And بَقِىَ أَشَدُّهُ. [The hardest part of it has remained] is another prov., applied to him who attains a part of that which he wants, and is unable to attain the completion thereof. (TA. [See also Freytag's “Arab. Prov.,” i. 169.]) [With an indeterminate subst. or inf. n. following it in the accus. case, it supplies the place of a simple epithet denoting the comparative and superlative degrees; as in أَشَدُّ سَوَادًا More, and most, black; and أَشَدُّ غَضَبًا More, and most, angry.]
أَشَدُّ النَّهَارِ The time when the day is most advanced, the sun being at the highest. (L. [See شَدُّ النَّهَارِ.])
أَشُدٌّ, (Ṣ, A, Mgh, L, Ḳ, &c.,) also pronounced أُشُدٌّ, (Seer, Ḳ,) but the latter form is rare, (TA,) is both masc. and fem., (Zj, TA,) and as used in the Ḳur it has somewhat different meanings: (Az, TA:) in the phrase حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ, (Ṣ, Ḳ,) and other phrases in the Ḳur, (TA,) أَشُدّ is expl. as meaning The state of strength; (Ṣ, Mgh, L, Ḳ;) which is from eighteen to thirty years: (Ṣ, L, Ḳ:) or from about seventeen to forty: (Zj:) or from thirty to forty: (Zj in another place:) or puberty: (Az, Mgh, L:) or firmness, or soundness, of judgment, produced by experience: (L:) or puberty together with such maturity as gives evidence of rectitude of conduct or course of life; (Zj, Az, Mgh, L;) which may be at, or before, the age of eighteen years; accord. to most of the men of science, and among them Esh-Sháfiʼee; (Zj, Az, L;) and the extreme term of which is three and thirty years: (Mgh:) or the age of forty years; as in the Ḳur xlvi. 14: (L:) أَشُدٌّ [originally أَشْدُدٌ] is a sing. having a pl. form, like آنُكٌ; and these two words are [said to be] the only instances of the kind: (Ṣ, Ḳ: [but see آنُكٌ:]) or a pl. having no proper sing., (Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ,) like آسَالٌ and أَبَابِيلُ and عَبَادِيدُ and مَذَاكِيرُ: (Ṣ:) or its sing. is شِدَّةٌ↓, (AHeyth, Ṣ, Mgh, Ḳ,) accord. to Sb; and this is good with respect to the meaning, because one says, بَلَغَ الغُلَامُ شِدَّتَهُ; (Ṣ;) but فِعْلَةٌ does not form a pl. of the measure أَفْعُلٌ; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) for as to أَنْعُمٌ, (Ṣ,) which is said by AHeyth to be pl. of نِعْمَةٌ, (TA,) [and respecting which Mṭr says that] أَشُدٌّ is said to be pl. of شِدَّةٌ like as أَنْعُمٌ is of نِعْمَةٌ, formed by regarding the ة as elided, (Mgh, [and AHeyth says the like,]) it is only pl. of نُعْمٌ in the phrase يَوْمُ نُعْمٍ: (Ṣ:) or its sing. is شَدٌّ, like as كَلْبٌ is of أَكْلُبٌ; or شِدٌّ, like as ذِئْبٌ is of أَذْؤُبٌ; (Ṣ, Ḳ;) accord. to some; (Ṣ;) but neither شَدٌّ nor شِدٌّ has been heard from the Arabs [as sing. of أَشُدٌّ]; and they are only deduced from analogy: (Ṣ, Ḳ:) or it is pl. of أَشَدُّ; and the أ is not regarded in the formation of this pl. (IJ, from AʼObeyd.)
مَشَدُّ العِصَابَةِ [The place, or part, where the fillet, or the like, is bound, or tied]. (A.)
مُشِدٌّ A man having, (A, Mgh, L,) or having with him, (L,) a strong beast, (A, Mgh, L,) or strong beasts; (L;) contr. of مُضْعِفٌ. (Mgh, L.) It is said in a trad., يَرُدُّ مُشِدُّهُمْ عَلَى مُضْعِفِهِمْ [He among them who has a strong beast, or strong beasts, shall give back a portion of the spoil to him of them who has a weak beast, or weak beasts]; meaning that the strong warrior and plunderer shall share with (يُسَاهِمُ) the weak in the plunder that he gains. (L.)
مُتَشَدِّدٌ: see شَدِيدٌ.