شفع شفق شفه
1. ⇒ شفق
شَفِقَ and شَفَقَ: see 4, in five places.
شَفِقَ عَلَيْهِ signifies He was niggardly of it: (TA:) [thus] the saying [of a poet]
* كَمَا شَفِقَتْ عَلَى الزَّادِ العِيَالُ *
means [Like as the household] are niggardly of the provision: (IDrd, M, O:) because he who is niggardly of a thing isمُشْفِقٌ↓ عَلَيْهِ [i. e. fearful, or cautious, on account of it]. (M.)
2. ⇒ شفّق
تَشْفِيقٌ signifies ‡ The making [a gift or the like (see مُشَفَّقٌ)] scanty, or little in amount or quantity; as alsoإِشْفَاقٌ↓. (O, Ḳ, TA.)
And ‡ The weaving badly. (Ḳ, TA.) You say, شفّق المِلْحَفَةَ ‡ He wove badly, (M,) or so as to make it scanty in the yarn, or unsubstantial, (TA,) the [kind of wrapper called] ملحفة. (M, TA.)
See also 4, last sentence.
4. ⇒ اشفق
اشفق signifies He feared, or was cautious; as alsoشَفِقَ↓ [in the CK شَفَقَ]; or only the former: (Ḳ, TA:) [accord. to ISd,] شَفِقَ↓, inf. n. شَفَقٌ, signifies he feared: (M:) IDrd says, شَفِقْتُ↓ [in one of my copies of the Ṣ شفَقتُ] and أَشْفَقْتُ are syn., (Ṣ, O, TA,) as some assert, (O, TA,) but the lexicologists disallow this, (Ṣ, O,) saying that one should only say أَشْفَقْتُ: (O:) accord. to Er-Rághib, الإِشْفَاقُ signifies [the being affected with] care, or solicitude, mixed with fear; and when it is trans. by means of مِنْ, the meaning of fear is most apparent in it; but when trans. by means of عَلَى, the meaning of care, or solicitude, is most apparent in it: (TA: [and the like is said by Bḍ in xxi. 29:]) or it signifies [the being affected with] fright [or fear]; sometimes mixed with faithful or sincere or honest advice; and sometimes divested thereof: (Ḥam p. 179:) one says, أَشْفَقْتُ مِنْهُ, (Ṣ,) or مِنْ كَذَا, (Mṣb,) I feared, or was cautious of, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) him, or it, (Ṣ,) or such a thing: (Mṣb:) or اشفق مِنْهُ he feared him, or it: (MA:) and أَشْفَقْتُ عَلَيْهِ, (Ṣ, [in which it is implied that this differs from أَشْفَقْتُ مِنْهُ,]) or عَلَى الصَّغِيرِ, I was affectionate, kind, or compassionate, and favourably inclined, [towards him, or] towards the little one: (Mṣb: [and a similar explanation is given in the MA:]) andشَفَقْتُ↓, aor. ـِ
Also He entered upon [the time of] the شَفَق [q. v.]. (M.) And He came in a [time of] شَفَق: and soشفّق↓. (M.)
شَفَقٌ Fear: (Ḳ:) [see also شَفِقَ, (of which it is the inf. n.) in the next preceding paragraph:] or fear [arising] from strictness (شِدَّة) of faithful or sincere or honest advice; (M, TA;) as alsoشَفَقَةٌ↓: (M:) or↓ the latter signifies the fear of him who gives faithful or sincere or honest advice, in consequence of his doing so, for him to whom such advice is given: (O:) or the former, (Ḳ, TA,) and↓ the latter also, (TA,) the eagerness, or striving, of him who gives such advice, to rectify, or amend, the state of him to whom that advice is given: (Ḳ, TA: [said in the latter to be a tropical application of the words; but why, I see not:]) شَفَقَةٌ↓ is subst. from الإِشْفَاقُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, TA,) and شَفَقٌ is syn. therewith (Ṣ, O, Ḳ, TA) as being also a subst. from الإِشْفَاقُ: (Ṣ, TA:) [it is said that] the primary signification of شَفَقَةٌ↓ is weakness: (Ḥam p. 179:) and it is conjoined with خَوْفٌ [fear]; therefore it is not applied as an attribute to God: (Idem p. 722:) [generally] it signifies affection, kindness, benignity, compassion, or favourable inclination: (MA:) [or solicitous affection, &c.:] or pity, or compassion, and tenderness, and fear of the betiding of some disliked or evil event, together with faithful or sincere or honest advice. (TA.)
شَفَقٌ also signifies The redness (Kh, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ) in the horizon (Ḳ) from sunset until the time of the last عِشَآء [i. e. nightfall], (Kh, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) when it disappears, (Kh, Ṣ, Mṣb,) and the white شَفَق remains until the middle [or rather until a late period varying at different seasons] of the night: (Mṣb:) or until near that time: or until near the عَتَمَة [q. v., generally meaning the same, or nearly so]: (Ḳ:) or the redness that is seen in the sky at sunset: (IDrd, O:) or the remains of the light and redness of the sun in the first part of the night, until near the عَتَمَة: (Ṣ:) or the light and redness of the sun, seen at sunset, until the time of the prayer of nightfall: (M:) or the mixture of the light of day with the blackness of night at sunset: (Er-Rághib, TA:) accord. to Zj, the redness that is in the region of sunset after the setting of the sun: this is the meaning given as of common repute in the books of lexicology; and Mṭr says [in the Mgh] that it means the redness accord. to a number of the Companions of the Prophet and of the people of the generation next succeeding them: but accord. to Aboo-Hureyreh, it means the whiteness [after sunset, which, to distinguish it from the شَفَق commonly so called, is often termed the white شَفَق, as in an instance above]: (Mṣb:) IAth says that this word has two contr. meanings; being applied to the redness that is seen after sunset; and to the whiteness remaining in the western horizon after the said redness. (TA.) Fr says, I heard one of the Arabs say, عَلَيْهِ ثَوْبٌ كَأَنَّهُ الشَّفَقُ [Upon him is, or was, a garment as though it were the شَفَق]: and it was red. (Ṣ.)
[Hence,] ‡ A garment, or piece of cloth, dyed red. (AA, TA.)
And Day. (Zj, M, Ḳ.)
Also i. q. نَاحِيَةٌ † [A side,, &c.; or a remote side]: pl. أَشْفَاقٌ. (O, Ḳ.) One says, أَنَا فِى أَشْفَاقٍ مِنْ هٰذَا الأَمْرِ i. e. نَوَاحٍ [meaning † I am apart, or aloof, from this affair; as though in, or on, remote sides thereof]: (O, TA:) and in like manner فِى عُرُوضٍ مِنْهُ [app. a mistranscription for عَرُوضٍ i. e. نَاحِيَةٍ] and فى أَعْرَاضٍ منه i. e. نَوَاحٍ. (TA.)
And ‡ A bad thing; syn. رَدِىْءٌ: (Lth, Ṣ, M, O, Ḳ, TA: [in the TA said to be written by J with kesr to the ف; but not so in either of my copies of the Ṣ:]) applied to a garment, or piece of cloth, (Mgh, TA, and Ḥam p. 179,) [in this sense, or] as meaning bad and thin: (Mgh in art. خرث:) [said to be] from شَفَقَةٌ signifying “weakness:” (Ḥam ubi suprà:) seldom pluralized: (O:) and used alike as masc. and fem., being applied as an epithet to a مِلْحَفَة, (M, O,) meaning رَدِيئَةٌ. (M.)
شَفِقٌ: see شَفِيقٌ, in two places.
شَفَقَةٌ: see شَفَقٌ, in five places.
شَفُوقٌ: see the next paragraph.
شَفِيقٌ is syn. with مُشْفِقٌ↓ as part. n. of 4 [signifying Fearing, or fearful, or cautious; and also affectionate, kind, or compassionate,, &c.]; (Ṣ, O, Mṣb,* Ḳ;) as alsoشَفِقٌ↓ (Mṣb) [and in an intensive sense شَفُوقٌ↓; and, from what follows, it appears that شَفِيقٌ also is used as an intensive epithet]: orشَفِقٌ↓ signifies fearing; and its pl. is شَفِقُونَ: (M, TA:) and شَفِيقٌ, one giving faithful or sincere or honest advice, eager, or striving, to rectify, or amend, the state of him to whom that advice is given. (M.)
* إِنَّ الشَّفِيقَ بِسُوْءِ ظَنٍ مُولَعٌ *
[Verily the affectionate,, &c., or the very affectionate, &c., is addicted to evil opinion,] is a prov., applied in the case of the man who fears, for his friend, the accidents of fortune, by reason of his excessive شَفَقَة [or affection, &c.]. (TA.) And it is said in the Ḳur [xxi. 50],وَهُمْ مِنَ ٱلسَّاعَةِ مُشْفِقُونَ↓ [meaning And who are fearful of the time of the resurrection]; the signification of fear being most apparent when مُشْفِقٌ is thus trans. by means of مِنْ. (TA.) See also an instance of مُشْفِقٌ↓ [in a similar sense] in the first paragraph of this art.
مُشْفَقٌ: see the last paragraph.
[Accord. to Freytag, it signifies also Fear: but he names no authority for this.]
مُشْفِقٌ: see شَفِيقٌ, in three places.
عَطَآءٌ مُشَفَّقٌ ‡ A gift made scanty, or little in amount or quantity; (Ṣ, TA;) as alsoمُشْفَقٌ↓. (TA.)