سبغ سبق سبك
سَبَقَهُ, (Ṣ, O, Mṣb, Ḳ, &c.,) aor. ـِ (O, Mṣb, Ḳ) and ـُ, (O, Ḳ,) but the former is of higher authority, or more usual, (O, TA,) inf. n. سَبْقٌ, (Ṣ, Mṣb,) He preceded him; he was, or became, got, went, or came, before him, or ahead of him; he outwent, or outstripped, him; he had, got, or took, precedence of him; syn. تَقَدَّمَهُ; (Ḳ, TA;) in running, and in everything. (TA.) Some read, in the Ḳur [xxi. 27], لَا يَسْبُقُونَهُ بِالقَوْلِ, thus, with damm, meaning They say not [anything] without his having taught them: (O, TA:) or they say not anything until He has said it: originally, لَا يَسْبُِقُ قَوْلُهُمْ قَوْلَهُ [their saying does not precede his saying]: this reading is from the phrase سَابَقْتُهُ فَسَبَقْتُهُ, [expl. below,] aor. of the latter أَسْبُقُهُ. (Bḍ.) See 3.
سَبَقَ الفَرَسُ فِى الحَلْبَةِ The horse outstripped, or came in first, among those started together for a wager, or in the race-ground. (O, Ḳ.) Hence the trad. of ʼAlee, سَبَقَ رَسُولُ ٱللّٰهِ وَصَلَّى أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَثَلَّثَ عُمَرُ † [The Apostle of God came in first in the race, and Aboo-Bekr came in next, and ʼOmar came in third]. (O, TA.) [And سَبَقَ used in like manner with the objective complement understood means He preceded, &c., as above; and hence, he was, or became, first, foremost, or beforehand; he had, or got, the priority, or precedence. And He was, or became, one of the first or foremost: see سَابِقٌ. See also قَصَبُ السَّبْقِ in art. قصب.]
سَبَقَ النَّاسَ إِلَى الأَمْرِ [He preceded the other people; was, or became, before them; or had, got, or took, precedence of them; in betaking, or applying, himself to the affair]. (Ṣ, Ḳ.) And in like manner one says, لَهُ سَبْقٌ فِى هٰذَا الأَمْرِ To him belongs priority, or precedence, in this affair; like سَابِقَةٌ; syn. قُدْمَةٌ. (A, TA.)
[Hence,] سَبَقَ وَهْمُهُ إِلَى شَىْءٍ فَغَلِطَ فِيهِ † [He preconceived a thing, and therefore made a mistake, or erred, respecting it]. (Mṣb, in explanation of دُخِلَ عَلَيْهِ.) [And سَبَقَ ذِهْنُهُ إِلَى الشَّىْءِ means in like manner † He preconceived the thing: or his mind adverted hastily, before reflection, or without premeditation, to the thing; from what next follows.]
سَبَقَ إِلَيْهِمْ He went, or passed, hastily, or quickly, to them. (TA.)
[And hence,] سَبَقَ إِلَيْهِ مِنِّى قَوْلٌ † A saying proceeded hastily, before reflection, or without premeditation, to him from me; syn. فَرَطَ: (Ṣ in art. فرط:) and سَبَقَ مِنْهُ كَلَامٌ † speech proceeded hastily, &c., from him; syn. فَرَطَ: (Mṣb in that art.:) [but this phrase also means, more agreeably with the primary signification of the verb, † speech proceeded previously from him; (see the Ḳur x. 20, &c.;) and in like manner the former phrase.] See also 8. And سَبَقَهُ القَىْءُ, (Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ, all in art. ذرع,) i. e. سَبَقَهُ فِى الخُرُوجِ إِلَى فِيهِ [meaning † The vomit came forth to his mouth before he was aware]. (TA in that art.) [And سَبَقَ القَلَمُ † The pen anticipated, skipping over something, in transcribing.]
One says also, سَبَقْتُ عَلَيْهٍ, meaning ‡ I overcame him. (TA.) And سَبَقَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ † He overcame his people in generosity. (TA.) And سَبَقَهُ فِى الكَرَمِ † He exceeded him in generosity. (TA.)
سبّق, (inf. n. تَسْبِيقٌ, Mgh,) He took, or received, the سَبَق [i. e. stake, or wager, laid at a race or a shooting-match, to be taken by the successful competitor]: (IAạr, O, Ḳ:) or سَبَّقْتُهُ I took, or received, the سَبَق, from him. (Az, Mgh, Mṣb.)
And He gave the سَبَق: (IAạr, O, Ḳ:) or سَبَّقْتُهُ I gave him the سَبَق. (Az, Mgh, Mṣb.) Thus it has two contr. significations. (IAạr, Az, Mgh, O, Mṣb, Ḳ.) Hence, in the trad. of Rukáneh the wrestler, مَا تُسَبِّقُنِى, i. e. What wilt thou give me [if I overcome] and he said, The third of my sheep, or goats. (Mgh.) And سَبَّقَ البَدْرَةَ بَيْنَ الشُّعَرَآءِ ‡ He made the [sum of money termed] بدرة to be a سَبَق [i. e. stake, or wager,] among the poets, to be taken by him who should overcome. (Z, TA.) And it is said in a trad., أَمَرَ بِإِجْرَآءِ الخَيْلِ وَسبَّقَهَا ثَلَاثَةَ أَعْذُقٍ مِنْ ثَلَاثِ نَخَلَاتٍ, meaning [He ordered the making of the horse to run, and] gave them as a سَبَق [three racemes of dates from three palm-trees]: or it may mean, he took, or received, as their سَبَق: or it [i. e. سبقها] may be without teshdeed, [as a subst. with its affixed pronoun,] meaning the property assigned [as their سَبَق]. (L, TA.)
One says also, سَبَّقْتُ بَيْنَ الخَيْلِ [app. meaning I gave a سَبَق among the horses]: (O:) or سَبَّقْتُ الخَيْلَ, andسابقت↓ بَيْنَهَا, meaning I sent forth the horses with their riders upon them, to see which of them would outstrip. (TA.)
And سبّقت الشَّاةُ, inf. n. as above, The ewe, or she-goat, cast her young one, or fœtus, in an incomplete state: (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O, Ḳ:) but سبّغت, with غ, is better known. (Ibn-ʼAbbád, O.)
سَبَّقْتُ الطَّائِرَ ‡ I put the سِبَاقَانِ [or pair of jesses] upon the legs of the bird, and [so] shackled it. (TA.)
سَابَقْتُهُ, inf. n. مُسَابَقَةٌ and سِبَاقٌ, [I strove, or contended, with him to precede him; to be, or become, get, go, or come, before him, or ahead of him; to outgo, or outstrip, him; to have, get, or take, precedence of him; in running (i. e. I raced, or ran a race, with him); and in everything.] (Mṣb, TA.) You say,سَابَقْتُهُ فَسَبَقْتُهُ↓ [I strove, or contended, with him to precede him, &c., and I surpassed him, or overcame him, in doing so]: (Ṣ:) the aor. of the latter verb in this case is أَسْبُقُهُ, (Bḍ in xxi. 27,) and the inf. n. is سَبْقٌ. (Ṣ.)
اسبق القَوْمُ إِلَى الأَمْرِ [perhaps a mistranscription forاستبق↓] The people, or party, hastened to the thing, or affair; or employed the fulness of their power, or force, to hasten to it; syn. بَادَرُوا. (TA.)
تسابقا andاستبقا↓ signify the same: (Ḳ, TA:) thus the saying [in the Ḳur xii. 25]وَٱسْتَبَقَا↓ البَابَ means تَسَابَقَا إِلَيْهِ, i. e. And they strove, or contended, each with the other, to precede, or get before, to the door. (TA.) [And both are trans. by means of إِلَى:] you say, تسابقوا إِلَى كَذَا andاستبقوا↓ إِلَيْهِ [They strove, or contended, together, to precede, or be first, in attaining to such a thing: and soسَابَقُوا↓: see the Ḳur lvii. 21, here سَابِقُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ is expl. by Bḍ as meaning سَارِعُوا مُسَارَعَةَ المُسَابِقِينَ فِى المِضْمَارِ i. e. Strive ye, one with another, in hastening, with the striving of those that contend to outstrip in the hippodrome, to obtain forgiveness]. (Mṣb.) And you say,اِسْتَبَقْنَا↓ فِى العَدْوِ, meaning تَسَابَقْنَا [i. e. We strove, or contended, one with another, to precede, get before or ahead, or outstrip, in running: and in like manner each of these verbs is used in relation to any object of contention for precedence]. (Ṣ.)
And تسابقوا andاستبقوا↓ ‡ They competed, or contended, together in shooting. (TA.) ذَهَبْنَا نَسْتَبِقُ↓, in the Ḳur [xii. 17], means † We went to compete, or contend, together in shooting: (Ṣ, Bḍ:) or in running. (Bḍ.)
And↓ the latter of these verbs, as well as the former, signifies also They laid bets, wagers, or stakes, one with another. (TA.)
[استبقهُ and استبق إِلَيْهِ i. q. بَادَرَ إِلَيْهِ. Thus] فَٱسْتَبِقُوا الخَيْرَاتِ, in the Ḳur [ii. 143 and v. 53], means Therefore hasten ye to good acts, &c.; or employ the fulness of your power, or force, in hastening thereto; syn. بَادِرُوا إِلَيْهَا. (O.) See also 4.
You say also, استبق إِلَيْهِ الأَمْرُ, (Ḳ in art. بدر,) orسَبَقَ↓, (M in that art.,) The thing, or event, came to him, or happened to him, hastily, quickly, or speedily; and beforehand [or before he expected it]; syn. بَدَرَهُ, and بَدَرَ إِلَيْهِ. (M and Ḳ in that art.)
فَٱسْتَبَقُوا الصِّرَاطَ, in the Ḳur xxxvi. 66, in which الصراط is in the accus. case because of إِلَى suppressed before it, or by making الاِسْتِبَاقُ to imply the meaning of الاِبْتِدَارُ, (Bḍ,) means And they would hasten, make haste, or strive to get first or beforehand, to the road that they were wont to travel: (Bḍ, Jel:) or ‡ they would go along the road and leave it behind them, (Bḍ,* O, Ḳ, TA,) so that they would wander from the right way. (O, Ḳ, TA.)
See also 6, throughout.
سِبْقٌ A competitor of another in striving to precede, to be before or ahead, to outgo or outstrip, or to have precedence: [pl. أَسْبَاقٌ; and the sing. is also used as a pl.:] you say, هُمْ سِبْقِى and أَسْبَاقِى: (L:) and هُمَا سِبْقَانِ They are two that compete &c. (El-Moḥeeṭ, O, Ḳ.)
سَبَقٌ A stake, or wager, that is laid between the persons concerned in a race, (T, Ṣ, O, Mgh,* Mṣb,* Ḳ,) and in a shooting-match; in the former case taken by [the owner of] the one that outstrips; (T, TA:) andسُبْقَةٌ↓ signifies the same: (Ḳ:) pl. of the former أَسْبَاقٌ. (O, Ḳ.) It is said in a trad., لَا سَبَقَ إِلَّا فِى خُفٍّ أَوْ حَافِرٍ أَوْ نَصْلٍ, meaning There shall be no stake, or wager, except in the case of the racing of camels, or of horses or mules or asses, or in the case of [the arrowhead or lance-head, i. e.] shooting or casting [the lance]: for all these affairs are preparations for engaging in fight with the enemy; and mules and asses are included because they carry the baggage of the army. (O, TA.)
Also † The lesson of a boy, that is learned each day in the school; also called إِمَامٌ. (TA in art. ام.)
سُبْقَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.
سِبَاقٌ an inf. n. of 3 [q. v.]. (Mṣb, TA.)
[As a simple subst., A race, or contest in running.]
[And The preceding part of a discourse &c. You say سِبَاقُ الكَلَامِ وَسِيَاقُهُ The preceding and following parts of the discourse; the context, before and after.]
سِبَاقَا البَازِى The قَيْدَانِ [or pair of shackles, i. e. jesses,] of the hawk or falcon, of leathern thongs or straps, or of other material. (Ṣ, O, Ḳ.)
سَبُوقٌ: see سَابِقٌ.
هُوَ سَبَّاقُ غَايَاتٍ ‡ He is one who [often] obtains the winning canes (قَصَبَات السَّبْق [see art. قصب]). (O, Ḳ, TA.)
سَابِقٌ [act. part. n. of 1, Preceding, &c.: and sometimes it means one of the first or foremost: as is shown by what here follows]: sometimes what is thus termed has one coming up with it; as [sometimes happens] in the case of the سابق of horses: and sometimes it is like him who obtains the winning-cane (قَصَبَة السَّبْق [see art. قصب]); for he outstrips to it and has none to share with him in it, there being none coming up with him. (Mṣb.) It is applied to a horse That outstrips; as alsoسَبُوقٌ↓: (T, Mṣb, TA:*) and the pl. [masc., i. e. pl. of the former,] applied to horses is سُبَّقٌ and [fem., i. e. pl. of سَابِقَةٌ,] سَوَابِقُ: (TA:) [or] سَوَابِقُ may be pl. of سَابِقٌ regarded as a subst. like كَاهِلٌ and غَارِبٌ of which the pls. are كَوَاهِلُ and غَوَارِبُ. (Ḥam p. 46.)
By the سَابِقَات mentioned in the Ḳur lxxix. 4 are meant The angels that precede the devils with the revelation [that they convey] to the prophets: (TA:) or the angels that precede the jinn, or genii, in listening to the revelation: (T, Ḳ, TA:) or the angels that precede with the souls of the believers to Paradise (Bḍ, Jel) and with the souls of the unbelievers to Hell: (Bḍ:) or the horses [that precede in battle]: (Zj, TA:) or the souls of the believers, that go forth with ease: or the stars [that precede other stars]. (TA. [See more in the Expositions of Bḍ and others.])
[The pl.] سُبَّقٌ, applied to palm-trees, means † That produce their fruit early. (TA.)
سَابِقَةٌ [fem. of سَابِقٌ, q. v.: and also a subst. formed from the latter by the affix ة, signifying Priority, or precedence]. One says, لَهُ سَابِقَةٌ فِى هٰذَا الأَمْرِ ‡ [To him belongs priority, or precedence, in this affair,] when he has preceded the [other] people [in betaking, or applying, himself] to the affair: (Ṣ, Ḳ, TA:) like as you say, لَهُ سَبْقٌ [mentioned above: see 1]. (TA.)
[Also, as used by physicians, A predisposition to disease.]
سَابِقِيَّةٌ [The state, or condition, of preceding]. (De Sacy's Anthol. Gramm. Ar. p. 302.)
أَسْبَقُ [More, and most, preceding or prevenient; more, and most outgoing or outstripping; &c.]. أَسْبَقُ مِنَ الأَجَلِ and مِنَ الأَفْكَارِ are provs. [meaning More prevenient than the period of death and than the thoughts]. (Meyd.)
مُسَبَّقٌ A horse much, or often, outstripped. (Mṣb.)
مَسْبُوقِيَّةٌ [The state, or conditon, of being preceded]. (De Sacy's Anthol. Gramm. Ar. p. 302.)