ذ ذا ذأب


ذَا

is said by Aboo-'Alee to be originally ذَىْ; the ى, though quiescent, being changed into ا: (M:) or it is originally ذَيَى or ذَوَى; the final radical letter being elided: some say that the original medial radical letter is ى because it has been heard to be pronounced with imáleh [and so it is now pronounced in Egypt]; but others say that it is و, and this is the more agreeable with analogy. (Mṣb.) It is a noun of indication, [properly meaning This, but sometimes, when repeated, better rendered that,] relating to an object of the masc. gender, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) such as is near: (I'Ak p. 36:) or it relates to what is distant [accord. to some, and therefore should always be rendered that]; and هٰذَا, [which see in what follows,] to what is near: (Ḳ in art. هَا: [but the former is generally held to relate to what is near, like the latter:]) or it is a noun denoting anything indicated that is seen by the speaker and the person addressed: the noun in it is ذَ, or ذ alone: and it is a noun of which the signification is vague and unknown until it is explained by what follows it, as when you say ذَا الرَّجُلُ [This man], and ذَا الفَرَسَ [This horse]: and the nom. and accus. and gen. are all alike: (T:) the fem. is ذِى (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ, but omitted in the CK) and ذِهْ, (Ṣ, M, Ḳ, but omitted in the CK,) the latter used in the case of a pause, (Ṣ,) with a quiescent ه, which is a substitute for the ى, not a sign of the fem. gender, (Ṣ, M,) as it is in طَلْحَهْ and حَمْزَهْ, in which it is changed into ة when followed by a conjunctive alif, for in this case the ه in ذِه remains unchanged [but is meksoorah, as it is also in other cases of connexion with a following word]; and one says also ذهِى; (M;) and تَا and تِهْ: (Ṣ and Ḳ &c. in art. تا:) for the dual you say ذَانِ and تَانِ; (M;) ذَانِ is the dual form of ذَا (T, Ṣ) [and تَانِ is that of تَا used in the place of ذِى]; i. e., you indicate the masc. dual by ذَانِ in the nom. case, and ذَيْنِ in the accus. and gen.; and the fem. dual you indicate by تَانِ in the nom. case, and تَيْنِ in the accus. and gen.: (I'Ak p. 36:) the pl. is أُلَآءِ [or أُلَآءِ] (T, Ṣ, and I'Ak ib.) in the dial. of the people of El-Ḥijáz, (I'Ak,) and أُولَى [or أُلَى] (T, I'Ak) in the dial. of Temeem; each both masc. and fem. (I'Ak ib. [See art. الى.]) You say, ذَا أَخُوكَ [This is thy brother]: and ذِىأُخْتُكَ [This is thy sister]: (T:) and لَاآتِيكَ فِى ذِى السَّنَةِ [I will not come to thee in this year]; like as you say فى هٰذِهِ السَّنَةِ and فى هٰذِى السَّنَةِ; not فى ذَا السَّنَةِ, because ذا is always masc. (Aṣ, T.) And you say, ذَانِ أَخَوَاكَ [These two are thy two brothers]: and تَانِ أُخْتَاكَ [These two are thy two sisters]. (T.) And أُولَآءِ إِخْوَتُكَ [These are thy brothers]: and أُولَآءِ أَخَوَاتُكَ [These are thy sisters]: thus making no difference between the masc. and the fem. in the pl. (T.)
The هَا that is used to give notice, to a person addressed, of something about to be said to him, is prefixed to ذَا [and to ذِى &c.], (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) and is a particle without any meaning but inception: (T:) thus you say هٰذَا, (T, Ṣ, M,) and some say هٰذَاا, adding another ا; (Ks, T;) fem. هٰذِى, (T, Ṣ, M,) and [more commonly] هٰذِهْ in the case of a pause, (M,) and هٰذِهِ in other cases, (T, Ṣ,) and هَاتَا, and some say هٰذَاتِ, but this is unusual and disapproved: (T:) dual هٰذَانِ for the masc., and هَاتَانِ for the fem.; (T;) said by IJ to be not properly duals, but nouns formed to denote duals; (M;) and many of the Arabs say هٰذَانِّ; (T;) some, also, make هٰذَانِ indecl., like the sing. ذَا, reading [in the Ḳur xx. 66] إِنَّ هٰذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ [Verily these two are enchanters], and it has been said that this is of the dial. of Belhárith [or Benu-l-Hárith] Ibn-Kaab; but others make it decl., reading إِنَّ هٰذَايْنِ لَسَاحِرَانِ: (Ṣ, TA: [see, however, what has been said respecting this phrase voce إِنَّ:]) the pl. is هٰؤُلَا in the dial. of Temeem, with a quiescent ا; and هٰؤُلَآءِ in the dial. of the people of El-Ḥijáz, with medd and hemz and khafd; and هٰؤُلَآءٍ in the dial. of Benoo- 'Okeyl, with medd and hemz and tenween. (AZ, T.) The Arabs also say, لَا هَا ٱللّٰهِ ذَا, introducing the name of God between هَا and ذَا; meaning No, by God; this is [my oath, or] that by which I swear. (T.) In the following verse, of Jemeel,
* وَأَتَى صَوَاحِبُهَا فَقُلْنَ هٰذَا ٱلَّذِى *
* مَنَحَ المَوَدَّةَ غَيْرَنَا وَجَفَانَا *
[it is said that] هَذَا is for أَذَا, (M,) i. e., ه is here substituted for the interrogative hemzeh (Ṣ * and Ḳ in art. ها) [so that the meaning is, And her female companions came, and said, Is this he who gave love to other than us, and treated us unkindly?]: or, as some assert, هَذَا is here used for هٰذَا, the ا being suppressed for the sake of the measure. (El-Bedr El-Karáfee, TA in art. ها.)
One says also ذَاكَ, (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) affixing to ذَا the ك of allocution, [q. v., meaning That,] relating to an object that is distant, (T, *, Ṣ, and I'Ak p. 36,) or, accord. to general opinion, to that which occupies a middle place between the near and the distant, (I'Ak pp. 36 and 37,) and this ك has no place in desinential syntax; (Ṣ, and I'Ak p. 36;) it does not occupy the place of a gen. nor of an accus., but is only affixed to ذا to denote the distance of ذا from the person addressed: (T:) for the fem. you say تِيكَ (T, Ṣ) and تَاكَ; (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. تا, q. v.;) but not ذِيكَ, for this is wrong, (T, Ṣ,) and is used only by the vulgar: (T:) for the dual you say ذَانِكَ (T, Ṣ) and ذَيْنِكَ, as in the phrases جَآءَنِى ذَانِكَ الرَّجُلَانِ [Those two men came to me] and رَأَيْتُ ذَيْنُكَ الرَّجُلَيْنِ, [I saw those two men]; (Ṣ;) and some say ذَانِّكَ, with teshdeed, (T, Ṣ,) [accord. to J] for the purpose of corroboration, and to add to the letters of the noun, (Ṣ,) but [accord. to others] this is dual of ذٰلِكَ, [which see in what follows,] the second ن being a substitute for the ل; (T on the authority of Zj and others;) and some say تَانِّكَ also, with tesh-deed, (T, Ṣ,) as well as تَانِكَ: (T in this art., and Ṣ and Ḳ in art. تا, but there omitted in some copies of the Ṣ:) the pl. is [أُولَاكَ and] أُولٰئِكَ. (T, Ṣ.) هَا is also prefixed to ذَاكَ; so that you say, هٰذَاكَ زَيْدٌ [That is Zeyd]: (Ṣ, TA:) and in like manner, for the fem., you say هَاتِيكَ and هَاتَاكَ: (Ṣ and Ḳ in art. تا:) but it is not prefixed [to the dual nor] to أُولٰئِكَ. (Ṣ.)
You also add ل in ذَاكَ, (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) as a corroborative; (TA;) so that you say ذٰلِكَ, [meaning That,] (T, Ṣ, M, Ḳ,) relating to an object that is distant, by common consent; (I'Ak pp. 36 and 37;) or hemzeh, saying ذَائِكَ, (Ḳ,) but some say that this is a mispronunciation: (TA in art. ذوى:) for the fem. you say تِلْكَ and تَالِكَ: the dual of ذٰلِكَ is ذَانِّكَ, mentioned above; and that of the fem. is ثَانِّكَ: (T: [and in the Ḳ in art. تا, تَالِكَ is also mentioned as a dual, as well as a sing.:]) and the pl. is أُولَالِكَ. (Ṣ and M and Ḳ voce أُولَى or أُلَى or أُلَا. [See art. الى.]) هَا is not prefixed to ذٰلِكَ (Ṣ) nor to تِلْكَ [nor to أُولَالِكَ] because, as IB says, the ل denotes the remoteness of that which is indicated and the ها denotes its nearness, so that the two are incompatible. (TA in art. تا.)
In the saying in the Ḳur [ii. 256, the Verse of the Throne], مَنْ ذَا الَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ, (T, TA,) accord. to Th and Mbr, (TA,) هٰذَا is syn. with ذا [so that the meaning is, Who is this that shall intercede with Him but by his permission?]: (T, TA:) or it may be here redundant [so that the meaning is, Who is he that &c.?]. (Kull.)
It is sometimes syn. with اَلَّذِى. (T, Ṣ, M.) So in the saying, مَا ذَا رَأَيْتَ [What is it that thou sawest?]; to which one may answer, مَتَاعٌ حَسَنٌ [A goodly commodity]. (Sb, Ṣ.) And so in the Ḳur [ii. 216], وَ يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَا مَا ذَا يُنْفِقُونَ [And they ask thee what amount of their property is it that they shall expend in alms]; (T, M, TA;) accord. to those who make the reply to be in the nom. case; for this shows that ما is [virtually] in the nom. case as an inchoative, and ذا is its enunciative, and ينفقون is the complement of ذا; and that ما and ذا are not to be regarded as one word: [or] this is the preferable way of explanation in the opinion of Sb, though he allowed the other way, [that of regarding ما and ذا as one word, together constituting an inchoative, and ينفقون as its enunciative, (see Ḥam p. 521,)] with [the reply in] the nom. case: (M:) and هٰذَا, also, is used in the same sense: (TA:) so too ذا in مَا ذَا هُوَ and مَنْ ذَا هُوَ may be considered as syn. with الذى; but it is preferable to regard it as redundant. (Kull.)
It is [said to be] redundant also in other instances: for ex., in the trad. of Jereer, as related by Aboo-ʼAmr Ez-Záhid, who says that it is so in this instance: يَطْلُعُ عَلَيْكُمْ رَجُلٌ مِنْ ذِى يَمَنٍ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ مَسْحَةٌ مِنْ ذِى مُلْكٍ [There will come to you a man from El-Yemen, having upon his face an indication of dominion]. (TA. [But this evidently belongs to art. ذُو; in which see a similar ex. (أَتَيْنَا ذَا يَمَنٍ). See also other exs. there.])
[كَذَا lit. means Like this: and hence, thus: as also هٰكَذَا.
It is also often used as one word, and, as such, is made the complement of a prefixed noun; as in سَنَةَ كَذَا and فِى سَنَةِ كَذَا In such a year. See also art. كَذَا: and see the letter ك.]
هٰذَا is sometimes used to express contempt, and mean estimation; as in the saying of 'Áïsheh respecting 'Abd-Allah Ibn- ʼAmr Ibn-ʼAbbás, يَا عَجَبًا لِٱبْنِ عَمْرٍو هٰذَا [O wonder (meaning how I wonder) at Ibn-ʼAmr, this fellow!]. (Kitáb el-Miftáh, cited in De Sacy's “ Gram. Ar., ” 2nd ed., i. 442.) [يَا هٰذَا often occurs as addressed to one who is held in mean estimation: it is like the Greek ὦ οὗτος, and virtually like the vulgar Arabic expression يَا أَنْتَ, and the Latin heus tu; agreeably with which it may be rendered O thou; meaning O thou fellow; an appellation denoting mean estimation being understood: in the contrary case, one says يَا فَتَى. See also, in what follows, a usage of ذَاكَ and ذٰلِكَ.
هٰذَا in a letter and the like is introduced when the writer breaks off, turning to a new subject; and means “ This is all that I had to say on the subject to which, it relates: ” what follows it is commenced with the conjunction وَ.]
One says, لَيْسَ بِذَاكَ [and لَيْسَ بِذٰلِكَ], meaning It is not approved: for, [like as a person held in mean estimation is indicated by هٰذَا, which denotes a thing that is near, so,] on account of its high degree of estimation, a thing that is approved is indicated by that whereby one indicates a thing that is remote. (Kull voce ليس.) [See also what next follows.]
ذٰلِكَ الكِتَابُ in the Ḳur ii. 1 is said by Zj to mean هٰذَا الكِتَابُ [This book]: but others say that ذلك is here used because the book is remote [from others] in respect of highness and greatness of rank. (TA.)
كَذٰلِكَ [lit. Like that, often means so, or in like manner: and
] Let that suffice [thee or] you. (TA in art. ذعر, from a trad.)
The dim. of ذَا is ذَيَّا: (T, Ṣ, M:) you form no dim. of the fem. ذِى, using in its stead that of تَا, (Ṣ,) which is تَيَّا: (T:) the dim. of the dual [ذَانِ] is ذَيَّانِ: (Ṣ:) and that of [the pl.] أُولَآءِ [and أُولَى] is أُولَيَّآءِ [and أُولَيَّا]: (T:)
that of هٰذَا is ذَيَّا, like that of ذَا; [and you may say هٰذَيَّا also; for] that of هٰؤُلَآءِ is هٰؤُلَيَّآءِ: (T:)
that of ذَاكَ is ذَيَّاكَ: (Ṣ, Ḳ: *) and that of تَاكَ is تَيَّاكَ: (Ḳ in art. تا:)
that of ذٰلِكَ is ذَيَّالِكَ: (Ṣ, Ḳ: *) and that of تِلْكَ is تَيَّالِكَ. (Ṣ.) A rájiz says,
* أَوْ تَحْلِفِى بِرَبِّكَ العَلِىِّ *
* إِنِّى أَبُو ذَيَّالِكِ الصَّبِىِّ *
[Or thou shalt swear by thy Lord, the High, that I am the father of that little child]: (Ṣ, TA:) he was an Arab who came from a journey, and found that his wife had given birth to a boy whom he disacknowledged. (TA.)
ذَا is also the accus. case of ذُو, q. v.