تقن Quasi تقى: or, accord. to some, تقو تك
تَقَى, aor. ـِ (T, Ṣ, Ḳ, in art. وقى) and ـَ, (T, TA,) or تَقِىَ, aor. ـَ (Mṣb, [but the correctness of this I greatly doubt, unless, as appears to be the case, it is meant to be understood as an intrans. verb,]) inf. n. تَقْىٌ, (Ṣ and TA in art. تقى, [which art. I find in only one copy of the Ṣ,]) or تُقًى, (Ḳ,) or تُقَاةٌ, (Mṣb, and also mentioned in the TA,) of which تُقًى is pl., or coll. n., (Kzz, IB, Mṣb,) and تَقِيَّةٌ (Ḳ) and تِقَآءٌ; (Lḥ, Ḳ;) andاِتَقَّى↓, (T, Ṣ, Mṣb, Ḳ,) inf. n. اِتِّقَآءٌ (Mṣb) and [quasi-inf. n.] تَقِيَّةٌ and تُقَاةٌ; (Ṣ, art. وقى;) He feared God: (Ṣ and TA in art. تقى: all else that follows is from art. وقى except where reference is made to another art.:) or he was cautious of a thing; guarded, or was on his guard, against it; prepared, prepared himself, or was in a state of preparation, against it; or feared it: (Ḳ:) or he looked forward to a thing, and guarded against it, sought to avoid it, or was cautious of it. (T, TA.) [For other explanations of the latter verb, which apply also to the former, see art. وقى.] اِتَّقَى↓ is originally اِوْتَقَى; (T, Ṣ;) then اِيتَقَى; then اِتَّقَى; and when this came to be much in use, they imagined the ت to be a radical part of the word, and made the word اِتَقَى, aor. يَتَقِى, with fet-ḥ to the ت in each case, and without teshdeed; and not finding any analogue to it in their language, they said تَقَى, aor. يَتْقِى, like قَضَى, aor. يَقْضِى: (Ṣ:) or, as is said in the T, they suppressed the ت, and the اِتَّقَى changed into ت, in اِتَّقَى, and said تَقَى, aor. يَتْقِى. (TA.) A poet says, (namely, Khufáf Ibn-Nudbeh, TA,)
* جَلَاهَا الصَّيْقَلُونَ فَأَخْلَصُوهَا ** خِفَافًا كُلُّهَا يَتْقِى بِأَثْرِ *
or, as some read it, يَتَقِى, with the ت movent, but without teshdeed; (Ṣ;) and this latter, accord. to IB, is the right reading. (TA.) [See this verse explained in art. اثر.] IB adds that Aboo-Saʼeed [app. meaning Aṣ] disallowed تَقَى, aor. يَتْقِى, inf. n. تَقْىٌ; saying that it would require the imperative to be اِتْقِ, which is not said; and this, he states, is right: [for] J says that the imperative used is تَقِ [Fear thou, or beware thou, &c.], as in تَقِ ٱللّٰهِ [Fear thou God]; and to a woman, تَقِى; formed from the verb اِتَقَى, without tesh-deed, by the suppression of the ا. (TA.)
مَا اَتْقَاهُ لِلّٰهِ (Ṣ, TA) How great is his reverential, or pious, fear of God! (TA.)
ما اتقاهُ is also said of a saddle, as meaning How good is it for not galling the back! (TA.)
تُقًى: see تَقْوَى.
تُقَاةٌ: see تَقْوَى, in two places.
In the phrase in the Ḳur [iii. 27], إِلَّا أَنْ تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً, it may be an inf. n. [so that the meaning may be Unless ye fear from them with a great fearing (see 1)]: or it may be a pl. [app. of تَقِىٌّ, like as كُمَاةٌ is pl. of كَمِىٌّ, so that the meaning may be unless ye fear from them, being fearful]: but it is better to regard it as an inf. n. because another reading is تَقِيَّةً. (M, TA.)
تَقِىٌّ, applied to a man, (Mṣb, Ḳ, TA,) i. q. وَقِىٌّ (TA) and مُتَّقٍ (Ṣ) [Fearing; cautious; &c.: (see 1:) and particularly having a reverential, or pious, fear of God: or simply pious: or one who preserves, or guards, himself, accord. to some, exceedingly, or extraordinarily, from sin, either of commission or of omission: (see 8 in art. وقى:)] accord. to IDrd, one who preserves, or guards, himself from punishment [in the world to come], and from acts of disobedience, by righteous conduct: from وَقَيْتُ نَفْسِى: said by the grammarians to be originally وَقُوىٌ; then, تَقُوىٌ: or, accord. to Aboo-Bekr, [originally] of the measure فَعِيلٌ, as is indicated by the first of its pls. mentioned below: but he who says that it is [originally] of the measure فَعُولٌ says that it has that pl. because it has become like a word [originally] of the measure فَعِيلٌ: (TA:) or righteous, virtuous, just, or honest; (Mṣb in art. تقى;) contr. of فَاجِرٌ: (Idem in art. بر:) pl. أَتْقِيَآءُ (Mṣb in art. تقى, and Ḳ) and تُقَوَآءُ, (Ḳ,) which is extr., and of a class disallowed by Sb, (TA,) [and app. also تُقَاةٌ, q. v. suprà.]
تَقِيَّةٌ: see what next follows.
تَقْوَى, or تَقْوًى, accord. to different readings in the Ḳur ix. 110, (Bḍ,) [of which readings the former is the more common,] is originally تَقْيَا, (Ḳ,) [or تَقْيًا,] or [rather وَقْيَا, or وَقْيًا, and then] وَقْوَى, of the measure فَعْلَى, from وَقَيْتُ, (ISd, TA,) or, accord. to MF, the right opinion is that it is [وَقْوًى,] of the measure فَعْوَلٌ, (TA,) and is thus transformed in order to make a distinction between the subst. and the epithet such as خَزْيَا and صَدْيَا: (Ḳ:) it is a subst. from اِتَّقَى or وَقَى; (Mṣb, Ḳ;) [and signifies Fear; caution; &c.: (see 1:) and particularly reverential, or pious, fear of God: or simply piety: or the preservation, or guarding, of oneself, accord. to some, exceedingly, or extraordinarily, from sin, either of commission or of omission: or the preservation, or guarding, of oneself from punishment in the world to come, and from acts of disobedience, by righteous conduct: or righteousness, virtue, justice, or honesty: (see تَقِىٌّ:) its explanations in relation to religion are many and various, but are all resolvable into fear of God, or of sin; or the preservation, or guarding, of oneself from sin:] andتَقِيَّةٌ↓ andتُقَاةٌ↓ are syn. with each other (Ṣ) and with تَقْوَي, (Mṣb,) and are used as inf. ns. of اِتَّقَى: (Ṣ:) andتُقًى↓ [also] is syn. with تَقْوَي; (Ṣ;) or it is pl. ofتُقَاةٌ↓, or a coll. n., (Kzz, IB, Mṣb,) like as طُلًى is of طُلَاةٌ, (Kzz, IB,) and as رُطَبٌ is of رُطَبَةٌ. (Mṣb.) وَآتَاهُمْ تَقْوَاهُمْ, in the Ḳur xlvii. 19, means And hath explained to them, (Bḍ,) or suggested to them, (Jel, TA,) what they should fear, or that from which they should preserve themselves: (Bḍ, Jel, TA:) or hath aided them to practise their تَقْوَى: (Bḍ:) or hath given them the recompense of their تقوى. (Bḍ, TA.) And هُوَ أَهْلُ التَّقْوَى, in the Ḳur lxxiv. last verse, means He is entitled, or worthy, to be feared; or to be reverentially, or piously, feared. (Bḍ, Jel, Ḳ.)
هُوَ أَتْقَى مِنْ فُلَانٍ [He is more fearing, or cautious, &c., than such a one; more reverentially, or piously, fearful of God; or more pious; &c.;] he has more تَقْوَى than such a one. (TA.)